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Environmental Chemistry publishes papers reporting chemistry that enhances our understanding of the environment including air, water, soil, sediments, and biota. More

Editor-in-Chief: Kevin Francesconi

 
 
 

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Published online 10 February 2016
Secondary organic aerosol formation from ethyne in the presence of NaCl in a smog chamber 
Shuangshuang Ge, Yongfu Xu and Long Jia

Environmental context. Ethyne is the lightest of the non-methane hydrocarbons, whose oxidation product, glyoxal, is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol. This study explores the effects of relative humidity on the formation of secondary organic aerosol under irradiation in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sodium chloride. Results show that relative humidity can enhance aerosol formation, which provides evidence of the contribution of ethyne to organic particles.

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Published online 05 February 2016
Influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) source on copper speciation and toxicity to Brachionus plicatilis 
Tara N. Tait, Christopher A. Cooper, James C. McGeer, Chris M. Wood and D. Scott Smith

Environmental context. Organic matter dissolved in water can mitigate toxic effects of copper, which should be taken into account when estimating risks of copper pollution. The composition of this organic matter, however, can vary widely, and these variations might also need to be taken into account. This work addresses the question of organic matter quality and demonstrates that only the amount and not the source influences copper toxicity – good news for risk analysis because it simplifies predictions of the effects of copper in specific receiving waters.

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    | Supplementary Material (194 KB)
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Published online 05 February 2016
Automatic and predictive fractionation of organic micropollutants in contaminated water 
Marine Brogat, Estelle Baures, Amelie Sellier, Fabien Mercier, Marie Doloy, Olivier Thomas and Benoit Roig

Environmental context. The safeguarding of water supplies and drinking water is a major issue in the consideration of human health risk management. In this context, an automatic and on-site fractionation system for the detection of organic contaminants has been developed. The main goal of this system is to establish an initial diagnosis by identifying a class of substances involved in a case of pollution.

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Published online 27 January 2016
Determination of the free-ion concentration of rare earth elements by an ion-exchange technique: implementation, evaluation and limits 
Sébastien Leguay, Peter G. C. Campbell and Claude Fortin

Environmental context. The lanthanides are a group of heavy elements (from lanthanum to lutetium) increasingly used in many electronic consumer products and little is known about their environmental mobility and toxicity. In natural systems, these elements will bind to natural organic matter but metal toxicity is usually defined by the free metal ion concentration. Here, we propose a method based on sample equilibration with an ion-exchange resin to measure the free lanthanide ion concentration in the presence of natural organic matter.

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    | Supplementary Material (368 KB)
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Published online 07 January 2016
Role of dimethylsulfoniopropionate as an osmoprotectant following gradual salinity shifts in the sea-ice diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus 
Barbara R. Lyon, Jennifer M. Bennett-Mintz, Peter A. Lee, Michael G. Janech and Giacomo R. DiTullio

Environmental context. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a small sulfur compound biosynthesised by algae, plays an important role in global climate, particularly in polar regions. We investigated the environmental controls on DMSP levels, and provide the first experimental measurements of DMSP and associated physiological changes in a polar diatom exposed to a range of gradual salinity shifts representative of sea-ice conditions. Quantitative estimates of DMSP in polar diatoms following salinity changes will facilitate new mathematical models to predict seasonal responses and reactions to climate change.

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    | Supplementary Material (586 KB)
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Published online 07 January 2016
Photon flux dependence on solute environment in water ices 
Alexander S. McFall and Cort Anastasio

Environmental context. Anthropogenic pollutants deposited in and on snowpacks can undergo many sunlight-driven reactions. These processes have been studied, but typically without measuring the photon flux, the amount of light seen by the reactants, which is needed for comparing results across studies. This work investigates the effects of container albedo, solute location and mechanical ice crushing on the photon flux in laboratory ice samples to understand how these factors might affect photochemical rates.

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    | Supplementary Material (526 KB)
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Published online 07 January 2016
Towards a revised climatology of summertime dimethylsulfide concentrations and sea–air fluxes in the Southern Ocean 
Tereza Jarníková and Philippe D. Tortell

The trace gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) is emitted from surface ocean waters to the overlying atmosphere, where it forms aerosols that promote cloud formation and influence Earth’s climate. We present an updated climatology of DMS emissions from the vast Southern Ocean, demonstrating how the inclusion of new data yields higher regional sources compared with previously derived values. Our work provides an important step towards better quantifying the oceanic emissions of an important climate-active gas.

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Published online 04 January 2016
Chromate adsorption from chromite ore processing residue eluates by three Indian soils 
K. Matern and T. Mansfeldt

Environmental context. Chromate (CrO42–)-containing waste is illegally dumped in some places in the state of Uttar Pradesh, north India, although CrO42– is known to be toxic and carcinogenic. Because CrO42– is leached from the landfills, this study investigated the adsorption of CrO42– by soils. The results indicated that CrO42– is highly leachable and adsorption is inhibited, which leads to contamination of the groundwater and drinking water in this area.

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Published online 21 December 2015
Quantification of nitroaromatic compounds in atmospheric fine particulate matter in Hong Kong over 3 years: field measurement evidence for secondary formation derived from biomass burning emissions 
Ka Shing Chow, X. H. Hilda Huang and Jian Zhen Yu

Environmental context. Nitroaromatic compounds constitute an important portion of brown carbon and thereby contribute to the light-absorbing properties of atmospheric aerosols. We report their abundance in Hong Kong over 3 years and show that they were mainly associated with aged biomass burning particles. Knowledge of the abundance and sources of nitroaromatic compounds could assist in evaluating their contribution to brown carbon and in apportioning secondary organic aerosols from biomass burning sources.

