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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Crop & Pasture Science is a highly cited and prestigious journal publishing original research on advances in plant sciences, sustainable farming systems, and food quality. More

Editors-in-Chief: Sergio Atienza and Zed Rengel


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Published online 05 October 2015
Importance of plant sources of magnesium for human health 
Forrest H. Nielsen

Recent findings suggest that the estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for magnesium (Mg) need modification. Carefully controlled metabolic unit studies suggest that an RDA of ~250 mg day–1 is appropriate for healthy 70-kg adults, an intake many do not achieve. The Mg content of foods of plant origin can be a significant determinant of whether a diet provides the Mg RDA.

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Published online 05 October 2015
Global magnesium supply in the food chain 
Diriba B. Kumssa, Edward J. M. Joy, E. Louise Ander, Michael J. Watts, Scott D. Young, Andrea Rosanoff, Philip J. White, Sue Walker and Martin R. Broadley

This paper reports global magnesium (Mg) supply in the human food chain. Globally, the risk of dietary Mg deficiency appears low (<0.3%). However, this contradicts findings based on dietary-recall surveys. Quantifying deficiency risks based on dietary Mg supply at national levels might underestimate risk because of food processing losses and wastage; however, dietary recall methods may overestimate deficiency risk owing to under-reporting of food intakes.

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Published online 22 September 2015
How do glycine and histidine in nutrient solution affect zinc uptake and root-to-shoot translocation by wheat and triticale? 
K. Khodamoradi, A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh, N. Dalir, M. Afyuni and R. Schulin

Histidine enhanced, whereas glycine reduced, symplastic root Zn concentration in bread wheat. Both amino acids decreased symplastic root Zn concentration but had no effect on apoplastic Zn in triticale. Both amino acids decreased Zn concentrations in xylem sap of two plant species. Histidine, but not glycine, can enhance Zn uptake and translocation into the aboveground parts of triticale probably due to ability of histidine to form strong complexes with Zn.

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Published online 14 September 2015
Selenium fortification of hydroponically grown corn salad (Valerianella locusta) 
Nicola Tomasi, Roberto Pinton, Stefano Gottardi, Tanja Mimmo, Matteo Scampicchio and Stefano Cesco

Biofortification of leafy vegetables could be achieved by using hydroponic technology, like floating system. This study demonstrates that salad grown with a nutrient solution containing 10 µM selenate can accumulate Se in the leaves at levels compatible with the need in human diets and in available forms, i.e. Se-cysteine and Se-methionine. Se-treated plants showed benefits with respect to a decrease in nitrate content and increase in chlorophyll and carotenoid content.

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Published online 03 September 2015
Selenium characterisation of the Portuguese bread-wheat archival collection 
Catarina Galinha, Adriano M. G. Pacheco, Maria do Carmo Freitas, Ana Rita P. Costa, Nuno M. B. Pinheiro, Benvindo Maçãs, Ana Sofia Almeida and Hubert T. Wolterbeek

An archival collection of Portuguese wheat varieties has been tested for selenium (Se) levels among its 48 cultivars of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Total Se in mature grains was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis. Results show significant differences in Se accumulation between cultivars, not necessarily related only to soil features. Best candidates for an improvement of Se contents through breeding are cvv. Ideal, Ribeiro (b) and Ribeiro (a).

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Published online 14 August 2015
Sequential zinc and iron biofortification of bread-wheat grains: from controlled to uncontrolled environments 
Fernando C. Lidon, Ana S. Almeida, Ana R. Costa, Ana S. Bagulho, Paula Scotti-Campos, José N. Semedo, Benvindo Maçãs, José Coutinho, Nuno Pinheiro, Conceição Gomes, António E. Leitão, Isabel P. Pais, Maria M. Silva, Fernando H. Reboredo, Maria F. Pessoa and José C. Ramalho

A 10- and 4-fold biofortification of bread wheat grains in Zn and Fe was carried out under controlled-environment conditions. Under field conditions without Zn and Fe, these grains kept enhanced levels without reaching the threshold of toxicity and with negligible modifications to grain texture and nutritional value.

