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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Crop and Pasture Science is a highly cited and prestigious journal publishing original research on advances in plant sciences, sustainable farming systems, and food quality. More

Editors-in-Chief: Sergio Atienza and Zed Rengel


blank image Crop and Pasture Science
Volume 67 Number 8 2016

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Recent changes in southern Australian frost occurrence: implications for wheat production risk 
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Steven Jeffery Crimp , Bangyou Zheng , Nirav Khimashia , David Lyon Gobbett , Scott Chapman , Mark Howden and Neville Nicholls
pp. 801-811

Although Australia’s mean surface air temperatures, daytime maximum temperatures and overnight minimum temperatures have warmed, there has, somewhat paradoxically, been an increase in frost risk across much of southern Australia. Recent regional and localised changes in the frequency, timing and duration of minimum temperature extremes all show increasing risk. Over the last six decades, more frost events and longer frost season length have contributed to an increase in the potential for frost-related crop losses. This paper examines and quantifies the extent of the production risk changes for 65 sites across the Australian wheatbelt and shows how managing frost risk has become more challenging over the last two decades and will potentially remain so in the near future.


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Cradle-to-farmgate greenhouse gas emissions for 2-year wheat monoculture and break crop–wheat sequences in south-eastern Australia 
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Philippa M. Brock , Sally Muir , David F. Herridge and Aaron Simmons
pp. 812-822

Cradle-to-farmgate greenhouse gas emissions were quantified for rainfed wheat, grown in monoculture or in sequence with the break crops canola and field peas, in south-eastern Australia using life cycle assessment. Emissions were 225 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-e)/t grain for wheat following wheat, compared with 199 and 172 kg CO2-e/t for wheat following canola and field peas, respectively. Highest emissions were associated with the production and transport of fertilisers and their use in the field.

    | Supplementary Material (397 KB)

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Rice-cold tolerance across reproductive stages 
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J. H. Mitchell , S. L. Zulkafli , J. Bosse , B. Campbell , P. Snell , E. S. Mace , I. D. Godwin and S. Fukai
pp. 823-833

Cold temperature stress at the reproductive stage can cause significant yield reductions in rice. Floral characteristics were examined in relation to spikelet sterility to determine tolerance mechanisms at flowering, with enhanced anther dehiscence identified as important. Identification of traits and QTLs associated with cold tolerance will provide useful tools to breeders to maximize efficiency of rice improvement and yield stability for cold temperature environments.


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Variation in drought-tolerance components and their interrelationships in the core collection of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) germplasm 
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Lakshmanan Krishnamurthy , Hari Deo Upadhyaya , Junichi Kashiwagi , Ramamoorthy Purushothaman , Sangam Lal Dwivedi and Vincent Vadez
pp. 834-846

Foxtail millet, an arid crop, is ideal for the changing climate. Drought tolerance of this crop depended more on transpiration efficiency (TE) and harvest index (HI) than on total water use (T). Germplasm races offered specific choices for T, TE or HI selection.


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Biomass partitioning and rhizosphere responses of maize and faba bean to phosphorus deficiency 
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Haitao Liu , Philip J. White and Chunjian Li
pp. 847-856

Plant species differ in their ability to modify the rhizosphere in response to inadequate P supply. In comparison with faba bean, maize responded to low P supply by investing more biomass in its root system, rather than by substantial modification of rhizosphere and, therefore, is unlikely to be able to utilize sparingly-soluble phosphate salts and organic P effectively.

    | Supplementary Material (314 KB)

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Seeding rate and cultivar effects on canola (Brassica napus) competition with volunteer wheat (Triticum aestivum) 
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Deirdre Lemerle , David J. Luckett , Eric A. Koetz , Trent Potter and Hanwen Wu
pp. 857-863

Weeds are a major cost to canola production in Australia but herbicide control options are running out as resistance spreads. Crop competition using vigorous hybrid canola cultivars combined with crop densities of at least 40 plants/m2 is essential to avoid high levels of weed seed production and spread, and crop yield loss. Crop competition for weed control is another important tool for reducing weed impacts.


