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Environmental Chemistry publishes papers reporting chemistry that enhances our understanding of the environment including air, water, soil, sediments, and biota. More

Editor-in-Chief: Kevin Francesconi


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Published online 17 February 2015
Measurement of labile arsenic speciation in water and soil using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) 
Trang Huynh, Hugh H. Harris, Hao Zhang and Barry N. Noller

Environmental context. Both inorganic and organic arsenic species are toxic to the environment when labile. The Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films technique, equipped with ferrihydrite binding gel enables measurement of labile arsenic species from water and soil solutions. This study indicated that labile arsenic species are quantitatively adsorbed to the gel, and that they are stable for up to 2 weeks following deployment.

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    | Supplementary Material (528 KB)
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Published online 17 February 2015
Comparative characterisation of two fulvic acids from East Lake and Liangzi Lake in central China 
Jun Wang, Huijie Li, Yong Chen, Yuan Fang, Zongping Wang, Tao Tao and Yuegang Zuo

Environmental context. Fulvic acids account for a large proportion of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments and affect the transportation and bioavailability of organic and inorganic pollutants. The structural and spectroscopic characteristics of fulvic acids mainly depend on the sources, seasons and anthropogenic activity. We present an advanced approach using fluorescence spectroscopy as a rapid and cost-effective method to investigate the composition, properties and origins of fulvic acids.

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Published online 17 February 2015
Metal ion complexation by soft nanoparticles: the effect of Ca2+ on electrostatic and chemical contributions to the Eigen-type reaction rate 
Raewyn M. Town

Environmental context. The speciation of trace metals in the environment is often dominated by complexation with natural organic matter such as humic acid. Humic acid is a negatively charged soft nanoparticle and its electrostatic properties play an important role in its reactivity with metal ions. The presence of major cations, such as Ca2+, can decrease the effective negative charge in the humic acid particle body and thus modify the chemodynamics of its interactions with trace metal ions.

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Published online 27 January 2015
Degradation of oxytetracycline in the aquatic environment: a proposed steady state kinetic model that takes into account hydrolysis, photolysis, microbial degradation and adsorption by colloidal and sediment particles 
Mark F. Zaranyika, Pamhidzai Dzomba and Jameson Kugara

Environmental context. Pollution of the aquatic environment by oxytetracycline can lead to microbial resistance thereby compromising the efficacy of current medication regimes. Adsorption by colloidal and sediment particles reduces the rate at which oxytetracycline degrades, whereas the longer the antimicrobial remains in the aquatic environment, the greater the danger of microbial resistance. There is need therefore for a fuller understanding of the kinetics of degradation of oxytetracycline in aquatic ecosystems before measures for mitigating pollution by the antimicrobial can be designed.

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Published online 07 January 2015
Interpretation of heavy metal speciation in sequential extraction using geochemical modelling 
Yanshan Cui and Liping Weng

Environmental context. Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide environmental concern, and the risk depends not only on their total concentration, but also on their chemical speciation. Based on state-of-the-art geochemical modelling, we pinpoint the heavy metal pools approached by the widely used sequential extraction method. The finding of this paper can help users of sequential extraction methods to better interpret their results.

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    | Supplementary Material (764 KB)
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Published online 08 December 2014
Chemical and bioanalytical assessment of coal seam gas associated water 
Janet Y. M. Tang, Mauricio Taulis, Jacinta Edebeli, Frederic D. L. Leusch, Paul Jagals, Gregory P. Jackson and Beate I. Escher

Environmental context. Water associated with coal seam gas is generally of poor quality and thus its management and potential further usage is a subject of concern. In a comprehensive study involving chemical and bioanalytical assessments of coal seam gas associated water, we found that less than 5 % of the biological effects could be explained by chemical analysis. The use of bioanalytical tools to complement chemical analysis is recommended for monitoring the quality of water associated with coal seam gas.