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Published online 14 August 2015
Effect of the maize–soybean intercropping system on the potential bioavailability of magnesium, iron and zinc 
Vesna Dragicevic, Snezana Oljaca, Milovan Stojiljkovic, Milena Simic, Zeljko Dolijanovic and Natalija Kravic

Different cropping practices affect absorption and accumulation of mineral elements in grain and consequently nutritional quality of the food produced. Intercropping of maize and soybean, in combination with microbiological and organic fertilisers, had positive impact on grain yield, as well as on Mg, Fe and Zn accumulation in grain. These cropping systems could serve as measure for increased yield and nutritional quality of maize and soybean grain.

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Published online 10 July 2015
Phylogenetic effects on shoot magnesium concentration 
Philip J. White, Helen C. Bowen, Emily Farley, Emma K. Shaw, Jacqueline A. Thompson, Gladys Wright and Martin R. Broadley

Knowledge of the concentrations of magnesium (Mg) in crops and pastures can help in formulation of appropriate human and animal diets. Ancient evolutionary processes have resulted in large differences in shoot Mg concentrations between plant species. This paper reports that the peculiarly high shoot Mg concentrations found in species of the Caryophyllales order, such as the amaranths, buckwheats and beets, evolved in an ancient ancestor of all the Caryophyllales families.

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    | Supplementary Material (256 KB)
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blank image Crop and Pasture Science
Volume 66 Number 10 2015
RESEARCH FRONT: Sustainable Water Use for Securing Food Production in the Mediterranean Region under Changing Climate

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Saline water irrigation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) under Mediterranean conditions 
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Attila Yazar , Çigdem Incekaya , S. Metin Sezen and Sven-Erik Jacobsen
pp. 993-1002

Irrigation and evapotranspiration, grain yield, aboveground biomass yield and harvest index were evaluated under fresh and saline water regimes. Different parameters, such as water productivity and irrigation water productivity, yield components, leaf area index and plant height, were studied to assess quinoa’s growth and yield. Grain yields were slightly reduced by irrigation water salinity compared with fresh water irrigation. Results showed that quinoa can be irrigated with saline water with EC level up to 30 dS m–1 with acceptable yields in the semi-arid and arid regions of the Mediterranean Basin.


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Identifying water-responsive and drought-tolerant chickpea genotypes 
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Aladdin Hamwieh and Muhammad Imtiaz
pp. 1003-1011

This research aims to quantify the responses of drought-tolerant genotypes of chickpea to water availability under three irrigation regimes. Sixteen genotypes of chickpea were tested and ten genotypes performed better under 30% of and full supplemental irrigation. Three genotypes are recommended for the national programs of Mediterranean countries as being drought-tolerant and especially responsive to water.


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Evaluation of faba bean breeding lines for spectral indices, yield traits and yield stability under diverse environments 
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Fouad Maalouf , Miloudi Nachit , Michel Edmond Ghanem and Murari Singh
pp. 1012-1023

This article contains a brief introduction on the status of drought conditions affecting the crops, the purpose of this research. It contains also the materials used, experimental design adopted, morphological and physiological traits measured and statistical analysis used. Results were presented in narrative way and in tables and graphs; those results were discussed. A list of references has been also presented.


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Morphological, physiological and yield responses of durum wheat to pre-anthesis water-deficit stress are genotype-dependent 
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Haipei Liu , Iain R. Searle , Diane E. Mather , Amanda J. Able and Jason A. Able
pp. 1024-1038

The main concern of durum wheat breeders in Mediterranean environments is the significant yield losses from lack of rainfall during spring. In this study, genotypic variation in morphological, physiological and yield responses to pre-anthesis water-deficit stress was investigated by screening 20 durum wheat genotypes. Those tolerant to water-deficit stress showed superior performance in physiological traits such as chlorophyll content, leaf water potential and relative water content, which may be used as indicators of water-deficit stress tolerance and high yield potential in rainfed areas.


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Development and validation of protocols for product stewardship in transgenic white clover (Trifolium repens L.): detection of the AMV CP and npt2 transgenes in seeds, herbage and hay 
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S. Panter , A. Mouradov , K. F. Smith and G. Spangenberg
pp. 1039-1048

White clover germplasm exhibiting viral-coat-protein-mediated resistance to AMV and non-transgenic resistance to ClYVV has been developed. This report describes PCR-based assays for detecting the transgenes associated with the H6 transformation event in seeds, fresh leaves, air-dried leaves and mixtures of air-dried herbage of white clover and perennial ryegrass (hay).