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    | Supplementary Material (483 KB)
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Published online 18 December 2015
Long-term responses in soil solution and stream-water chemistry at Hubbard Brook after experimental addition of wollastonite 
Shuai Shao, Charles T. Driscoll, Chris E. Johnson, Timothy J. Fahey, John J. Battles and Joel D. Blum

Environmental context. Calcium silicate was added to a forest watershed in New Hampshire, USA, to accelerate its recovery from acid rain. The acid–base status of soil and stream quality improved over the 12-year study, with the most pronounced response in the upper elevation and the upper soil of the watershed. A total of 95 % of the added calcium and 87 % of the added silica were retained in the watershed over the study period.

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    | Supplementary Material (224 KB)
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Published online 18 December 2015
Enantioselective determination of ibuprofen residues by chiral liquid chromatography: a systematic study of enantiomeric transformation in surface water and sediments 
María Eugenia León-González and Noelia Rosales-Conrado

Environmental context. Ibuprofen, a common anti-inflammatory drug and one of many pharmaceuticals sold as a mixture of enantiomers, has recently been found in river and surface waters. There are, however, few analytical methods able to separate and accurately measure ibuprofen enantiomers in environmental matrices. This study reports a method for quantifying ibuprofen enantiomers in sediments and surface water, and applies it to shed light on the degradation and fate of the enantiomers in aquatic systems.

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    | Supplementary Material (112 KB)
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Published online 18 December 2015
Relationship of arsenic speciation and bioavailability in mine wastes for human health risk assessment 
Violet Diacomanolis, Barry N. Noller, Raijeli Taga, Hugh H. Harris, Jade B. Aitken and Jack C. Ng

Environmental context. X-Ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was applied to give arsenic chemical forms directly in the solid phase of mine wastes from two mine sites, including fluvial dispersion. The arsenic speciation data explained the variation of in vitro bioaccessibility and in vivo bioavailability (rat uptake) data of the mine wastes. The As speciation from XANES fitting supported the hypothesis that when soil intake is adjusted for bioaccessibility, the potential health risk estimate to local residents is significantly lower.

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Published online 15 December 2015
Influence of the Mississippi River plume and non-bioavailable DMSP on dissolved DMSP turnover in the northern Gulf of Mexico 
Jessie Motard-Côté, David J. Kieber, Allison Rellinger and Ronald P. Kiene

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) comprises an important fraction of the organic carbon produced by phytoplankton, and is a major source of carbon and sulfur for heterotrophic bacteria. Here, we show that a non-bioavailable fraction of DMSP recently discovered in coastal waters also exists in oligotrophic open-ocean waters. Taking account of the non-bioavailable pool improved estimates of cycling rates of DMSP and its contribution to bacterial nutrition.

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Published online 15 December 2015
Changes in terrestrial organic matter and pollutant input to the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea, during the past century 
Xiaoyong Duan, Yanxia Li, Xianguo Li, Yi Gao and Dahai Zhang

Environmental context. The concentrations of n-alkanes, phthalates and alkylphenols in a dated sediment core from the Yangtze River estuary steadily increased, with evident peaks in c. 1980 and c. 2000. Most of the phthalates and alkylphenols in the core originated from direct industrial and municipal discharges into the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, whereas the n-alkanes were mainly from aquatic and terrestrial plants. The Yangtze River discharge plays an important role in the sedimentary records of organic compounds.

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Published online 30 November 2015
A comparative study of long-term Hg and Pb sediment archives 
Stephen A. Norton, George L. Jacobson, Ji?í Kopá?ek and Tomáš Navrátil

Environmental context. Lead and mercury are toxic atmospheric pollutants emitted in large quantities since 1850. Accumulating lake and peat sediments capture the pollutants from the atmosphere and indirectly record changes in deposition through time. This study of four long-term sediment records addresses the questions, ‘What proportion of this atmospheric deposition is natural background?’ and ‘Does the archive faithfully represent true rates of atmospheric deposition?’

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Published online 30 November 2015
Lead solubility in seawater: an experimental study 
Brad M. Angel, Simon C. Apte, Graeme E. Batley and Mark D. Raven

Environmental context. Many trace metals including lead are only sparingly soluble in seawater and may exist in both dissolved and particulate forms (e.g. as precipitates). Aquatic organisms may experience different toxic effects from exposure to dissolved and particulate trace metals. This study reports the limits to lead solubility in seawater that influence the exposure to these forms of lead in the field and the laboratory.

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   | Supplementary Material (335 KB)  |        Open Access Article
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Published online 30 November 2015
Toxicity of engineered copper (Cu0) nanoparticles to the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 
Emanuel Müller, Renata Behra and Laura Sigg

Environmental context. Engineered copper nanoparticles are presently under development for various uses and may thus be finally released into the aquatic environment. Copper is well known to be both an essential and a toxic element for aquatic organisms. Here, we investigate the toxicity of copper nanoparticles to a green alga and compare it with the toxicity of dissolved copper.

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Published online 23 November 2015
Effects of pH value, chloride and sulfate concentrations on galvanic corrosion between lead and copper in drinking water 
Ding-Quan Ng and Yi-Pin Lin

Environmental context. Galvanic corrosion has been recently reported as the main cause of lead contamination in drinking water in urban cities. Conditions that can deter or promote galvanic corrosion, however, are not well understood. Fundamental investigations exploring the mechanisms and processes involved in galvanic corrosion in drinking water could help to implement proper corrective measures to safeguard public health from lead contamination.