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Published online 05 December 2014
Interpretation of diffusion gradients in thin films (DGT) measurements: a systematic approach 
Josep Galceran and Jaume Puy

Environmental context. Dynamic speciation of an element in a natural medium is essential for understanding its availability. The technique of diffusion gradients in thin films (DGT) has become a widely used tool for in situ environmental studies, being applied to determine fluxes of metal cations, anions, organics and nanoparticles. The interpretation of the measurements with suitable physicochemical models gives valuable insights into the behaviour of the system.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles under natural freshwater conditions 
Niksa Odzak, David Kistler, Renata Behra and Laura Sigg

Environmental context. Engineered nanomaterials (e.g. silver, zinc oxide and copper oxide) are being widely used in many consumer products such are cosmetics, food packaging and textiles. During their usage and treatment, they will be released to natural waters and partly dissolve, depending on the water type and nanomaterial characteristics. These nanomaterials may thus have some toxic effects to aquatic organisms and indirectly to humans because of higher concentrations of dissolved silver, zinc and copper in natural waters.

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    | Supplementary Material (508 KB)
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Published online 05 September 2014
Voltammetric study of an FeS layer on a Hg electrode in supersaturated FeS chloride solution 
D. Krznarić and I. Ciglenečki

Environmental context. During the electrochemical analysis of natural waters, the Hg electrode could become the site for surface metal sulfide formation, such as FeS, which can have significant influence on the voltammetric determination of FeII. Reduction of FeII in such conditions can occur both on the bare Hg surface and on the FeS-modified Hg surface. Until recently, measurements of FeII have considered only the signal obtained from reduction on the bare Hg surface, and hence may have underdetermined the true FeII content of natural samples.

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Published online 08 August 2014
In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a hydraulic fracturing fluid 
Madeleine E. Payne, Heather F. Chapman, Janet Cumming and Frederic D. L. Leusch

Environmental context. Hydraulic fracturing fluids, used in large volumes by the coal seam gas mining industry, are potentially present in the environment either in underground formations or in mine wastewater (produced water). Previous studies of the human health and environmental effects of this practice have been limited because they use only desktop methods and have not considered combined mixture toxicity. We use a novel in vitro method for toxicity assessment, and describe the toxicity of a hydraulic fracturing fluid on a human gastrointestinal cell line.

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Published online 20 June 2014
Microbial fuel cells under extreme salinity: performance and microbial analysis 
Oihane Monzon, Yu Yang, Cong Yu, Qilin Li and Pedro J. J. Alvarez

Environmental context. The treatment of extremely saline, high-strength wastewaters while producing electricity represents a great opportunity to mitigate environmental effects and recover resources associated with wastes from shale oil and gas production. This paper demonstrates that extreme halophilic microbes can produce electricity at salinity up to 3- to 7-fold higher than sea water.

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blank image Environmental Chemistry
Volume 12 Number 1 2015
RESEARCH FRONT: Mineral–Organic Interactions in Aqueous Systems

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Foreword to the Research Front on ‘Mineral–Organic Interactions in Aqueous Systems’ 
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Jon Chorover
pp. i-ii

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Ligand- and oxygen-isotope-exchange pathways of geochemical interest 
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William H. Casey
pp. 1-19

Environmental context. Most chemical processes in water are either ligand- or electron-exchange reactions. Here the general reactivity trends for ligand-exchange reactions in aqueous solutions are reviewed and it is shown that simple rules dominate the chemistry. These simple rules shed light on most molecular processes in water, including the uptake and degradation of pesticides, the sequestration of toxic metals and the corrosion of minerals.


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Geochemical reaction mechanism discovery from molecular simulation 
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Andrew G. Stack and Paul R. C. Kent
pp. 20-32

Environmental context. Computational simulations are providing an increasingly useful way to isolate specific geochemical and environmental reactions and to test how important they are to the overall rate. In this review, we summarise a few ways that one can simulate a reaction and discuss each technique’s overall strengths and weaknesses. Selected case studies illustrate how these techniques have helped to improve our understanding for geochemical and environmental problems.