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Impacts of endophyte infection of ryegrass on rhizosphere metabolome and microbial community 
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S. Wakelin , S. Harrison , C. Mander , B. Dignam , S. Rasmussen , S. Monk , K. Fraser and M. O’Callaghan
pp. 1049-1057

Infection of ryegrass with Epichloë endophytes alters the rhizosphere metabolome, particularly n-alkane hydrocarbons. This is associated with shifts in the community bacterial and fungal community composition. There is potential to use specific endophyte-host interactions to alter the root microbiome for desired production or environmental outcomes.


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Discovery and characterisation of novel asexual Epichloë endophytes from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) 
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Jatinder Kaur , Piyumi N. Ekanayake , Pei Tian , Eline van Zijll de Jong , Mark P. Dobrowolski , Simone J. Rochfort , Ross C. Mann , Kevin F. Smith , John W. Forster , Kathryn M. Guthridge and German C. Spangenberg
pp. 1058-1070

An integrated process for discovery of novel endophytes based on exploitation of genotypic information has been designed and implemented. Genetic and chemotypic diversity analysis identified candidate strains, which were further characterised using a novel inoculation method that allows isogenic comparisons with respect to both host and endophyte genotype. Three prioritised candidates with desirable alkaloid profiles were obtained, one of which belongs to a putative novel taxon distinct from previously known groupings.

    | Supplementary Material (1.7 MB)

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Patterns in non-structural carbohydrate and nitrogen reserves in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) during regrowth in summer 
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Julia M. Lee , Elena M. K. Minnee and Cameron E. F. Clark
pp. 1071-1078

The timing of grazing in relation to patterns of depletion and replenishment of carbohydrate and nitrogen reserves can have implications for plant growth. This study aimed to characterise these patterns in vegetative chicory and plantain during summer and determine effects on plant growth. Reductions in herbage production occurred if swards of chicory or plantain were defoliated during the period of non-structural carbohydrate depletion or early stages of replenishment.


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Multiple herbicide-resistant wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) populations dominate Western Australian cropping fields 
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Mechelle J. Owen , Neree J. Martinez and Stephen B. Powles
pp. 1079-1085

Random surveys conducted in Western Australia have shown that herbicide resistance in major crop weeds is common and increasing. The latest survey on resistance in Raphanus raphanistrum revealed that 84% of populations were resistant to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides, 76% were resistant to synthetic auxins, and 49% to PDS inhibitors. Resistance in Raphanus has increased over the 12 year survey period and a wide range of management tools are needed to control this species.


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Assessment of smart irrigation controllers under subsurface and drip-irrigation systems for tomato yield in arid regions 
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H. M. Al-Ghobari , F. S. Mohammad and M. S. A. El Marazky
pp. 1086-1095

Two types of Smart irrigation controllers (SICs) based on evapotranspiration (ET) for scheduling irrigation water are studded under Saudi Arabia’s conditions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Hunter Pro-C and SmartLine SL 1600 devices on irrigation amount applied. The data analysis indicates that the Hunter Pro-C system saves water and produces a greater yield with the highest irrigation water use efficiency for subsurface irrigation.


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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    CP15202  Accepted 01 October 2015
    Genetic Diversity of Eight Millet Genera Using Molecular and Morphological Markers
    Zdislava Dvorakova, Petra Hlasna Cepkova, Iva Viehmannova, Lenka Havlickova, Dagmar Janovská

    CP15221  Accepted 30 September 2015
    Blackleg disease of canola in Australia
    Angela Van de Wouw, Steve Marcroft, Barbara Howlett

    CP15249  Accepted 17 September 2015
    Competitive dynamics in perennial ryegrass cultivar mixtures during two growing seasons under two cutting managements.
    Vincent Griffith, Trevor Gilliland, Mary McEvoy, Michael O'Donovan

    CP15104  Accepted 16 September 2015
    The role of Magnesium fertilisers in agriculture – plant and soil continuum
    Andreas Gransee, Mehmet Senbayram, Verena Wahle, Heike Thiel

    CP15069  Accepted 01 September 2015
    Timing and rates of nitrogen fertilizer application on seed yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency of Canola
    Baoluo Ma, Aruna Herath

    CP15200  Accepted 26 August 2015
    Association mapping of winter hardiness and yield traits in winter faba bean (Vicia faba L.)
    Ahmed Sallam, Arun Dhanapal, Siyang Liu

    CP15149  Accepted 25 August 2015
    Identification of QTL for agronomic traits contributed by a barley Mediterranean landrace
    Ridha Boudiar, Ana Casas, Carlos Cantalapiedra, Pilar Gracia, Ernesto Igartua

