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Environmental Chemistry publishes papers reporting chemistry that enhances our understanding of the environment including air, water, soil, sediments, and biota. More

Editor-in-Chief: Kevin Francesconi

 
 
 

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Published online 09 May 2016
Soluble secondary minerals of antimony in Pezinok and Kremnica (Slovakia) and the question of mobility or immobility of antimony in mine waters 
Juraj Majzlan, Martin Števko and Tomáš Lánczos

Environmental context. Antimony enters the environment from tailings and mines but there are widely divergent statements about its mobility in the environment. This work addresses the question of mobility of Sb by a combination of mineralogical and geochemical studies.

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Published online 05 May 2016
Arsenic adsorption onto aluminium-substituted goethite 
Ana E. Tufo, María dos Santos Afonso and Elsa E. Sileo

Environmental context. Goethite, commonly found in soils, is often partially substituted by Al and strongly influences the mobility of arsenic in the environment. The adsorption of AsV onto goethites with increasing Al substitution was explored, finding that Al incorporation decreases AsV sorption per gram of adsorbent, and that a low level of Al incorporation enhances the adsorption per unit area. Structures of the complexes formed between AsV and the oxy(hydr)oxide surface, at different pH values, are proposed by studying the changes in the surface charges of the adsorbed and non-adsorbed substituted and non-substituted goethites.

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    | Supplementary Material (820 KB)
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Published online 26 April 2016
Mass dependent processes can generate an isotope anomaly: the effect of ordinary diffusion on Δ17O in solids 
Laura Donatella Campisi

Environmental context. The nitrate oxygen isotope anomaly has been suggested as a tool for quantifying the atmospheric input of this essential nutrient to terrestrial environments. However, it is calculated that the most important transport process in minerals, diffusion, may also be responsible for measurable anomalies. The signal in Chilean nitrate minerals could be associated with diffusion during crystal growth so the belief that the nitrate is of atmospheric origin is therefore questioned.

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    | Supplementary Material (364 KB)
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Published online 26 April 2016
Parallel responses of human epidermal keratinocytes to inorganic SbIII and AsIII 
Marjorie A. Phillips, Angela Cánovas, Pei-Wen Wu, Alma Islas-Trejo, Juan F. Medrano and Robert H. Rice

Environmental context. Increasing commercial use of antimony is raising its environmental presence and thus possible effects on humans and ecosystems. An important uncertainty is the risk that exposure poses for biological systems. The present work explores the similarity in response of human epidermal keratinocytes, a known target cell type, to antimony and arsenic, where deleterious consequences of exposure to the latter are better known.

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Published online 12 April 2016
Neuropsychiatric pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater treatment plants: a review 
Alexandros G. Asimakopoulos and Kurunthachalam Kannan

Environmental context. Neuropsychiatric pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewaters are of increasing environmental concern. We compile the recent literature and evaluate the concentrations and profiles of various drugs and their removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants. The sewage epidemiology approach, used in the estimation of drug usage in communities, is discussed, and we make recommendations for future research in this area.

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Published online 07 April 2016
Spatiotemporal redox dynamics in a freshwater lake sediment under alternating oxygen availabilities: combined analyses of dissolved and particulate electron acceptors 
Maximilian P. Lau, Michael Sander, Jörg Gelbrecht and Michael Hupfer

Environmental context. At sediment surfaces, the availability of oxygen is controlled by its downward transport from the water surface and its consumption in microbial metabolism. Microorganisms can also consume substances other than oxygen to dispose of the surplus charge that is generated during microbial metabolism. We investigate the complex dynamics of these other substances when the oxygen availability fluctuates, and thereby contribute to the mechanistic understanding of oxygen-consuming processes in aquatic environments.

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Published online 07 April 2016
Organic sulfur and organic matter redox processes contribute to electron flow in anoxic incubations of peat 
Zhi-Guo Yu, Jörg Göttlicher, Ralph Steininger and Klaus-Holger Knorr

Environmental context. The extent to which organic matter decomposition generates carbon dioxide or methane in anaerobic ecosystems is determined by the presence or absence of particular electron acceptors. Evaluating carbon dioxide and methane production in anaerobic incubation of peat, we found that organic matter predominated as an electron acceptor over considered inorganic electron acceptors. We also observed changes in organic sulfur speciation suggesting a contribution of organic sulfur species to the electron-accepting capacity of organic matter.