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Effects of irrigating forage turnips Brassica rapa var. rapa cv. Barkant during different periods of vegetative growth 3. Irrigation water use efficiency, evapotranspiration and effective use of water 
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B. A. Rowe and J. E. Neilsen
pp. 864-871

Scarce and expensive irrigation water needs to be used effectively. After the onset of root expansion, forage turnip yield increased in proportion to the amount of irrigation applied when the soil remained below field capacity. However, scarce irrigation should be applied between the onset of root expansion and approximately 8 weeks later, when the response to irrigation ( kg DM ha–1 mm–1) was greatest.


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Shift in origin of plant nitrogen alters carbon and nitrogen assimilation during reproductive stages of soybean grown in a Mollisol 
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Y. S. Li , X. B. Liu , G. H. Wang , Z. H. Yu , U. Mathesius , J. D. Liu , S. J. Herbert and J. Jin
pp. 872-880

Understanding how reducing nitrogen (N) fertiliser application may affect origin of plant N in soybean is important to maximize fertilizer use efficiency. Using dual-labelling (15N and 13C) technique, the proportion of N origins in plant and C assimilation were quantified under two N levels. Greater photosynthetic C allocation to roots would greatly contribute to the alteration of N acquisition pattern when fertiliser N supply is reduced.


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Effect of watertable depth and salinity on growth dynamics of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) 
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Sebastián Chiacchiera , Nicolás Bertram , Edith Taleisnik and Esteban Jobbágy
pp. 881-887

This experiment quantified the effects of the depth and salt concentration of the watertable on the growth dynamics and biomass accumulation of Rhodes grass. The presence of non-saline watertable at a depth of 25 cm produced a 5-fold greater biomass, quintupled the water consumption and presented groundwater use efficiency 30% higher and leaf blades 50% longer compared with deeper watertables.


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Low-cost automated biochemical phenotyping for optimised nutrient quality components in ryegrass breeding 
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L. W. Pembleton , J. Wang , G. C. Spangenberg , J. W. Forster and N. O. I. Cogan
pp. 888-896

Quantification of forage quality is essential for the identification of elite genotypes in forage grass breeding. However, current methods are labour-intensive, low-throughput and cost-prohibitive for commercial breeding programs. An accurate high-throughput micro-plate-based protocol has been developed and validated, with the ability to simultaneously process and quantify WSC and plant protein with a high level of automation, and an increase in sample processing of ~10-fold compared with commonly-used methods, along with a 3-fold cost reduction.

    | Supplementary Material (1.4 MB)

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Genotypic evaluation of introduced white clover (Trifolium repens L.) germplasm in New Zealand 
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M. Z. Z. Jahufer , J. L. Ford , D. R. W. Woodfield and B. A. Barrett
pp. 897-906

The genetic potential of white clover germplasm, from broad geographic origins, was evaluated based on their F1 crosses to three elite New Zealand cultivars. The parents and progeny were evaluated at Palmerston North under rotational grazing by sheep. Three morphological traits and seasonal dry matter yield were measured over four years. The study indicated that choice of adapted cultivar with which to cross is important, and germplasm from Australasia was a valuable source of adaptive variation.


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Published online 25 August 2016
Trends in grain production and yield gaps in the high-rainfall zone of southern Australia 
Michael Robertson, John Kirkegaard, Allan Peake, Zoe Creelman, Lindsay Bell, Julianne Lilley, Jon Midwood, Heping Zhang, Sue Kleven, Chris Duff, Roger Lawes and Penny Riffkin

In the last decade, there has been a growing recognition of the potential to increase crop production in the high rainfall zone of southern Australia. Using a mix of methods we measured current crop yields being achieved on farm and compared this will what is potentially possible under optimal management. We found substantial scope for yield improvement and outline the priorities for future research, development and extension that will assist in overcoming yield constraints.

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Published online 24 August 2016
Berry quality and antioxidant properties in Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo as affected by clonal variability, mycorrhizal inoculation and temperature 
Nazareth Torres, Nieves Goicoechea, Fermín Morales and M. Carmen Antolín

The projected increase in mean temperatures due to climate change is expected to have detrimental impacts on berry quality but inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could help grapevines to cope with abiotic stresses. Different fruit-bearing cuttings clones were inoculated with AMF and subjected to two temperature regimes. In some clones the association of grapevines with AMF may play an important role in the context of climate change to maintain or improve fruit quality by enhancing antioxidant properties.