    CP15134  Accepted 17 August 2015
    Screening for drought tolerant genotypes in Brachypodium distachyon by means of thermographic imaging
    M Ruiz, Miguel Quemada, Rosa Garcia, Jose Carrillo, Elena Benavente

    CP15110  Accepted 17 August 2015
    Beneficial soil microbe promotes seed germination, plant growth and photosynthesis in herbal crop Codonopsis pilosula
    Yong-Na Wu, Yu-Lan Feng, Paul W. Paré, Ying Chen, Rui Xu, Shan Wu, Suomin Wang, Qi Zhao, Hui-Ru Li, Yin-Quan Wang, Jinlin Zhang

    CP15073  Accepted 12 August 2015
    Genotype resistance, inoculum source and environment directly influence Stemphylium grey leaf spot development and yield loss in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius)
    Arbab Ahmad, Geoff Thomas, Susan Barker, William MacLeod

    CP14370  Accepted 03 August 2015
    Dynamics of phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of fababean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils
    Guohua Li, Haigang Li, Peter Leffelaar, Jianbo Shen, Fusuo Zhang

    CP15191  Accepted 31 July 2015
    The Chinese bread wheat cultivar Xiaoyanmai 7 harbours genes encoding a pair of novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits inherited from cereal rye
    Bo Feng, Francesco Sestili, Stefania Masci, Benedetta Margiotta, Zhibin Xu, Zujun Yang, Chao Xiang, Chunhong Zhou, Domenico Lafiandra, Tao Wang

    CP14300  Accepted 30 July 2015
    Boron deficiency in pasture based on subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) is linked to symbiotic malfunction
    Leo Hamilton, Kevin Reed, Elainne Leach, John Brockwell

    CP15097  Accepted 20 July 2015
    Soil compaction and controlled traffic considerations in Australian cotton farming systems
    Diogenes Antille, John Bennett, Troy Jensen

    CP15029  Accepted 13 July 2015
    Mapping spatial variability of leaf nutrient status of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations in India
    Sanjib Behera, K Suresh, Ramachandrudu K, K Manorama, B Rao

    CP14280  Accepted 08 July 2015
    Effect of phenotypic recurrent selection on genetic diversity of non dormant multifoliolate alfalfa populations
    Ariel Odorizzi, Eva Mamaní, Pablo Sipowicz, Bernadette Julier, Jorge Gieco, Daniel Basigalup

    CP15129  Accepted 05 July 2015
    Adaptation of wheat, barley, canola, pea and chickpea to the thermal environments of Australia
    Victor Sadras, Fernanda Dreccer

    CP15068  Accepted 01 July 2015
    Agronomic benefits and risks associated with the irrigated peanut-maize production system under a changing climate in northern Australia
    Yash Chauhan, Peter Thorburn, Jody Biggs, Graeme Wright

    CP15009  Accepted 28 June 2015
    Gabriela Siqueira, Johann Pierre, Anne El Tahchy, Donna Glassop, Surinder Singh, Graham Bonnett, Anne Rae

    CP15077  Accepted 08 May 2015
    Nitrogen uptake efficiency (15N) of maize in monoculture and in intercroppings with Brachiaria humidicola and Panicum maximum cv. Aruana in a dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol of the Brazilian Cerrado
    Thais Coser, Maria Lucrecia Ramos, Cícero Figueiredo, Segundo Urquiaga, Arminda Carvalho, Filipe Barros, Maria Thereza Mendonça

    CP14342  Accepted 06 May 2015
    In search of photosensitising compounds in the annual forage legume Biserrula pelecinus L.
    Ewald Swinny, Clinton Revell, Neil Campbell, Edward Spadek, Charles Russo

    CP14179  Accepted 29 April 2015
    Pasture mixes with lucerne increase yields and water use efficiencies over traditional pastures based on subterranean clover
    Malcolm McCaskill, Margaret Raeside, Steve Clark, Caroline MacDonald, Bronwyn Clark, Debra Partington

    CP13382  Accepted 22 November 2013
    Forage Breeding for Changing Environments and Production Systems – an Overview of ISFB 2013
    Kevin Smith, German Spangenberg

    CP13154  Accepted 08 June 2013
    Effect of Irrigation Regimes on Spring Seeding of Canola Cultivars under Semi-Arid and High Elevation Conditions
    Jamshid Razmjoo, Seyed Eatesam Ghaemmaghami