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    | Supplementary Material (301 KB)
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Published online 29 March 2016
Characterisation of suspended particulate matter in the Rhone River: insights into analogue selection 
Danielle L. Slomberg, Patrick Ollivier, Olivier Radakovitch, Nicole Baran, Nicole Sani-Kast, Hélène Miche, Daniel Borschneck, Olivier Grauby, Auguste Bruchet, Martin Scheringer and Jérôme Labille

Environmental context. The fate and behaviour of pollutants such as pesticides, metals and nanoparticles in natural waters will influence their effects on the environment and human health. Owing to the complexity of natural waters and suspended particulate matter (SPM) that can interact with pollutants, as well as low pollutant concentrations, determination of pollutant fate and transport is non-trivial. Herein, we report a characterisation of the Rhone River chemistry to provide insight into selecting SPM analogues for experimental and modelling approaches.

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Published online 23 March 2016
From the environment to NMR: water suppression for whole samples in their native state 
Hussain Masoom, Antonio Adamo and André J. Simpson

Environmental context. Environmental samples are best analysed in their native state, with minimal sample preparation, to fully understand the complex interactions and processes occurring in environmental systems. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool used to study environmental samples but sample pre-treatment is often required to remove water and improve analysis. We introduce an experimental approach to remove water signals from environmental samples in their natural state, which opens the door to intact sample analysis and more environmentally relevant science.

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Published online 23 March 2016
Integrated 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis of earthworm responses to sub-lethal Pb exposure 
Ting Chen, Yan Liu, Ming-Hui Li, Hua-Dong Xu, Ji-Yang Sheng, Li Zhang and Jun-Song Wang

Heavy metals are non-degradable and are therefore a severe and persistent environmental menace. The toxic effects of Pb were investigated using NMR to determine the metabolic changes in earthworms exposed to Pb. The approach using 1H NMR to analyse earthworm metabolomics demonstrated great potential as a reliable, rapid and convenient tool to assess the toxicity of heavy metals and could be used to identify warning signs of heavy metal contamination of soil.

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    | Supplementary Material (205 KB)
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Published online 22 March 2016
Hydroxyl radical formation from bacteria-assisted Fenton chemistry at neutral pH under environmentally relevant conditions 
Jarod N. Grossman and Tara F. Kahan

Environmental context. Reactions in natural waters such as lakes and streams are thought to be extremely slow in the absence of sunlight (e.g. at night). We demonstrate that in the presence of iron, hydrogen peroxide and certain bacteria (all of which are common in natural waters), certain reactions may occur surprisingly quickly. These findings will help us predict the fate of many compounds, including pollutants, in natural waters at night.

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Published online 02 March 2016
When are metal complexes bioavailable? 
Chun-Mei Zhao, Peter G.C. Campbell and Kevin J. Wilkinson

Environmental context. The concentration of a free metal cation has proved to be a useful predictor of metal bioaccumulation and toxicity, as represented by the free ion activity and biotic ligand models. However, under certain circumstances, metal complexes have been shown to contribute to metal bioavailability. In the current mini-review, we summarise the studies where the classic models fail and organise them into categories based on the different uptake pathways and kinetic processes. Our goal is to define the limits within which currently used models such as the biotic ligand model (BLM) can be applied with confidence, and to identify how these models might be expanded.

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   | Supplementary Material (188 KB)  |        Open Access Article
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Published online 29 February 2016
Oxidation products of α- and β-amyrins: potential tracers of abiotic degradation of vascular-plant organic matter in aquatic environments 
M.-A. Galeron, F. Vaultier and J.-F. Rontani

Environmental context. How can we know what happens to organic matter in aquatic environments? Although several compounds exist that can be used to trace the origin and state of organic matter, not many are sufficiently stable and specific to trace degradation processes, but α- and β-amyrins can fulfil that role. Such knowledge will help us better understand and better quantify carbon fluxes in riverine and marine environments.

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Published online 29 February 2016
Haloform formation in coastal wetlands along a salinity gradient at South Carolina, United States 
Jun-Jian Wang, Yi Jiao, Robert C. Rhew and Alex T. Chow

Environmental context. Natural haloform emissions contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but there are major unknown or underestimated sources of these gases. This study demonstrates that soil and water at tidal wetlands are important haloform sources, and emissions peak at the forest–marsh transition zone. The low-lying forested wetlands of the south-eastern United States that are facing sea-level rise and seawater intrusion may become hotspots for haloform emission.

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    | Supplementary Material (324 KB)
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Published online 29 February 2016
Arsinothricin, a novel organoarsenic species produced by a rice rhizosphere bacterium 
Masato Kuramata, Futa Sakakibara, Ryota Kataoka, Kenichi Yamazaki, Koji Baba, Masumi Ishizaka, Syuntaro Hiradate, Tsunashi Kamo and Satoru Ishikawa

Environmental context. Rice is a major human dietary source of arsenic. We identified a novel organoarsenic species, arsinothricin, produced by a bacterium in the rice rhizosphere. This result suggests diverse biochemical dynamics and microbial biodiversity of arsenic metabolism in the rice rhizosphere.