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Oxidation of CrIII aminocarboxylate complexes by hydrous manganese oxide: products and time course behaviour 
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Richard F. Carbonaro and Alan T. Stone
pp. 33-51

Environmental context. Oxidation of CrIII (trivalent chromium) to CrVI (hexavalent chromium) is of environmental concern because CrVI is a known mutagen and carcinogen. Our results show that hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) is capable of oxidising soluble CrIII complexed with iminodiacetic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid to CrVI at appreciable rates. CrVI production from soluble CrIII organic complexes is therefore expected to occur in natural and engineered systems that contain HMO.

    | Supplementary Material (271 KB)

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FeIIaq–FeIIIoxide electron transfer and Fe exchange: effect of organic carbon 
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Timothy Pasakarnis , Michael L. McCormick , Gene F. Parkin , Aaron Thompson and Michelle M. Scherer
pp. 52-63

Environmental context. Concerns about carbon-driven climate change make it critical to better understand how carbon interacts with soils. We examined whether carbon compounds commonly found in soils affect the behaviour of soil iron minerals, and found that iron minerals remain dynamic and mix with the surrounding water, despite the presence of carbon in the water. Our findings suggest that both carbon and trace elements in the minerals may be more mobile and less stable than we previously thought.

    | Supplementary Material (392 KB)

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Multi-elemental scanning transmission X-ray microscopy–near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy assessment of organo–mineral associations in soils from reduced environments 
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Chunmei Chen and Donald L. Sparks
pp. 64-73

Environmental context. Organo–mineral associations represent a fundamental process for stabilising organic carbon in soils. In this study, we employed scanning transmission X-ray microscopy–near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (STXM-NEXAFS) spectroscopy at C, Al and Si K-edges as well as Ca and Fe L-edges to conduct submicrometre-level investigations of the associations of C with mineral components in soils from reduced environments. This study provides the first insights into organo–mineral associations in reduced environments and shows progress towards examining, at the submicrometre level, compositional chemistry and associative interactions between organic matter and soil mineral components.

    | Supplementary Material (411 KB)

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Adsorption of novel insensitive munitions compounds at clay mineral and metal oxide surfaces 
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Billy R. Linker , Raju Khatiwada , Nico Perdrial , Leif Abrell , Reyes Sierra-Alvarez , James A. Field and Jon Chorover
pp. 74-84

Environmental context. Insensitive munitions compounds are increasingly used in the manufacture of military energetic materials because of their lower unintentional explosion risk during transport and handling. The current study was designed to better resolve the environmental chemistry of two of these insensitive munitions compounds. In particular, we investigated the solid–solution partitioning that occurs when aqueous solutions containing dissolved unexploded ordinances come into contact with soil mineral media.


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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    EN14229  Accepted 02 March 2015
    Environmental effects on arsenosugars and arsenolipids in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyta)
    Asta Petursdottir, Kyle Fletcher, Helga Gunnlaugsdottir, Eva Krupp, Frithjof Kuepper, Jorg Feldmann

    EN14240  Accepted 02 March 2015
    Iron-Catalyzed Oxidation and Halogenation of Organic Matter in Nature
    Peter Comba, Marion Kerscher, Torsten Krause, Heinz Schöler

    EN14233  Accepted 01 March 2015
    Voltammetric tools for trace element speciation in freshwaters: methodologies, outcomes and future perspectives
    Damiano Monticelli, Salvatore Caprara

    EN14218  Accepted 01 March 2015
    Plastic pollution in Swiss surface waters: nature and concentrations, interaction with pollutants
    Florian Faure, Colin Demars, Olivier Wieser, Manuel Kunz, Luiz de Alencastro

    EN15002  Accepted 17 February 2015
    A Recent Survey of Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds
    Gordon Gribble

    EN14094  Accepted 18 February 2015
    Phosphorus and arsenic distributions in a seasonally-stratified, iron- and manganese-rich lake: microbiological and geochemical controls
    Adam Hartland, Martin Andersen, David Hamilton

