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Environmental Chemistry publishes papers reporting chemistry that enhances our understanding of the environment including air, water, soil, sediments, and biota. More

Editor-in-Chief: Kevin Francesconi


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Published online 11 April 2014
The influence of particle size and structure on the sorption and oxidation behaviour of birnessite: II. Adsorption and oxidation of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 
Mario Villalobos, Manuel Carrillo-Cárdenas, Richard Gibson, N. Ruth López-Santiago and Jimmy A. Morales

Environmental context. Sorption and oxidation reactions at mineral surfaces can substantially influence the mobility and toxicity of environmental contaminants. An understanding of the factors that control these reactions is crucial for predicting the fate of contaminant species. We investigate the reactivity of manganese oxides towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, persistent organic compounds of environmental concern.

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Published online 09 April 2014
Lead electrochemical speciation analysis in seawater media by using AGNES and SSCP techniques 
Margarita Díaz-de-Alba, M. Dolores Galindo-Riaño and José Paulo Pinheiro

Environmental context. Metal contamination of seawater can present severe environmental problems owing to the high toxicity of metals and their persistence in the environment. This study explores the possibility of analysing lead in seawater media using two recently developed electrochemical methods. The methods are shown to be very useful tools to monitor the behaviour and fate of lead and other metals in seawater.

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Published online 03 April 2014
Metal complexation by organic ligands (L) in near-pristine estuarine waters: evidence for the identity of L 
Hollydawn Murray, Guillaume Meunier, Dagmar B. Stengel and Rachel Cave

Environmental context. Metal toxicity to marirne organisms is largely controlled by organic ligands (L) although the source, structure and stimuli of most ligands remain unknown. We studied trends in Cd and Zn complexing ligands in a near-pristine Irish estuary to gain clues on the identity of L in natural waters. The evidence suggests the naturally occurring Cd ligands include fulvic acids whereas the Zn ligands are likely to be exuded from seaweeds. Further research is required to determine their exact identity.

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Published online 31 March 2014
Scanned stripping chronopotentiometry at bismuth film rotating disc electrodes: a method for quantitative dynamic metal speciation 
Jose Paulo Pinheiro, Luciana S. Rocha, Danielle Goveia and Raewyn M. Town

Environmental context. Electroanalytical methods have found wide application in trace metal speciation analysis in environmental systems. The need to find functional alternatives to mercury electrodes for in situ speciation studies has encouraged the use of bismuth as a solid-state electrode substrate. We demonstrate the utility of bismuth electrodes for quantitative dynamic speciation analysis.

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Published online 27 March 2014
In-situ electrochemical method for detecting freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water 
Abra Penezić, Blaženka Gašparović, Draženka Stipaničev and Andrew Nelson

Environmental context. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds found in the atmosphere, soil, sediments and water. They can bioaccumulate in marine organisms where they pose a threat to the health of the organisms. We are developing a low-cost and simple electrochemical method to monitor the concentrations of these compounds in the aquatic environment.

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Published online 25 March 2014
Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping characterisation of organic matter in seawater from the northern Adriatic, Croatia 
Slađana Strmečki, Jelena Dautović and Marta Plavšić

Environmental context. We determined seasonal changes in the organic matter content of the northern Adriatic with newly applied electrochemical techniques able to measure catalytically active organics. The inflow of the Po River and its nutrient load are responsible for the observed changes in the type and concentrations of organic matter in the area.

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Published online 25 March 2014
Labilities of aqueous nanoparticulate metal complexes in environmental speciation analysis 
Raewyn M. Town and Herman P. van Leeuwen

Environmental context. Sorbing nanoparticles can have a significant effect on the speciation of small ions and molecules in the environment. The reactivity of nanoparticulate-bound species can differ significantly from that of their molecular or colloidal counterparts. We present a conceptual framework that describes the chemodynamics and lability of nanoparticulate metal complexes over a wide range of experimental timescales and environmental conditions.

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Published online 20 March 2014
A critical look at the calculation of the binding characteristics and concentration of iron complexing ligands in seawater with suggested improvements 
Loes J. A. Gerringa, Micha J. A. Rijkenberg, Charles-Edouard Thuróczy and Leo R. M. Maas

Environmental context. The low concentration of iron in the oceans limits growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved organic molecules, called ligands, naturally present in seawater, bind iron thereby increasing its solubility and, consequently, its availability for biological uptake by phytoplankton. The characteristics of these ligands are determined indirectly with various mathematical solutions; we critically evaluate the underlying method and calculations used in these determinations.