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Published online 11 February 2016
The effect of pH, organic ligand chemistry and mineralogy on the sorption of beryllium over time 
Vanessa Boschi and Jane K. Willenbring

Environmental context. Beryllium is a toxic environmental contaminant but has many industrial and scientific applications. Our work explores the effects of soil composition on beryllium retention, focussing on organic matter, mineralogy and pH and concludes that phosphorus and sulfur oxides in addition to soil acidity are strong controls on beryllium mobility. These results aid in future predictions regarding the fate of beryllium in the environment.

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Published online 10 February 2016
Secondary organic aerosol formation from ethyne in the presence of NaCl in a smog chamber 
Shuangshuang Ge, Yongfu Xu and Long Jia

Environmental context. Ethyne is the lightest of the non-methane hydrocarbons, whose oxidation product, glyoxal, is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol. This study explores the effects of relative humidity on the formation of secondary organic aerosol under irradiation in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sodium chloride. Results show that relative humidity can enhance aerosol formation, which provides evidence of the contribution of ethyne to organic particles.

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Published online 05 February 2016
Influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) source on copper speciation and toxicity to Brachionus plicatilis 
Tara N. Tait, Christopher A. Cooper, James C. McGeer, Chris M. Wood and D. Scott Smith

Environmental context. Organic matter dissolved in water can mitigate toxic effects of copper, which should be taken into account when estimating risks of copper pollution. The composition of this organic matter, however, can vary widely, and these variations might also need to be taken into account. This work addresses the question of organic matter quality and demonstrates that only the amount and not the source influences copper toxicity – good news for risk analysis because it simplifies predictions of the effects of copper in specific receiving waters.

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    | Supplementary Material (194 KB)
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Published online 05 February 2016
Automatic and predictive fractionation of organic micropollutants in contaminated water 
Marine Brogat, Estelle Baures, Amelie Sellier, Fabien Mercier, Marie Doloy, Olivier Thomas and Benoit Roig

Environmental context. The safeguarding of water supplies and drinking water is a major issue in the consideration of human health risk management. In this context, an automatic and on-site fractionation system for the detection of organic contaminants has been developed. The main goal of this system is to establish an initial diagnosis by identifying a class of substances involved in a case of pollution.

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Published online 27 January 2016
Determination of the free-ion concentration of rare earth elements by an ion-exchange technique: implementation, evaluation and limits 
Sébastien Leguay, Peter G. C. Campbell and Claude Fortin

Environmental context. The lanthanides are a group of heavy elements (from lanthanum to lutetium) increasingly used in many electronic consumer products and little is known about their environmental mobility and toxicity. In natural systems, these elements will bind to natural organic matter but metal toxicity is usually defined by the free metal ion concentration. Here, we propose a method based on sample equilibration with an ion-exchange resin to measure the free lanthanide ion concentration in the presence of natural organic matter.

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Published online 07 January 2016
Photon flux dependence on solute environment in water ices 
Alexander S. McFall and Cort Anastasio

Environmental context. Anthropogenic pollutants deposited in and on snowpacks can undergo many sunlight-driven reactions. These processes have been studied, but typically without measuring the photon flux, the amount of light seen by the reactants, which is needed for comparing results across studies. This work investigates the effects of container albedo, solute location and mechanical ice crushing on the photon flux in laboratory ice samples to understand how these factors might affect photochemical rates.

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    | Supplementary Material (526 KB)
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Published online 04 January 2016
Chromate adsorption from chromite ore processing residue eluates by three Indian soils 
K. Matern and T. Mansfeldt

Environmental context. Chromate (CrO42–)-containing waste is illegally dumped in some places in the state of Uttar Pradesh, north India, although CrO42– is known to be toxic and carcinogenic. Because CrO42– is leached from the landfills, this study investigated the adsorption of CrO42– by soils. The results indicated that CrO42– is highly leachable and adsorption is inhibited, which leads to contamination of the groundwater and drinking water in this area.

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Published online 21 December 2015
Quantification of nitroaromatic compounds in atmospheric fine particulate matter in Hong Kong over 3 years: field measurement evidence for secondary formation derived from biomass burning emissions 
Ka Shing Chow, X. H. Hilda Huang and Jian Zhen Yu

Environmental context. Nitroaromatic compounds constitute an important portion of brown carbon and thereby contribute to the light-absorbing properties of atmospheric aerosols. We report their abundance in Hong Kong over 3 years and show that they were mainly associated with aged biomass burning particles. Knowledge of the abundance and sources of nitroaromatic compounds could assist in evaluating their contribution to brown carbon and in apportioning secondary organic aerosols from biomass burning sources.