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Published online 19 August 2016
Effects of ethephon on anatomical changes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stems associated with lodging 
Mariano A. Mangieri, Anita I. Mantese, Alejandro Alvarez Schürmann and Claudio A. Chimenti

Stem lodging causes significant losses in crops of cereals and oilseeds. We identifies that the thickness of primary and secondary structures, diameter of the stem lodging zone, sclerenchyma packages area and secondary xylem tissue area, causes stem lodging in sunflower during the ontogeny cycle and in crops with high density. The study provides the first results for sunflower crops, of the basis of intraspecific differences in the susceptibility to stem lodging.

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    CP15329  Accepted 03 August 2016
    Organic acid exudation increases phosphorus acquisition in soybean with differential genotypic efficiency

    CP15250  Accepted 02 May 2016
    Economic and environmental implications of wheat crop sequences on organic dairy farm simulations
    Daniel Abreu, Aaron Hoshide, Ellen Mallory, Erin Roche, André Oliveira, Richard Kersbergen, Rogério Lana, Caren Ghedini, Mozart Fonseca

    CP15226  Accepted 04 April 2016
    Zaid Bello, Sue Walker

    CP15102  Accepted 04 April 2016
    Diversity for resistance to a moderately virulent bluegreen aphid (Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji) population in Trifolium species.
    Alan Humphries, Steve Robinson, David Hawkey, David Peck, Trevor Rowe, Carolyn de Koning, Allen Newman

    CP16167  Accepted 05 August 2016
    Survey of Barley yellow dwarf virus incidence in winter cereal crops and the assessment of wheat and barley resistance to this virus
    Eva Beoni, J Chrpova, Jana JaroÅ¡ová, Jiban Kundu

    CP16141  Accepted 03 August 2016
    Selection indices to identify maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids adapted under drought stress and normal ecologies in tropical climate
    Bhupender Kumar, Satish Guleria, Subhash Khanorkar, Rajender Dubey, Jashvantlal Patel, Vinod Kumar, C Parihar, Shankar Jat, Vishal Singh, Yathish KR, Abhijit Das, J Sekhar, Pradeep Bhati, Harpreet Kaur, Madhvi Kumar, Aditya Singh, Eldho Varghese, Om Yadav

    CP16185  Accepted 20 July 2016
    Molecular characterisation of novel LMW-m and -s genes from four Aegilops species (Sitopsis section) and comparison with those from the Glu-B3 locus of common wheat
    Susana Cuesta, Carlos Guzman, Juan B. Alvarez

    CP16162  Accepted 19 July 2016
    Response of different fodder legume species to Colletotrichum trifolii
    Irene Jacob, Stephan Hartmann, Christine Struck

    CP16168  Accepted 11 July 2016
    Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to soil phosphorus patches is context dependent
    Guangzhou Wang, Xia Li, Peter Christie, Junling Zhang, Xiaolin Li

    CP16073  Accepted 23 June 2016
    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistance in facultative winter wheat
    Beyhn Akın, Xian-Ming Chen, Alexsey Morgounov, Nusret Zencirci, Anmin Wan, Meinan Wang

    CP16094  Accepted 12 June 2016
    Light extinction of wheat as affected by N fertilization and plant parameters
    A. Soleymani, Mohammad Miransari

    CP16052  Accepted 30 May 2016
    Vegetative nitrogen stress decreases lodging risk and increases yield of irrigated spring wheat in the subtropics.
    Allan Peake, Kerry Bell, Peter Carberry, Nick Poole, Steven Raine

    CP16091  Accepted 02 May 2016
    Forage and grain yield of common buckwheat in Mediterranean conditions: response to sowing time and irrigation
    Marco Mariotti, Alessandro Masoni, Iduna Arduini

    CP16027  Accepted 14 April 2016
    Interactions between water and nitrogen in Australian cropping systems: physiological, agronomic, economic, breeding and modelling perspectives
    Victor Sadras, P Hayman, Daniel Rodriguez, Marta Monjardino, Martin Bielich, Murray Unkovich, Barry Mudge, Enli Wang

    CP16087  Accepted 24 April 2016
    Expression of amphicarpy in Vigna lanceolata morphotypes and their hybrids and implications for cultivar development
    Bob Lawn, Leone Bielig


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 30 September 2015
Morphological, physiological and yield responses of durum wheat to pre-anthesis water-deficit stress are genotype-dependent

Haipei Liu, Iain R. Searle, Diane E. Mather, Amanda J. Able and Jason A. Able

2. Published 29 October 2015
Adaptation of wheat, barley, canola, field pea and chickpea to the thermal environments of Australia