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Published online 11 December 2013
The development of electrochemical methods for determining nanoparticles in the environment. Part II. Chronoamperometric study of FeS in sodium chloride solutions 
Elvira Bura-Nakić, Marija Marguš, Ivana Milanović, Darija Jurašin and Irena Ciglenečki

Environmental context. In anoxic environments FeS is both an important mediator in the Fe and S biogeochemical cycles and plays a vital role in controlling the scavenging and availability of many trace metals. Electrochemical detection of colloidal and particulate FeS in natural waters can be done by voltammetric measurements. The recorded anodic waves, however, are rather qualitative and lack information on the FeS concentration and size distribution.

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Published online 09 December 2013
The development of electrochemical methods for determining nanoparticles in the environment. Part I. Voltammetry and in-situ electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy (EC-STM) study of FeS in sodium chloride solutions 
M. Marguš, N. Batina and I. Ciglenečki

Environmental context. The dramatic change in physical and chemical characteristics that substances experience at reduced length scales (1–100 nm), together with a potential risk of ecotoxicity, are two of the reasons for the scientific interest in nanoparticles. The current understanding of the behaviour and fate of nanoparticles in natural waters is limited because of a lack of efficient methods for their characterisation. Electrochemistry is a promising tool for the determination and characterisation of nanoparticles in the natural environment.

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Published online 26 September 2013
Voltammetric characterisation of macroalgae-exuded organic ligands (L) in response to Cu and Zn: a source and stimuli for L 
Hollydawn Murray, Guillaume Meunier, Constant M. G. van den Berg, Rachel R. Cave and Dagmar B. Stengel

Environmental context. Identifying the source and stimuli responsible for organic ligands in seawater is crucial to understanding trace metal availability. Voltammetric techniques were employed to characterise the water chemistry of seaweed cultures exposed to low levels of Cu or Zn over 7 days. The results suggest that seaweeds are a potential source of metal complexing ligands and Cu and Zn appear to stimulate ligand production; further research is required to determine if this is applicable to macroalgae and metals outside this study.

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Published online 20 September 2013
Deposition and dissolution of metal sulfide layers at the Hg electrode surface in seawater electrolyte conditions 
Ivana Milanović, Damir Krznarić, Elvira Bura-Nakić and Irena Ciglenečki

Environmental context. The electrochemical detection of many sulfur compounds in natural waters is based on the deposition of a HgS layer at the Hg electrode. In samples containing metal ions in excess of sulfide species, electrochemical exchange reactions between the HgS and the metal ion produce metal-sulfide voltammetric peaks. These peaks can easily be misinterpreted as dissolved sulfide species, and hence do not reflect the bulk state of the solution.

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blank image Environmental Chemistry
Volume 11 Number 1 2014
RESEARCH FRONT: Synchrotron X-rays in Biogeochemistry

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Hard X-ray synchrotron biogeochemistry: piecing together the increasingly detailed puzzle 
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Enzo Lombi, Ryo Sekine and Erica Donner
pp. 1-3

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Scaling up: fulfilling the promise of X-ray microprobe for biogeochemical research 
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Brandy M. Toner, Sarah L. Nicholas and Jill K. Coleman Wasik
pp. 4-9

Environmental context. Although biogeochemical processes in the environment are often considered on large spatial scales, critical processes can occur at fine-spatial scales. Quantifying these processes is a challenge, but significant recent developments in microprobe X-ray absorption spectroscopy in terms of data collection and analysis greatly facilitate micro-scale observations at the sample-level. These mapping methods create datasets that can be integrated with bulk observations with the potential for widespread application to biogeochemical research.


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Visualising Fe speciation diversity in ocean particulate samples by micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy 
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Matthew A. Marcus and Phoebe J. Lam
pp. 10-17

Environmental context. Iron-bearing particles in the ocean have attracted interest due to the role of iron as an essential nutrient for microscopic algae, which form the base of the marine food chain. Modern techniques make it possible to analyse individual particles of iron to determine their composition, but the resulting flood of data can be overwhelming. We show a method of simplifying the data to answer such questions as what groups of minerals are present and whether they are different between ocean basins.

   | Supplementary Material (4 MB)

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Effect of biogeochemical redox processes on the fate and transport of As and U at an abandoned uranium mine site: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study 
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Lyndsay D. Troyer, James J. Stone and Thomas Borch
pp. 18-27

Environmental context. Uranium and arsenic, two elements of human health concern, are commonly found at sites of uranium mining, but little is known about processes influencing their environmental behaviour. Here we focus on understanding the chemical and physical processes controlling uranium and arsenic transport at an abandoned uranium mine. We find that the use of sedimentation ponds limits the mobility of uranium; however, pond conditions at our site resulted in arsenic mobilisation. Our findings will help optimise restoration strategies for mine tailings.