    EN14223  Accepted 16 February 2015
    Dissolution of mixed amorphous-crystalline Cd-containing Fe coprecipitates in the presence of common organic ligands
    Carla Rosenfeld, Carmen Martinez

    EN14157  Accepted 16 February 2015
    Interaction of humic acids with soil minerals. Adsorption and surface aggregation induced by Ca2+
    Nanci Kloster, Marcelo Avena

    EN14215  Accepted 08 February 2015
    Effect of fluctuating oxygen concentration on iron oxidation at the pelagic ferrocline of a meromictic lake
    Jenny Bravidor, Julika Kreling, Andreas Lorke, Matthias Koschorreck

    EN14205  Accepted 05 February 2015
    FPA-based micro-FTIR imaging for the analysis of microplastics in environmental samples
    Martin Löder, Mirco Kuczera, Svenja Mintenig, Claudia Lorenz, Gunnar Gerdts

    EN14150  Accepted 31 January 2015
    Formation of PAH-quinonesduring the gas phase reactions of PAHs with the OH radical in the atmosphere
    Ji Yi Lee, Douglas Lane, Yong Pyo Kim

    EN14204  Accepted 29 January 2015
    Dynamics of halocarbons in coastal surface waters during short term mesocosm experiments
    Anna Orlikowska, Christian Stolle, Falk Pollehne, Klaus Jürgens, Detlef Schulz-Bull

    EN14236  Accepted 29 January 2015
    Characterization of Microplastics and Toxic Species Extracted from the Microplastic Samples from the North Pacific Gyre Collection Sites.
    Lorena Rios Mendoza, Patrick Jones

    EN14243  Accepted 22 January 2015
    Methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface sediments from the southern Yellow Sea: Spatial distribution and potential producer
    Ying Fan, Jing Lan, Jiaokai Wang, Zongshan Zhao, Meixun Zhao, Guibin Jiang

    EN14176  Accepted 20 January 2015
    Change in Chirality of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Can Overcome Anionic Surfactant Stabilization: A Systematic Study of Aggregation Kinetics
    Iftheker Khan, Joseph Flora, A. R. M. Afrooz, Nirupam Aich, Ariette Schierz, P Ferguson, Tara Sabo-Attwood, Navid Saleh

    EN14194  Accepted 18 January 2015
    Hydrocarbons in a coral reef ecosystem subjected to anthropogenic pressures (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean)
    Catherine Guigue, Lionel Bigot, Jean Turquet, Marc Tedetti, Nicolas Ferretto, Madeleine Goutx, Pascale Cuet

    EN14167  Accepted 07 January 2015
    Microplastic contamination in an urban area: a case study in Greater Paris
    Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi, Vicent Rocher, Mohamed Saad, Nicolas Renault, Bruno Tassin

    EN14225  Accepted 02 January 2015
    New particle formation above a simulated salt lake in aerosol chamber experiments
    Katharina Kamilli, Johannes Ofner, Bernhard Lendl, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Andreas Held

    EN14202  Accepted 23 December 2014
    Halogenated hydrocarbon formation in a moderately acidic salt lake in Western Australia – role of abiotic and biotic processes
    Alexander Ruecker, Pascal Weigold, Sebastian Behrens, Maik Jochmann, Xochitli Osorio, Andreas Kappler

    EN14186  Accepted 23 December 2014
    Characteristics, seasonality and sources of inorganic ions and trace metals in Northeast Asian aerosols
    Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Kimitaka Kawamura, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Pingqing Fu

    EN14154  Accepted 23 December 2014
    Exploring the seasonal NMHC distribution in an urban area of the Middle East during ECOCEM campaigns: very high loadings dominated by local emissions and dynamics
    Thérèse Salameh, Stéphane Sauvage, Charbel Afif, Agnès Borbon, Thierry Léonardis, Jérôme Brioude, Antoine Waked, Nadine Locoge

    EN14182  Accepted 13 December 2014
    Determination of diffusion coefficients of dissolved organic matter in the Churchill River estuary system, Hudson Bay (Canada).
    Jordan Balch, Celine Guéguen