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Published online 23 November 2015
Compositions and isotopic differences of iso- and anteiso-alkanes in black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) across a salinity gradient in a subtropical estuary 
Ding He, Bernd R. T. Simoneit, Blanca Jara and Rudolf Jaffé

Environmental context. Mangroves dominate at the interface between land and sea, especially along tropical and subtropical coasts. To gain a better understanding of how mangroves respond to various environmental stress factors, we investigated the use of monomethylalkanes as potential chemical tracers for black mangroves. The application of these chemical tracers could elucidate how black mangroves respond to environmental stress such as sea level rise in mixed mangrove environments.

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Published online 23 November 2015
Surfactant toxicity to Artemia franciscana and the influence of humic acid and chemical composition 
Rachel D. Deese, Madeline R. LeBlanc and Robert L. Cook

Environmental context. Surfactants, a pollutant class routinely introduced into aquatic environments, can be toxic to a variety of species. It is thus important to understand how surfactants’ toxicity is influenced by their interactions with other environmental constituents, including natural organic matter. We report the changes in toxicity of three surfactants to brine shrimp in the presence of unmodified and chemically modified humic acids.

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Published online 23 November 2015
Theoretical study of the gaseous hydrolysis of NO2 in the presence of NH3 as a source of atmospheric HONO 
Xu Wang, Feng-Yang Bai, Yan-Qiu Sun, Rong-Shun Wang, Xiu-Mei Pan and Fu-Ming Tao

Environmental context. Nitrous acid is an important atmospheric trace gas, but the sources and the chemical mechanisms of its production are not well understood. This study explores the effects of ammonia and water on the hydrolysis of nitrogen dioxide and nitrous acid production. The calculated results show that ammonia is more effective than water in promoting the hydrolysis reaction of nitrogen dioxide.

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Published online 23 November 2015
Influence of vitamin B12 availability on oceanic dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate 
Peter A. Lee, Erin M. Bertrand, Mak A. Saito and Giacomo R. DiTullio

Environmental context. Cobalamin, or vitamin B12, is receiving increased attention as a critical trace nutrient in the growth and metabolic processes of oceanic phytoplankton and bacterial communities. We present evidence that indicates B12 has a more significant role in the biogeochemical cycling of the climatically important compounds dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate than previously understood. Several possible mechanisms are examined that link cellular-level processes involving B12 to global-scale biogeochemical processes involving the oceanic cycling of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethylsulfide.

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Published online 16 November 2015
Dialkylsulfate formation in sulfuric acid-seeded secondary organic aerosol produced using an outdoor chamber under natural sunlight 
Jiaying Li, Myoseon Jang and Ross L. Beardsley

Environmental context. Laboratory and field studies have both provided evidence for organosulfate formation by esterification of H2SO4 with organic compounds in aerosols. Using an outdoor chamber, the production of dialkylsufate was measured for organic aerosols produced by photooxidation of various hydrocarbons in the presence of H2SO4 aerosol and NOx. The formation of organosulfates influences the decrease of both aerosol acidity and aerosol hygroscopicity.

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Published online 16 November 2015
Arsenic metabolism in cyanobacteria 
Shin-ichi Miyashita, Chisato Murota, Keisuke Kondo, Shoko Fujiwara and Mikio Tsuzuki

Environmental context. Cyanobacteria are ecologically important, photosynthetic organisms that are widely distributed throughout the environment. They play a central role in arsenic transformations in terms of both mineralisation and formation of organoarsenic species as the primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. In this review, arsenic resistance, transport and biotransformation in cyanobacteria are reviewed and compared with those in other organisms.

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Published online 10 November 2015
Revising upper-ocean sulfur dynamics near Bermuda: new lessons from 3 years of concentration and rate measurements 
Naomi M. Levine, Dierdre A. Toole, Aimee Neeley, Nicholas R. Bates, Scott C. Doney and John W. H. Dacey

Environmental context. Microscopic marine organisms have the potential to influence the global climate through the production of a trace gas, dimethylsulfide, which contributes to cloud formation. Using 3 years of observations, we investigated the environmental drivers behind the production and degradation of dimethylsulfide and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate. Our results highlight the important role of the microbial community in rapidly cycling these compounds and provide an important dataset for future modelling studies.

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Published online 04 November 2015
Isotopic evidence for the origin of dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate-like compounds in a warm, monomictic freshwater lake 
Michal Sela-Adler, Ward Said-Ahmad, Orit Sivan, Werner Eckert, Ronald P. Kiene and Alon Amrani

Environmental context. The volatile sulfur compound, dimethylsulfide (DMS), plays a major role in the global sulfur cycle by transferring sulfur from aquatic environments to the atmosphere. Compared to marine environments, freshwater environments are under studied with respect to DMS cycling. The goal of this study was to assess the formation pathways of DMS in a freshwater lake using natural stable isotopes of sulfur. Our results provide unique sulfur isotopic evidence for the multiple DMS sources and dynamics that are linked to the various biogeochemical processes that occur in freshwater lake water columns and sediments.

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Published online 26 October 2015
Ocean acidification has different effects on the production of dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate measured in cultures of Emiliania huxleyi and a mesocosm study: a comparison of laboratory monocultures and community interactions 
Alison L. Webb, Gill Malin, Frances E. Hopkins, Kai Lam Ho, Ulf Riebesell, Kai G. Schulz, Aud Larsen and Peter S. Liss

Environmental context. Approximately 25 % of CO2 released to the atmosphere by human activities has been absorbed by the oceans, resulting in ocean acidification. We investigate the acidification effects on marine phytoplankton and subsequent production of the trace gas dimethylsulfide, a major route for sulfur transfer from the oceans to the atmosphere. Increasing surface water CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) affects the growth of phytoplankton groups to different degrees, resulting in varying responses in community production of dimethylsulfide.