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Synchrotron X-ray distinction of seasonal hydrological and temperature patterns in speleothem carbonate 
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Peter M. Wynn, Ian J. Fairchild, Christoph Spötl, Adam Hartland, Dave Mattey, Barbara Fayard and Marine Cotte
pp. 28-36

Environmental context. Speleothem chemical records are used to reconstruct environmental change on a broad range of timescales. However, one of the biggest challenges is to link the records contained within speleothems at the sub-annual timescale to changing meteorological conditions. Seasonal infiltration patterns and cave ventilation dynamics are reconstructed through high resolution analysis of speleothem trace element content by synchrotron radiation, building towards proxy records of hydrological variability and winter duration as indices of recent climatic change beyond the instrumental period.

    | Supplementary Material (239 KB)

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Environmental chemistry: a discipline standing on two shoulders 
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Montserrat Filella
pp. 37-40

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Diffusion limitation of zinc fluxes into wheat roots, PLM and DGT devices in the presence of organic ligands 
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A. Gramlich, S. Tandy, E. Frossard, J. Eikenberg and R. Schulin
pp. 41-50

Environmental context. Zinc is an essential micronutrient for plants and many arid areas of the world have zinc-deficient soils. The bioavailability of Zn to plants is influenced by diffusion limitations and complex lability in the soil solution. To identify the relative importance of these two factors, we investigated the influence of diffusion layer thickness on Zn uptake by wheat and by two bio-mimetic devices in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and two natural ligands found in soil.

    | Supplementary Material (469 KB)

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Photolysis and TiO2-catalysed degradation of diclofenac in surface and drinking water using circulating batch photoreactors 
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Devagi Kanakaraju, Cherie A. Motti, Beverley D. Glass and Michael Oelgemöller
pp. 51-62

Environmental context. Diclofenac, a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is not completely removed from surface and drinking water by conventional treatment methods. Consequently, this drug is present in the aquatic environment and has been subsequently linked to toxic effects on organisms. We show that photolysis and TiO2-catalysed degradation in circulating batch reactors efficiently results in diclofenac removal under a variety of conditions. These photochemical methods thus may lead to more effective water treatment processes.


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A method to determine silver partitioning and lability in soils 
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Lara Settimio, Mike J. McLaughlin, Jason K. Kirby and Kate A. Langdon
pp. 63-71

Environmental context. Soils contaminated with silver can have detrimental environmental effects because of silver’s toxicity to a range of soil-dwelling organisms. The total concentration of silver in soil, however, is often not a good indicator of potential toxicity as it does not account for variations in bioavailability. We report a method for soil analysis that measures the amount of silver available for uptake by soil-dwelling organisms, and hence could provide data that better reflect potential toxicity.

    | Supplementary Material (221 KB)

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Solid phase microextraction speciation analysis of triclosan in aqueous media containing sorbing nanoparticles 
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Katarzyna Zielińska
pp. 72-76

Environmental context. Speciation analysis of organic compounds in aquatic media is often performed using solid phase microextraction with the assumption that only the free organic form is accumulated. We show that in the presence of silica nanoparticles, this interpretation is confounded by partitioning of nanoparticulate-bound compounds between water and the solid phase, as well as their aggregation at solid–bulk medium interfaces. Equilibrium measurement of the target analyte is feasible if the solid phase is protected by a suitable membrane.


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Australian carbon tetrachloride emissions in a global context 
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Paul J. Fraser, Bronwyn L. Dunse, Alistair J. Manning, Sean Walsh, R. Hsiang J. Wang, Paul B. Krummel, L. Paul Steele, Laurie W. Porter, Colin Allison, Simon O'Doherty, Peter G. Simmonds, Jens Mühle, Ray F. Weiss and Ronald G. Prinn
pp. 77-88

Environmental context. Carbon tetrachloride in the background atmosphere is a significant environmental concern, responsible for ~10 % of observed stratospheric ozone depletion. Atmospheric concentrations of CCl4 are higher than expected from currently identified emission sources: largely residual emissions from production, transport and use. Additional sources are required to balance the expected atmospheric destruction of CCl4 and may contribute to a slower-than-expected recovery of the Antarctic ozone ‘hole’.