    EN14141  Accepted 09 December 2014
    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter growth and function in lentic biofilms
    Lawton Shaw, Chuyen Phung, Michael Grace

    EN14143  Accepted 21 November 2014
    Adsorption of trace metals by microplastic pellets in fresh water
    Andrew Turner, Luke Holmes

    EN14181  Accepted 07 November 2014
    Tl(I) and Tl(III) presence in Suspended Particulate Matter: Speciation analysis of thallium in wastewater
    Natalia Ospina-Alvarez, P. Burakiewicz, M. Sadowska, B KrasnodÄ™bska-OstrÄ™ga

    EN14184  Accepted 05 November 2014
    Free Zn2+ determination in natural freshwater of the Pyrenees: towards on-site measurements with AGNES
    Corinne Parat, Laurent Authier, Alain Castetbon, David Aguilar, Encarna Companys, Jaume Puy, Josep Galceran

    EN14185  Accepted 30 October 2014
    Source identification of atmospheric particle-bound metals at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica
    Andrea Bazzano, Francesco Soggia, Marco Grotti

    EN14138  Accepted 22 October 2014
    Hydroxyl Radical Initiated Oxidation of Formic Acid on Mineral Aerosols Surface. A Mechanistic, Kinetic and Spectroscopic Study
    Cristina Iuga, Claro SAINZ-DIAZ, Annik Vivier-Bunge

    EN14105  Accepted 22 October 2014
    Use of DGT for studies of chemical speciation and bioavailability
    Hao Zhang, William Davison

    EN14124  Accepted 17 October 2014
    The formation and fate of organoarsenic species in marine ecosystems: Do existing experimental approaches appropriately simulate ecosystem complexity?
    Elliott Duncan, Bill Maher, Simon Foster

    EN14126  Accepted 08 October 2014
    Characterising sediments of a tropical sediment-starved continental shelf using cluster analysis of physical and geochemical variables
    Lynda Radke, Jin Li, Grant Douglas, Rachel Przeslawski, Scott Nichol, Justy Siwabessy, Zhi Huang, Janice Trafford, Tony Watson, Tanya Whiteway

    EN14129  Accepted 25 September 2014
    Characterization of Oil Contaminated Soils via Comprehensive Multiphase NMR
    Hashim Farooq, Denis Courtier-Murias, Myrna Simpson, Werner Maas, Michael Fey, Brian Andrew, Jochem Struppe, Howard Hutchins, Sridevi Krishnamurthy, Rajeev Kumar, Martine Monette, Henry Stronks, Andre Simpson

    EN14093  Accepted 16 September 2014
    Reversible exchange of stable nitroxyl radicals on nanosilver particles
    Mark Chappell, Lesley Miller, Cynthia Price


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 25 August 2014
Observations and assessment of iron oxide and green rust nanoparticles in metal-polluted mine drainage within a steep redox gradient

Carol A. Johnson, Gina Freyer, Maria Fabisch, Manuel A. Caraballo, Kirsten Küsel and Michael F. Hochella

2. Published 24 June 2014
Aquatic toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials: challenges and recommendations for future toxicity testing

Aaron G. Schultz, David Boyle, Danuta Chamot, Kimberly J. Ong, Kevin J. Wilkinson, James C. McGeer, Geoff Sunahara and Greg G. Goss

3. Published 28 April 2014
A critical look at the calculation of the binding characteristics and concentration of iron complexing ligands in seawater with suggested improvements

Loes J. A. Gerringa, Micha J. A. Rijkenberg, Charles-Edouard Thuróczy and Leo R. M. Maas

4. Published 28 April 2014
Metal complexation by organic ligands (L) in near-pristine estuarine waters: evidence for the identity of L

Hollydawn Murray, Guillaume Meunier, Dagmar B. Stengel and Rachel Cave

5. Published 24 June 2014
Speciation mapping of environmental samples using XANES imaging

Barbara E. Etschmann, Erica Donner, Joël Brugger, Daryl L. Howard, Martin D. de Jonge, David Paterson, Ravi Naidu, Kirk G. Scheckel, Chris G. Ryan and Enzo Lombi

6. Published 24 June 2014
The influence of particle size and structure on the sorption and oxidation behaviour of birnessite: II. Adsorption and oxidation of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Mario Villalobos, Manuel Carrillo-Cárdenas, Richard Gibson, N. Ruth López-Santiago and Jimmy A. Morales

7. Published 24 June 2014
A micro-sized model for the in vivo study of nanoparticle toxicity: what has Caenorhabditis elegans taught us?