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Published online 13 October 2015
Evaluation of diverse approaches for estimating sea-surface DMS concentration and air–sea exchange at global scale 
Jan-Erik Tesdal, James R. Christian, Adam H. Monahan and Knut von Salzen

Environmental context. As climate models increasingly include detailed, process-based models of aerosol formation, they need to represent dimethylsulfide emissions from the ocean. Options for this include data-based climatologies and empirical or process-based models; there are diverse examples of each in the literature. This paper presents the first global-scale comparison of all available approaches and evaluation of their skill relative to observations and their possible roles in future climate models.

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Published online 08 October 2015
Dimethylated sulfur compounds in coral-reef ecosystems 
Elisabeth Deschaseaux, Graham Jones and Hilton Swan

Environmental context. Dimethylated sulfur compounds can exert multiple biological and environmental effects including climate regulation. Climate change and other anthropogenic factors are predicted to affect coral-reef ecosystems where these sulfur compounds are particularly abundant. We review the processes that regulate the production of dimethylated sulfur compounds in coral reefs and the potential consequences of environmental changes on their biogenic cycle in such fragile ecosystems under future climate change scenarios.

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Published online 08 October 2015
Evaluating the concentration addition approach for describing expected toxicity of a ternary metal mixture (Ni, Cu, Cd) using metal speciation and response surface regression 
Yamini Gopalapillai and Beverley Hale

Environmental context. Environmental quality guidelines are often based on an ‘additive’ approach using single metal toxicity values. We evaluated the ‘additive’ approach by testing it on three priority pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Cd), and found that the toxicity of the metal mixture was less than additive when dose was expressed as total metal concentration, but it was additive when dose was expressed as bioavailable metal. We suggest that for metal mixtures, a more realistic indicator of risk is provided by calculations based on the bioavailable form of metals.

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Published online 06 October 2015
Developing a sentinel mollusc species for toxicity assessment: metal exposure, dose and response – laboratory v. field exposures and resident organisms 
Anne Taylor and William Maher

Environmental context. Metal contamination in estuarine sediments can affect ecosystem health. Molluscs are commonly used as environmental indicators because they accumulate contaminants that cause adverse health effects. We investigated metal uptake and effects in the Sydney cockle, comparing exposure to contaminated lake sediments in situ and in laboratory aquariums. Although differences were observed between the different exposure types, all approaches were found to be valid for investigating metal health effects in this organism.

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Published online 06 October 2015
Metal speciation from stream to open ocean: modelling v. measurement 
Edward Tipping, Stephen Lofts and Anthony Stockdale

Environmental context. The chemical speciation of metals strongly influences their transport, fate and bioavailability in natural waters. Analytical measurement and modelling both play important roles in understanding speciation, while modelling is also needed for prediction. Here, we analyse a large set of data for fresh waters, estuarine and coastal waters, and open ocean water, to examine how well measurements and modelling predictions agree.

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   | Supplementary Material (370 KB)  |        Open Access Article
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Published online 17 September 2015
Effects of light and phosphorus on summer DMS dynamics in subtropical waters using a global ocean biogeochemical model 
Italo Masotti, Sauveur Belviso, Laurent Bopp, Alessandro Tagliabue and Eva Bucciarelli

Environmental context. Models are needed to predict the importance of the changes in marine emissions of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in response to ocean warming, increased stratification and acidification, and to evaluate the potential effects on the Earth’s climate. We use complementary simulations to further our understanding of the marine cycle of DMS in subtropical waters, and show that a lack of phosphorus may exert a more important control on surface DMS concentrations than an excess of light.

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Published online 17 September 2015
Spatial variability of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the southern Gulf of Mexico 
María de la Luz Espinosa, Amparo Martínez, Oscar Peralta and Telma Castro

Environmental context. Dimethylsulfide (DMS), the main biogenic sulfur compound in the atmosphere, is produced by the marine biosphere and plays an important role in the atmospheric sulfur cycle. This study recorded the spatial variability of DMS and dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the water column of the southern Gulf of Mexico. The results suggest that the spatial variability of DMS and DMSP is directly related to the hydrodynamics of the study area.

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Published online 17 September 2015
Effects of iron limitation and UV radiation on Phaeocystis antarctica growth and dimethylsulfoniopropionate, dimethylsulfoxide and acrylate concentrations 
Joanna D. Kinsey, David J. Kieber and Patrick J. Neale

Environmental context. Low iron concentrations and solar ultraviolet radiation can affect the growth of marine algae. We observed reduced growth and substantial increases in dissolved dimethylsulfoxide and cellular acrylate concentrations in low-iron cultures of a prevalent Southern Ocean algal species, Phaeocystis antarctica, with comparatively small increases observed for cellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate concentrations. Exposure of P. antarctica to high levels of ultraviolet and visible light had very little effect on concentrations of these compounds in culture, even under iron-limitation. Our results highlight the importance of iron to P. antarctica.

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Published online 17 September 2015
Effects of environmental changes, tissue types and reproduction on the emissions of dimethyl sulfide from seaweeds that form green tides 
Kathryn L. Van Alstyne, Sue-Ann Gifford, Jenna M. Dohman and Monique M. Savedo

Environmental context. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is released by marine algae and is important to sulfur transfer between the oceans and the atmosphere. We measured DMS emissions from algae that form large blooms, and found that the hydration of the plants, seawater temperatures and salinity affect DMS release, but their effects were species-specific. Thus, the effect of algal blooms on sulfur transfer will depend on the bloom’s species composition and the environmental conditions experienced by the algae.