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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    EN14028  Accepted 16 April 2014
    Toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles to the earthworm Eisenia fetida: subtle effects
    Elma Lahive, Kerstin Jurkschat, Benjamin Shaw, Richard Handy, David Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen

    EN13187  Accepted 16 April 2014
    A micro-sized model for the in vivo studies of nanoparticle toxicity: What has Caenorhabditis elegans taught us?
    Jinhee Choi, Olga Tsyusko, Jason Unrine, Nivedita Chatterjee, Jeong-Min Ahn, Xinyu Yang, Lila Thornton, Ian Ryde, Daniel Starnes, Joel Meyer

    EN14010  Accepted 15 April 2014
    In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a hydraulic fracturing fluid
    Madeleine Payne, Heather Chapman, Janet Cumming, Frederic Leusch

    EN13182  Accepted 14 April 2014
    In situ Characterization of Physicochemical State and Concentration of Nanoparticles in Soil Ecotoxicity Studies using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy
    Jani Tuoriniemi, Stefan Gustafsson, Eva Olsson, Martin Hassellöv

    EN13150  Accepted 10 April 2014
    The Impact of Anthropogenic Volatile Organic Compounds Sources on Ozone in Boise, Idaho
    Victor Vargas, Marie-Cecile Chalbot, Robert O'Brien, George Nikolich, Dave DuBois, Vicken Etyemezian, Ilias Kavouras

    EN13218  Accepted 09 April 2014
    Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: A comparative screening study on their occurrence, formation of phototransformation products and their in-vitro toxicity
    Marlies Bergheim, Richard Gminski, Bernd Spangenberg, Malgorzata Debiak, Alexander Bürkle, Volker Mersch-Sundermann, Klaus Kümmerer, Reto Gieré

    EN13243  Accepted 03 April 2014
    Microbial Fuel Cells under Extreme Salinity: Performance and Microbial Analysis
    Oihane Monzon, Yu Yang, Cong Yu, Qilin Li, Pedro Alvarez

    EN13192  Accepted 11 March 2014
    Effects of nitrate and humic acid on enrofloxacin photolysis in aqueous system under three light conditions: kinetics and mechanism
    Yang Li, Junfeng Niu, Enxiang Shang, Mengyuan Zheng, Tianlai Luan

    EN13214  Accepted 07 March 2014
    Modelling proton and metal binding to humic substances with the NICA-EPN model
    Andrea Montenegro, Silvia Orsetti, Fernando Molina

    EN13189  Accepted 28 February 2014
    Speciation mapping of environmental samples using XANES imaging
    Barbara Etschmann, Erica Donner, Joel Brugger, Daryl Howard, Martin de Jonge, David Paterson, Ravi Naidu, Kirk Scheckel, Chris Ryan, Enzo Lombi

    EN13191  Accepted 15 February 2014
    Nanoparticle Core Properties Affect Attachment of Macromolecule-coated Nanoparticles to Silica Surfaces
    Ernest Hotze, Stacey Louie, Shihong Lin, Mark Wiesner, Gregory Lowry

    EN13203  Accepted 14 February 2014
    Development and validation of a shipboard system for measuring high-resolution vertical profiles of aqueous dimethylsulfide concentrations using chemical ionization mass spectrometry
    Sarah-Jeanne Royer, Martí Galí, Eric Saltzman, Cyril McCormick, Thomas Bell, Rafel Simo

    EN13183  Accepted 01 February 2014
    Composites of Nanostructured Calcium Silicate Hydrate with Superparamagnetic Particles and their Use in the Uptake of Copper from Solution
    Mathew Cairns, Giancarlo Barassi, Thomas Borrmann

    EN13155  Accepted 30 January 2014
    The degradation of arsenoribosides from Ecklonia radiata tissues decomposed in natural and microbially-manipulated microcosms
    Elliott Duncan, Bill Maher, Simon Foster, Frank Krikowa, Katarina Mikac

    EN13184  Accepted 15 January 2014
    Observations and assessment of iron oxide and green rust nanoparticles in metal-polluted mine drainage within a steep redox gradient
    Carol Johnson, Gina Freyer, Maria Fabisch, Manuel Caraballo, Kirsten Küsel, Michael Hochella, Jr.