    CP13156  Accepted 14 May 2013
    The career and contribution to Australian and International Agricultural Science of Clive McDonald Francis: An introduction
    Mike Ewing, David Chatel, Michael Poole, William Collins


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 30 October 2014
Genomic selection in crops, trees and forages: a review

Z. Lin, B. J. Hayes and H. D. Daetwyler

2. Published 29 April 2015
Yield and water-use efficiency of wheat in a high-rainfall environment

Tina Botwright Acuña, Shaun Lisson, Peter Johnson and Geoff Dean

3. Published 29 May 2015
Break crops and rotations for wheat

J. F. Angus, J. A. Kirkegaard, J. R. Hunt, M. H. Ryan, L. Ohlander and M. B. Peoples

4. Published 29 January 2015
Methane in Australian agriculture: current emissions, sources and sinks, and potential mitigation strategies

Damien Finn, Ram Dalal and Athol Klieve

5. Published 7 October 2014
Developing the role of perennial forages for crop–livestock farms: a strategic multi-disciplinary approach

Rick S. Llewellyn, Michael J. Robertson, Richard C. Hayes, David Ferris, Katrien Descheemaeker and Clinton Revell

6. Published 29 April 2015
Responses to phosphorus among wheat genotypes

Glenn McDonald, William Bovill, Julian Taylor and Robert Wheeler

7. Published 30 October 2014
Progress in developing perennial wheats for grain and grazing

Philip J. Larkin, Matthew T. Newell, Richard C. Hayes, Jesmin Aktar, Mark R. Norton, Sergio J. Moroni and Len J. Wade

8. Published 31 March 2015
Effects of grazing on crop crown temperature: implications for phenology

Matthew T. Harrison, Walter M. Kelman and Jim M. Virgona

9. Published 30 October 2014
Resources and strategies for implementation of genomic selection in breeding of forage species

J. W. Forster, M. L. Hand, N. O. I. Cogan, B. J. Hayes, German C. Spangenberg and K. F. Smith

10. Published 19 November 2014
Simulating forage production of Marandu palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha) with the CROPGRO-Perennial Forage model

Diego N. L. Pequeno, Carlos G. S. Pedreira and Kenneth J. Boote

11. Published 29 January 2015
Use of functional traits to identify Australian forage grasses, legumes and shrubs for domestication and use in pastoral areas under a changing climate

M. L. Mitchell, H. C. Norman and R. D. B. Whalley

12. Published 31 July 2015
Can wheat varietal mixtures buffer the impacts of water deficit?

Paul Adu-Gyamfi, Tariq Mahmood and Richard Trethowan

13. Published 10 March 2015
Growth and yield responses in wheat and barley to potassium supply under drought or moderately saline conditions in the south-west of Western Australia

Qifu Ma, Richard Bell, Craig Scanlan, Gavin Sarre and Ross Brennan

14. Published 19 November 2014
Use of remote sensing to determine the relationship of early vigour to grain yield in canola (Brassica napus L.) germplasm

R. B. Cowley, D. J. Luckett, J. S. Moroni and S. Diffey

15. Published 30 October 2014
Trifolium interspecific hybridisation: widening the white clover gene pool

W. M. Williams

16. Published 19 November 2014
Opportunities and challenges for improved management of foliar pathogens in annual clover pastures across southern Australia

M. J. Barbetti and M. P. You

17. Published 19 November 2014
Competitive ability of Australian canola (Brassica napus) genotypes for weed management

Deirdre Lemerle, David J. Luckett, Peter Lockley, Eric Koetz and Hanwen Wu

18. Published 29 January 2015
Effect of soil pH and crop sequence on the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to phosphorus fertiliser

Craig Scanlan, Ross Brennan and Gavin A. Sarre

19. Published 7 October 2014
Perennial pastures in cropping systems of southern Australia: an overview of present and future research

Michael Robertson and Clinton Revell

20. Published 30 October 2014
Evaluation and breeding of tedera for Mediterranean climates in southern Australia

D. Real, C. M. Oldham, M. N. Nelson, J. Croser, M. Castello, A. Verbyla, A. Pradhan, A. Van Burgel, P. Méndez, E. Correal, N. L. Teakle, C. K. Revell and M. A. Ewing

Current Issue
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Volume 66 (10)

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