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Published online 17 September 2015
Assessment of DMSP turnover reveals a non-bioavailable pool of dissolved DMSP in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico 
Chengxuan Li, Gui-Peng Yang, David J. Kieber, Jessie Motard-Côté and Ronald P. Kiene

Environmental context. DMSP is one of the most important substrates for marine bacteria and its cycling contributes substantially to fluxes of carbon and sulfur in the ocean. Accurate determination of the concentration of DMSP available to bacteria is essential to quantifying DMSP consumption rates, and this work improves those determinations by identifying non-bioavailable pools of DMSP that have previously gone unrecognised. Improved estimates of DMSP consumption rates will lead to better understanding of its role in ocean food web and biogeochemical dynamics.

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Published online 15 September 2015
A steady-state physiological model for intracellular dimethylsulfoxide in marine phytoplankton 
Michel Lavoie, Maurice Levasseur and William G. Sunda

Environmental context. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is important in the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur. Using a mathematical flux model of DMSO production and loss rates, we find that the high intracellular DMSO concentrations measured in phytoplankton cannot be produced without invoking unrealistically high intracellular concentrations of the precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate, or much lower phytoplankton cellular efflux rates than currently reported. Our study emphasises the need for further investigations of DMSO fluxes across intracellular and outer cell membranes.

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Published online 03 September 2015
Environmental control of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) cycling under ocean acidification 
Cathleen Zindler-Schlundt, Hannah Lutterbeck, Sonja Endres and Hermann W. Bange

Environmental context. Ocean acidification affects marine algae and bacteria, which can produce climate active trace gases such as methane or dimethylsulfide from marine dimethylsulfoxide. We conducted field experiments simulating future ocean acidification, and showed that dimethylsulfoxide concentrations decreased with increasing acidification. Less dimethylsulfoxide in the future can affect climate by influencing the concentration of methane and dimethylsulfide.

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Published online 01 September 2015
Exceptional accumulation and retention of dimethylsulfoniopropionate by molluscs 
Richard W. Hill and John W. H. Dacey

Environmental context. Animals that eat marine algae strongly affect the rate at which a compound that algae synthesise, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), is converted to the important atmospheric climate gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). In studying the processing of DMSP by algae-eating molluscs, we have discovered that some molluscs accumulate and retain DMSP exceptionally well, but this can be very variable. With this knowledge, investigators will be able to design improved experiments to understand the effects of molluscs on DMS production in local ecosystems.

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Published online 27 August 2015
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in corals and its interrelations with bacterial assemblages in coral surface mucus 
P. R. Frade, V. Schwaninger, B. Glasl, E. Sintes, R. W. Hill, R. Simó and G. J. Herndl

Environmental context. Corals produce copious amounts of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a sulfur compound implicated in climate regulation. We studied DMSP concentrations inside corals and unveiled the linkage between DMSP availability and the abundance of DMSP-degrading bacterial groups inhabiting the corals’ surface. Our findings suggest that DMSP mediates the interplay between corals and microbes, highlighting the importance of sulfur compounds for microbial processes in corals and for the resilience of coral reef ecosystems.

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   | Supplementary Material (802 KB)  |        Open Access Article
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Published online 18 August 2015
Dimethylsulfide model calibration in the Barents Sea using a genetic algorithm and neural network 
Bo Qu, Albert J. Gabric, Meifang Zeng and Zhifeng Lu

Environmental context. Future changes in marine biogenic aerosol emissions in Arctic seas are likely to affect the radiative budget of the region. Here we employ a calibrated biogeochemical model to simulate change in sulfate aerosol emissions in the Barents Sea, and find strong increases occur by the late 21st century. If replicated across the Arctic Ocean, such increases in sulfate aerosol loading to the Arctic atmosphere may decrease the rate of warming at polar latitudes.

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blank image Environmental Chemistry
Volume 13 Number 1 2016

 
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The concentration-dependent behaviour of nanoparticles 
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Mohammed Baalousha , Mithun Sikder , Ashwini Prasad , Jamie Lead , Ruth Merrifield and G. Thomas Chandler
pp. 1-3

Environmental context. Studies of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment have been performed almost exclusively at high NP concentrations. These data lead to misunderstandings related to NP fate and effects at relevant environmental concentrations, which are expected to be low. A better understanding of the concentration-dependent behaviour of NPs will improve our understanding of their fate and effects under environmentally realistic conditions.

   | Supplementary Material (156 KB)  |        Open Access Article
 

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Distributions of neonicotinoid insecticides in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: a temporal and spatial variation analysis for pollen and honey samples 
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Chensheng (Alex) Lu , Chi-Hsuan Chang , Lin Tao and Mei Chen
pp. 4-11

Environmental context. Neonicotinoids are a group of widely used insecticides that have been implicated in the deterioration of honeybee health and the declining number of honeybee colonies worldwide. We wanted to find out whether neonicotinoids are commonly present in pollen and honey, which are the main food sources for bees. The results show that neonicotinoids are ubiquitous in the environment where bees foraged, and therefore could pose risks to honeybee health.