    EN13141  Accepted 01 November 2013
    Isotopically modified silver nanoparticles to assess nanosilver bioavailability and toxicity at environmentally relevant exposures
    Marie-Noele Croteau, Agnieszka Dybowska, Samuel Luoma, Superb Misra, Eva Jones

The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 28 June 2013
Why do organic aerosols exist? Understanding aerosol lifetimes using the two-dimensional volatility basis set

N. M. Donahue, W. Chuang, S. A. Epstein, J. H. Kroll, D. R. Worsnop, A. L. Robinson, P. J. Adams and S. N. Pandis

2. Published 28 August 2013
Perspectives on our planet in the Anthropocene

Jonathan Williams and Paul J. Crutzen

3. Published 28 August 2013
Arsenic binding to organic and inorganic sulfur species during microbial sulfate reduction: a sediment flow-through reactor experiment

Raoul-Marie Couture, Dirk Wallschläger, Jérôme Rose and Philippe Van Cappellen

4. Published 28 June 2013
Chlorine chemistry in urban atmospheres: a review

C. B. Faxon and D. T. Allen

5. Published 28 June 2013
Reaction of OH radicals with 5-hydroxy-2-pentanone: formation yield of 4-oxopentanal and its OH radical reaction rate constant

Sara M. Aschmann, Janet Arey and Roger Atkinson

6. Published 28 August 2013
Agglomeration and dissolution of zinc oxide nanoparticles: role of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid

Rute F. Domingos, Zohreh Rafiei, Carlos E. Monteiro, Mohammad A.K. Khan and Kevin J. Wilkinson

7. Published 28 August 2013
Aggregation kinetics and surface charge of CuO nanoparticles: the influence of pH, ionic strength and humic acids

Vânia Serrão Sousa and Margarida Ribau Teixeira

8. Published 19 December 2013
Organic phosphorus in the aquatic environment

Darren S. Baldwin

9. Published 28 June 2013
SO2 oxidation and nucleation studies at near-atmospheric conditions in outdoor smog chamber

Yang Zhou, Elias P. Rosen, Haofei Zhang, Weruka Rattanavaraha, Wenxing Wang and Richard M. Kamens

10. Published 28 August 2013
A radio-isotopic dilution technique for functional characterisation of the associations between inorganic contaminants and water-dispersible naturally occurring soil colloids

Ehsan Tavakkoli, Erica Donner, Albert Juhasz, Ravi Naidu and Enzo Lombi

11. Published 30 May 2013
Copper and lead internalisation by freshwater microalgae at different carbonate concentrations

Paula Sánchez-Marín, Claude Fortin and Peter G. C. Campbell

12. Published 30 May 2013
Influence of culture regime on arsenic cycling by the marine phytoplankton Dunaliella tertiolecta and Thalassiosira pseudonana

Elliott G. Duncan, William A. Maher, Simon D. Foster and Frank Krikowa

13. Published 28 June 2013
Glyoxal secondary organic aerosol chemistry: effects of dilute nitrate and ammonium and support for organic radical–radical oligomer formation

Jeffrey R. Kirkland, Yong B. Lim, Yi Tan, Katye E. Altieri and Barbara J. Turpin

14. Published 25 February 2014
Visualising Fe speciation diversity in ocean particulate samples by micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy

Matthew A. Marcus and Phoebe J. Lam

15. Published 28 June 2013
Role of sea salt aerosols in the formation of aromatic secondary organic aerosol: yields and hygroscopic properties

Ross Beardsley, Myoseon Jang, Baber Ori, Yunseok Im, Carrie A. Delcomyn and Ned Witherspoon

16. Published 28 June 2013
Modelling of secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene photooxidation chamber studies using different approaches

Haofei Zhang, Harshal M. Parikh, Jyoti Bapat, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Jason D. Surratt and Richard M. Kamens

17. Published 28 August 2013
Solution-state NMR investigation of the sorptive fractionation of dissolved organic matter by alkaline mineral soils

Perry J. Mitchell, André J. Simpson, Ronald Soong, Adi Oren, Benny Chefetz and Myrna J. Simpson

18. Published 19 December 2013
Organic fluorine content in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) and biodegradation of the foam component 6 : 2 fluorotelomermercaptoalkylamido sulfonate (6 : 2 FTSAS)

Barbara Weiner, Leo W. Y. Yeung, Erin B. Marchington, Lisa A. D'Agostino and Scott A. Mabury

19. Published 19 December 2013
Predicting PbII adsorption on soils: the roles of soil organic matter, cation competition and iron (hydr)oxides

Zhenqing Shi, Herbert E. Allen, Dominic M. Di Toro, Suen-Zone Lee and James B. Harsh

20. Published 30 May 2013
Role of nanoparticles in analytical solid phase microextraction (SPME)

Katarzyna Zielińska and Herman P. van Leeuwen

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