Victor Sadras and M. Fernanda Dreccer

3. Published 29 February 2016
Frost-tolerance genes Fr-A2 and Fr-B2 in Australian wheat and their effects on days to heading and grain yield in lower rainfall environments in southern Australia

H. A. Eagles, Jayne Wilson, Karen Cane, Neil Vallance, R. F. Eastwood, Haydn Kuchel, P. J. Martin and Ben Trevaskis

4. Published 4 September 2015
Assessing the place and role of crop simulation modelling in Australia

M. J. Robertson, G. J. Rebetzke and R. M. Norton

5. Published 29 January 2016
Soil compaction and controlled traffic considerations in Australian cotton-farming systems

Diogenes L. Antille, John McL. Bennett and Troy A. Jensen

6. Published 4 September 2015
Statistical methods for analysis of multi-harvest data from perennial pasture variety selection trials

Joanne De Faveri, Arūnas P. Verbyla, Wayne S. Pitchford, Shoba Venkatanagappa and Brian R. Cullis

7. Published 30 September 2015
Saline water irrigation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) under Mediterranean conditions

Attila Yazar, Çigdem Incekaya, S. Metin Sezen and Sven-Erik Jacobsen

8. Published 6 May 2016
Nitrogen management to optimise canola production in Australia

R. M. Norton

9. Published 31 May 2016
The history of using rainfall data to improve production in the grain industry in Australia—from Goyder to ENSO

Derek Yates, R. Willem Vervoort, Budiman Minasny and Alex McBratney

10. Published 21 December 2015
Magnesium alleviates plant toxicity of aluminium and heavy metals

Z. Rengel, J. Bose, Q. Chen and B. N. Tripathi

11. Published 29 February 2016
Timing and rates of nitrogen fertiliser application on seed yield, quality and nitrogen-use efficiency of canola

B. L. Ma and A. W. Herath

12. Published 29 October 2015
Sequential zinc and iron biofortification of bread-wheat grains: from controlled to uncontrolled environments

Fernando C. Lidon, Ana S. Almeida, Ana R. Costa, Ana S. Bagulho, Paula Scotti-Campos, José N. Semedo, Benvindo Maçãs, José Coutinho, Nuno Pinheiro, Conceição Gomes, António E. Leitão, Isabel P. Pais, Maria M. Silva, Fernando H. Reboredo, Maria F. Pessoa and José C. Ramalho

13. Published 6 May 2016
Simulation of growth, development and yield of canola (Brassica napus) in APSIM

M. J. Robertson and J. M. Lilley

14. Published 29 January 2016
Nitrogen uptake efficiency of maize in monoculture and intercropped with Brachiaria humidicola and Panicum maximum in a dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol of the Brazilian Cerrado

Thais Rodrigues Coser, Maria Lucrécia Gerosa Ramos, Cícero Célio de Figueiredo, Segundo Urquiaga, Arminda Moreira de Carvalho, Filipe Vieira Barros and Maria Thereza Mendonça

15. Published 29 February 2016
Patterns of water stress and temperature for Australian chickpea production

Lachlan Lake, Karine Chenu and Victor O. Sadras

16. Published 30 September 2015
Impacts of endophyte infection of ryegrass on rhizosphere metabolome and microbial community

S. Wakelin, S. Harrison, C. Mander, B. Dignam, S. Rasmussen, S. Monk, K. Fraser and M. O'Callaghan

17. Published 29 October 2015
In search of photosensitising compounds in the annual forage legume Biserrula pelecinus L.

E. Swinny, C. K. Revell, N. Campbell, E. Spadek and C. Russo

18. Published 29 January 2016
Pasture mixes with lucerne (Medicago sativa) increase yields and water-use efficiencies over traditional pastures based on subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum)

M. R. McCaskill, M. C. Raeside, S. G. Clark, C. MacDonald, B. Clark and D. L. Partington

19. Published 21 December 2015
Role of magnesium in food production: an overview

A. R. Dechen, Q. A. C. Carmello, F. A. Monteiro and R. C. Nogueirol

20. Published 6 May 2016
Re-evaluating sowing time of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) in south-eastern Australia—how early is too early?

J. A. Kirkegaard, J. M. Lilley, R. D. Brill, S. J. Sprague, N. A. Fettell and G. C. Pengilley

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