 
  
 

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First national-scale reconnaissance of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams across the USA 
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Michelle L. Hladik and Dana W. Kolpin
pp. 12-20

Environmental context. Neonicotinoids are under increased scrutiny because they have been implicated in pollinator declines and, more recently, as potential aquatic toxicants. Nevertheless, there is currently little information on concentrations of multiple neonicotinoids in surface water. This paper presents a summary of concentrations of six neonicotinoids in streams from across the United States in both urban and agricultural areas. These environmental data are important in determining the potential risk of neonicotinoids to non-target aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

 
    | Supplementary Material (273 KB)
 

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Environmental effects on arsenosugars and arsenolipids in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyta) 
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Ásta H. Pétursdóttir , Kyle Fletcher , Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir , Eva Krupp , Frithjof C. Küpper and Jörg Feldmann
pp. 21-33

Environmental context. Arsenolipids, which are present in seaweed, can show high toxicity, emphasising the need for more information on these compounds. We investigated the effects of different stress factors on the arsenic compounds formed by cultures of brown algae, and compared the results with those from field-collected samples. We show that the arsenolipid and arsenosugar profiles differ depending on the experimental conditions, and that a deficiency in phosphate has a direct positive effect on the biosynthesis of arsenic-containing phospholipids.

   | Supplementary Material (5 MB)  |        Open Access Article
 

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Effects of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and orthophosphate adsorption on aggregation of CeO2 nanoparticles: roles of pH and surface coverage 
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Biao Wan , Yupeng Yan , Fan Liu , Wenfeng Tan , Jiajie He and Xionghan Feng
pp. 34-42

Environmental context. To understand the behaviour and fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in the natural environment requires knowledge of their aggregation state under environmentally relevant conditions. This work investigates the influence of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and phosphate on the colloidal stability of CeO2 NPs, and shows that adsorption of organic and inorganic phosphorus plays an important role on the interaction between the nanoparticles. Surface phosphorus coverage should be considered when predicting the fate of CeO2 NPs and other similar NPs in the environment.

 
    | Supplementary Material (818 KB)
 

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Double-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles for efficient extraction of bisphenol A from river water 
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Yipei Sheng , Huaqin Guan , Yanfang Zhang , Xuemei Zhang , Qingqing Zhou and Zhenkun Lin
pp. 43-49

Environmental context. Conventional pre-treatment methods are usually ineffective for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from environmental water samples. We report that a novel magnetic nanoparticle with double-functionalisation is an excellent solid-phase adsorbent for extracting BPA from river water samples. This study provides a simple but efficient approach for extraction of low-concentration pollutants from water samples.

 
  
 

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Physical long-term regeneration dynamics of soil organic matter as followed by 1H solid-state NMR methods 
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Alexander Jäger , Jette Schwarz , Yamuna Kunhi Mouvenchery , Gabriele E. Schaumann and Marko Bertmer
pp. 50-57

The mobility of soil organic matter and water molecules has a strong influence on the availability of fertilisers as well as on the fate of pollutants in soil. Magnetic resonance techniques identified two regimes of mobility change on the molecular level occurring on a timescale of 1 year after initially heating the sample. The results can help to understand the effect of soil type and water content for agricultural use and soil protection.

 
    | Supplementary Material (130 KB)
 

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Can r-graphene oxide replace the noble metals in SERS studies: the detection of acrylamide 
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Elad Segal and Aharon Gedanken
pp. 58-67

Environmental context. The need for detecting and sensing hazardous materials that can contaminate our food and water is growing each and every year. Regulation of these contaminants to safeguard human health depends on the ability to detect them at ultra-low concentrations in the environment. This work proposes a simple and efficient substrate preparation for detecting acrylamide, a toxic and carcinogenic material usually found in drinking water.

 
    | Supplementary Material (316 KB)
 

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Volatile selenium fluxes from selenium-contaminated sediments in an Australian coastal lake 
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Michael J. Ellwood , Larissa Schneider , Jaimie Potts , Graeme E. Batley , John Floyd and William A. Maher
pp. 68-75

Environmental context. Methylation of sedimentary selenium to volatile dimethylselenide is a natural remediation process for contaminated aquatic systems. We present flux estimates for the loss of dimethylselenide from sediments of an anthropogenically affected lake and observe a 6-fold difference between late autumn–early winter and summer. The loss of dimethylselenide represents a significant sediment loss vector, of the same order as the diffusive loss flux for inorganic selenium across the sediment–water interface.

 
    | Supplementary Material (350 KB)
 

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Electric condensation of divalent counterions by humic acid nanoparticles 
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Herman P. van Leeuwen and Raewyn M. Town
pp. 76-83

Environmental context. Humic acids are negatively charged soft nanoparticles that play a governing role in the speciation of many ionic and molecular compounds in the environment. The charge density in the humic acid nanoparticle can be very high and the binding of divalent cations such as Ca2+ appears to go far beyond traditional ion pairing or Poisson–Boltzmann electrostatics. A two-state approach, combining counterion condensation in the intraparticulate double layer and classical Donnan partitioning in the bulk of the particle, provides a satisfactory description of the physicochemical speciation.

 
  
 

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Revisited: DGT speciation analysis of metal–humic acid complexes 
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Herman P. van Leeuwen
pp. 84-88

Humic acids and their metal complexes may be sorbed by the gel used in diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) speciation analysis. Owing to the low mobility of the humic entities, the sorption process is very slow. As a consequence, the delay times involved in establishing a steady-state metal diffusion flux may be in the order of days.

 
  
 

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Iron isotope composition of aqueous phases of a lowland environment 
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Stephan Schuth and Tim Mansfeldt
pp. 89-101

Environmental context. Iron (Fe) isotope analysis is a powerful tool to understand the transport of Fe within and from soils to rivers. We determined Fe isotopes and Fe concentrations of soil solutions at different depths and found that the Fe isotope compositions are modified owing to adsorption onto Fe oxides, especially in the subsoil. Hence Fe-rich capillary rising groundwater or seeping Fe-rich surface water are depleted in Fe and potentially other metals in Fe oxide-rich soil horizons.