Jinhee Choi, Olga V. Tsyusko, Jason M. Unrine, Nivedita Chatterjee, Jeong-Min Ahn, Xinyu Yang, B. Lila Thornton, Ian T. Ryde, Daniel Starnes and Joel N. Meyer

8. Published 25 August 2014
Separation, detection and characterisation of engineered nanoparticles in natural waters using hydrodynamic chromatography and multi-method detection (light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and single particle ICP-MS)

Kim Proulx and Kevin J. Wilkinson

9. Published 28 April 2014
Labilities of aqueous nanoparticulate metal complexes in environmental speciation analysis

Raewyn M. Town and Herman P. van Leeuwen

10. Published 25 August 2014
Current status and future direction for examining engineered nanoparticles in natural systems

Manuel D. Montaño, Gregory V. Lowry, Frank von der Kammer, Julie Blue and James F. Ranville

11. Published 24 June 2014
Isotopically modified silver nanoparticles to assess nanosilver bioavailability and toxicity at environmentally relevant exposures

Marie-Noële Croteau, Agnieszka D. Dybowska, Samuel N. Luoma, Superb K. Misra and Eugenia Valsami-Jones

12. Published 24 June 2014
Nanoparticle core properties affect attachment of macromolecule-coated nanoparticles to silica surfaces

Ernest M. Hotze, Stacey M. Louie, Shihong Lin, Mark R. Wiesner and Gregory V. Lowry

13. Published 25 August 2014
Analysis of soil organic matter at the solid–water interface by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Stephanie C. Genest, Myrna J. Simpson, André J. Simpson, Ronald Soong and David J. McNally

14. Published 25 August 2014
The persistence and transformation of silver nanoparticles in littoral lake mesocosms monitored using various analytical techniques

Lindsay M. Furtado, Md Ehsanul Hoque, Denise M. Mitrano, James F. Ranville, Beth Cheever, Paul C. Frost, Marguerite A. Xenopoulos, Holger Hintelmann and Chris D. Metcalfe

15. Published 25 August 2014
Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: a comparative screening study of their occurrence, formation of phototransformation products and their in vitro toxicity

Marlies Bergheim, Richard Gminski, Bernd Spangenberg, Malgorzata Dębiak, Alexander Bürkle, Volker Mersch-Sundermann, Klaus Kümmerer and Reto Gieré

16. Published 28 January 2015
Multi-elemental scanning transmission X-ray microscopy–near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy assessment of organo–mineral associations in soils from reduced environments

Chunmei Chen and Donald L. Sparks

17. Published 3 October 2014
Arsenic mobility and toxicity in South and South-east Asia – a review on biogeochemistry, health and socio-economic effects, remediation and risk predictions

E. Marie Muehe and Andreas Kappler

18. Published 28 April 2014
Voltammetric characterisation of macroalgae-exuded organic ligands (L) in response to Cu and Zn: a source and stimuli for L

Hollydawn Murray, Guillaume Meunier, Constant M. G. van den Berg, Rachel R. Cave and Dagmar B. Stengel

19. Published 24 June 2014
Bioavailability and toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials

Jason M. Unrine, Jamie Lead and Kevin J. Wilkinson

20. Published 28 April 2014
Lead electrochemical speciation analysis in seawater media by using AGNES and SSCP techniques

Margarita Díaz-de-Alba, M. Dolores Galindo-Riaño and José Paulo Pinheiro

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