 
  
 

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Are humans exposed to increasing amounts of unidentified organofluorine? 
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Leo W. Y. Yeung and Scott A. Mabury
pp. 102-110

Environmental context. Polyfluorinated substances are anthropogenic chemicals that have been widely used in several industrial and commercial applications. Analysis of human plasma samples collected from Muenster in Germany revealed, since the year 2000, increasing amounts and proportion of unidentified organofluorines. The increasing trend of unidentified organofluorines in plasma samples suggests that humans are being exposed to new and unidentified fluorinated products.

 
    | Supplementary Material (1.8 MB)
 

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Geochemical controls on aluminium concentrations in coastal waters 
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Brad M. Angel , Simon C. Apte , Graeme E. Batley and Lisa A. Golding
pp. 111-118

Environmental context. Aluminium may be released into coastal waters in dissolved and particulate forms from urban runoff, industrial discharges and acid sulfate soils. Aquatic organisms may experience toxic effects from exposure to dissolved and particulate aluminium. Therefore, the current study reports the geochemical controls such as speciation, precipitation and adsorption that influence the exposure to these aluminium forms in the field and the laboratory.

 
    | Supplementary Material (347 KB)
 

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Synthesis, characterisation and aquatic ecotoxicity of the UV filter hexyl 2-(4-diethylamino-2-hydroxybenzoyl)benzoate (DHHB) and its chlorinated by-products 
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Gorica Grbović , Olga Malev , Darko Dolenc , Roberta Sauerborn Klobučar , Želimira Cvetković , Bruno Cvetković , Branimir Jovančićević and Polonca Trebše
pp. 119-126

Environmental context. Various UV-filtering chemicals are added to sunscreens in order to protect humans from the harmful effects of the sun. As a consequence of disinfection processes in swimming pools, sunscreen components may be chlorinated and change their structure and properties, leading to derivatives with higher toxicity. The safety of sunscreen components as well as that of their transformation products during their use requires further study.

 
    | Supplementary Material (625 KB)
 

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Biogeochemistry of dimethylsulfoniopropionate, dimethylsulfide and acrylic acid in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea during autumn 
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Yue Liu , Chun-Ying Liu , Gui-Peng Yang , Hong-Hai Zhang and Sheng-hui Zhang
pp. 127-139

Environmental context. Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a climatically important biogenic trace gas that is emitted from oceans. This research focuses on the spatiotemporal distributions of DMS and its related compounds, i.e. dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and acrylic acid (AA), and the influencing factors in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea during autumn. In addition, the sea-to-air flux of DMS, kinetic responses of DMSP consumption as well as DMS and AA production are also investigated. This study is helpful in understanding the marine sulfur cycle in marginal seas in China.

 
    | Supplementary Material (618 KB)
 

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Determination of cupric ion concentrations in marine waters: an improved procedure and comparison with other speciation methods 
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Tara N. Tait , Lisa M. Rabson , Rachael L. Diamond , Christopher A. Cooper , James C. McGeer and D. Scott Smith
pp. 140-148

A Cu ion-selective electrode is potentially an excellent tool for cupric ion measurements in salt water, but it is prone to poor reproducibility. We show that dramatic improvements can be obtained by using a Cu ion-selective electrode and a one-point calibration method that corrects for electrode fouling. The method shows promise to be used to collect data on toxic cupric ion concentrations in saltwater environments.

 
    | Supplementary Material (452 KB)
 

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Bioaccumulation trends of arsenic and antimony in a freshwater ecosystem affected by mine drainage 
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Meghan A. Dovick , Thomas R. Kulp , Robert S. Arkle and David S. Pilliod
pp. 149-159

Environmental context. The food web behaviours of As and Sb are poorly understood. We compare As and Sb bioaccumulation in a contaminated freshwater ecosystem. Metalloid accumulation decreased with increasing trophic level. Bioprecipitated minerals in microbial mats represent a direct route of uptake (by ingestion) of metalloids to tadpoles, which contained the highest concentrations ever reported. We demonstrate food web bioaccumulation, but not biomagification, of As and Sb. We also report an unexpectedly high tolerance of tadpoles to metalloid toxicity.

 
  
 

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Copper and zinc aging in soils for a decade: changes in metal extractability and phytotoxicity 
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Murray B. McBride and Meifang Cai
pp. 160-167

Environmental context. Trace metal toxicities to soils and plants depend on residence time in soils, a poorly understood phenomenon termed ‘aging’. Our research aimed to better understand long-term aging by measuring the solubility and toxicity of copper and zinc over a 10-year period after their addition to soils as soluble salts. We determined that, while metal solubility and toxicity did decrease in a decade, the highest levels of added metals (200 and 400 mg kg–1) still had toxic effects on soybeans.

 
  
 

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Derivation of ecological standards for risk assessment of molybdate in soil 
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Koen Oorts , Erik Smolders , Steve P. McGrath , Cornelis A.M. van Gestel , Michael J. McLaughlin and Sandra Carey
pp. 168-180

Environmental context. In order to assess the potential risks of elevated molybdenum concentrations in soil due to anthropogenic activities, toxicity thresholds must be known and environmental criteria defined. Setting such criteria for metals is not straightforward because of varying natural background concentrations and differences in toxicity between typical laboratory and field conditions and across soil types. Toxicity data and models were derived that account for these parameters so that soil quality criteria can be derived based on total molybdenum concentrations in soil.

   | Supplementary Material (236 KB)  |        Open Access Article
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    EN15192  Accepted 05 February 2016
    Integrated 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis of earthworm responses to sub-lethal Pb exposure
    Ting Chen, Yan Liu, Ming-Hui Li, Hua-Dong Xu, Ji-Yang Sheng, Li Zhang, Jun-Song Wang
    Abstract


    EN15256  Accepted 26 January 2016
    Hydroxyl Radical Formation from Bacteria-Assisted Fenton Chemistry at Neutral pH Under Environmentally-Relevant Conditions
    Jarod Grossman, Tara Kahan
    Abstract


    EN15065  Accepted 12 January 2016
    Characterization of suspended particulate matter in the Rhone River: Insights into analogue selection
    Danielle Slomberg, Patrick Ollivier, Olivier Radakovitch, Nicole Baran, Nicole Sani-Kast, Hélène Miche, Daniel Borschneck, Olivier Grauby, Auguste Bruchet, Martin Scheringer, Jerome Labille
    Abstract


    EN15237  Accepted 05 January 2016
    Oxidation products of alpha- and beta-amyrins: potential tracers of abiotic degradation of vascular plant organic matter in aquatic environments
    Marie-Aimée Galeron, Frederic Vaultier, Jean-François Rontani
    Abstract


    EN14247  Accepted 17 December 2015
    Arsinothricin, a novel organoarsenic species produced by a rice rhizosphere bacterium
    Masato Kuramata, Futa Sakakibara, Ryota Kataoka, Kenichi Yamazaki, Koji Baba, Masumi Ishizaka, Syuntaro Hiradate, Tsunashi Kamo, Satoru Ishikawa
    Abstract


    EN15139  Accepted 16 December 2015
    From the Environment to the NMR: Water suppression for Whole Samples in their Native State
    Hussain Masoom, Antonio Adamo, Andre Simpson
    Abstract


    EN15145  Accepted 01 December 2015
    Haloform Formation in Coastal Wetlands along a Salinity Gradient at South Carolina, United States
    Jun-Jian Wang, Yi Jiao, Robert Rhew, Alex Chow
    Abstract


    EN15107  Accepted 26 November 2015
    THE EFFECT OF pH, ORGANIC LIGAND CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY ON THE SORPTION OF BERYLLIUM OVER TIME
    Vanessa Boschi, Jane Willenbring
    Abstract


    EN15205  Accepted 23 November 2015
    When are metal complexes bioavailable?
    Chun-Mei Zhao, Peter Campbell, Kevin Wilkinson
    Abstract


9


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 22 May 2015
Chemical and bioanalytical assessment of coal seam gas associated water

Janet Y. M. Tang, Mauricio Taulis, Jacinta Edebeli, Frederic D. L. Leusch, Paul Jagals, Gregory P. Jackson and Beate I. Escher

2. Published 25 September 2015
Marine microplastic-associated biofilms – a review

Sonja Oberbeckmann, Martin G. J. Löder and Matthias Labrenz

3. Published 25 September 2015
Adsorption of trace metals by microplastic pellets in fresh water

Andrew Turner and Luke A. Holmes

4. Published 25 March 2015
Use of diffusive gradients in thin-films for studies of chemical speciation and bioavailability

Hao Zhang and William Davison

5. Published 4 January 2016
First national-scale reconnaissance of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams across the USA

Michelle L. Hladik and Dana W. Kolpin

6. Published 25 September 2015
Beyond the ocean: contamination of freshwater ecosystems with (micro-)plastic particles

Rachid Dris, Hannes Imhof, Wilfried Sanchez, Johnny Gasperi, François Galgani, Bruno Tassin and Christian Laforsch

7. Published 25 March 2015
Measurement of labile arsenic speciation in water and soil using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES)

Trang Huynh, Hugh H. Harris, Hao Zhang and Barry N. Noller

8. Published 25 September 2015
Microplastic contamination in an urban area: a case study in Greater Paris

Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi, Vincent Rocher, Mohamed Saad, Nicolas Renault and Bruno Tassin

9. Published 25 September 2015
Questions of size and numbers in environmental research on microplastics: methodological and conceptual aspects

Montserrat Filella

10. Published 25 September 2015
Characterisation of microplastics and toxic chemicals extracted from microplastic samples from the North Pacific Gyre

Lorena M. Rios Mendoza and Patrick R. Jones

11. Published 25 September 2015
Focal plane array detector-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging for the analysis of microplastics in environmental samples

Martin Günter Joachim Löder, Mirco Kuczera, Svenja Mintenig, Claudia Lorenz and Gunnar Gerdts

12. Published 25 March 2015
Interpretation of heavy metal speciation in sequential extraction using geochemical modelling

Yanshan Cui and Liping Weng

13. Published 25 September 2015
Plastic pollution in Swiss surface waters: nature and concentrations, interaction with pollutants

Florian Faure, Colin Demars, Olivier Wieser, Manuel Kunz and Luiz Felippe de Alencastro

14. Published 4 January 2016
Distributions of neonicotinoid insecticides in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: a temporal and spatial variation analysis for pollen and honey samples

Chensheng (Alex) Lu, Chi-Hsuan Chang, Lin Tao and Mei Chen

15. Published 22 May 2015
Current perspective on produced water management challenges during hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas recovery

Kelvin Gregory and Arvind Murali Mohan

16. Published 27 July 2015
A recent survey of naturally occurring organohalogen compounds

Gordon W. Gribble

17. Published 22 May 2015
In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a hydraulic fracturing fluid

Madeleine E. Payne, Heather F. Chapman, Janet Cumming and Frederic D. L. Leusch

18. Published 25 March 2015
Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles under natural freshwater conditions

Niksa Odzak, David Kistler, Renata Behra and Laura Sigg

19. Published 25 March 2015
Degradation of oxytetracycline in the aquatic environment: a proposed steady state kinetic model that takes into account hydrolysis, photolysis, microbial degradation and adsorption by colloidal and sediment particles

Mark F. Zaranyika, Pamhidzai Dzomba and Jameson Kugara

20. Published 19 November 2015
Interaction of humic acids with soil minerals: adsorption and surface aggregation induced by Ca2+

Nanci Kloster and Marcelo Avena


      
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