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Published online 18 December 2015
Long-term responses in soil solution and stream-water chemistry at Hubbard Brook after experimental addition of wollastonite 
Shuai Shao, Charles T. Driscoll, Chris E. Johnson, Timothy J. Fahey, John J. Battles and Joel D. Blum

Environmental context. Calcium silicate was added to a forest watershed in New Hampshire, USA, to accelerate its recovery from acid rain. The acid–base status of soil and stream quality improved over the 12-year study, with the most pronounced response in the upper elevation and the upper soil of the watershed. A total of 95 % of the added calcium and 87 % of the added silica were retained in the watershed over the study period.

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Published online 18 December 2015
Enantioselective determination of ibuprofen residues by chiral liquid chromatography: a systematic study of enantiomeric transformation in surface water and sediments 
María Eugenia León-González and Noelia Rosales-Conrado

Environmental context. Ibuprofen, a common anti-inflammatory drug and one of many pharmaceuticals sold as a mixture of enantiomers, has recently been found in river and surface waters. There are, however, few analytical methods able to separate and accurately measure ibuprofen enantiomers in environmental matrices. This study reports a method for quantifying ibuprofen enantiomers in sediments and surface water, and applies it to shed light on the degradation and fate of the enantiomers in aquatic systems.

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Published online 18 December 2015
Relationship of arsenic speciation and bioavailability in mine wastes for human health risk assessment 
Violet Diacomanolis, Barry N. Noller, Raijeli Taga, Hugh H. Harris, Jade B. Aitken and Jack C. Ng

Environmental context. X-Ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was applied to give arsenic chemical forms directly in the solid phase of mine wastes from two mine sites, including fluvial dispersion. The arsenic speciation data explained the variation of in vitro bioaccessibility and in vivo bioavailability (rat uptake) data of the mine wastes. The As speciation from XANES fitting supported the hypothesis that when soil intake is adjusted for bioaccessibility, the potential health risk estimate to local residents is significantly lower.

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Published online 15 December 2015
Changes in terrestrial organic matter and pollutant input to the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea, during the past century 
Xiaoyong Duan, Yanxia Li, Xianguo Li, Yi Gao and Dahai Zhang

Environmental context. The concentrations of n-alkanes, phthalates and alkylphenols in a dated sediment core from the Yangtze River estuary steadily increased, with evident peaks in c. 1980 and c. 2000. Most of the phthalates and alkylphenols in the core originated from direct industrial and municipal discharges into the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, whereas the n-alkanes were mainly from aquatic and terrestrial plants. The Yangtze River discharge plays an important role in the sedimentary records of organic compounds.

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Published online 30 November 2015
A comparative study of long-term Hg and Pb sediment archives 
Stephen A. Norton, George L. Jacobson, Jiří Kopáček and Tomáš Navrátil

Environmental context. Lead and mercury are toxic atmospheric pollutants emitted in large quantities since 1850. Accumulating lake and peat sediments capture the pollutants from the atmosphere and indirectly record changes in deposition through time. This study of four long-term sediment records addresses the questions, ‘What proportion of this atmospheric deposition is natural background?’ and ‘Does the archive faithfully represent true rates of atmospheric deposition?’

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Published online 30 November 2015
Lead solubility in seawater: an experimental study 
Brad M. Angel, Simon C. Apte, Graeme E. Batley and Mark D. Raven

Environmental context. Many trace metals including lead are only sparingly soluble in seawater and may exist in both dissolved and particulate forms (e.g. as precipitates). Aquatic organisms may experience different toxic effects from exposure to dissolved and particulate trace metals. This study reports the limits to lead solubility in seawater that influence the exposure to these forms of lead in the field and the laboratory.

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   | Supplementary Material (335 KB)  |        Open Access Article
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Published online 30 November 2015
Toxicity of engineered copper (Cu0) nanoparticles to the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 
Emanuel Müller, Renata Behra and Laura Sigg

Environmental context. Engineered copper nanoparticles are presently under development for various uses and may thus be finally released into the aquatic environment. Copper is well known to be both an essential and a toxic element for aquatic organisms. Here, we investigate the toxicity of copper nanoparticles to a green alga and compare it with the toxicity of dissolved copper.

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Published online 23 November 2015
Effects of pH value, chloride and sulfate concentrations on galvanic corrosion between lead and copper in drinking water 
Ding-Quan Ng and Yi-Pin Lin

Environmental context. Galvanic corrosion has been recently reported as the main cause of lead contamination in drinking water in urban cities. Conditions that can deter or promote galvanic corrosion, however, are not well understood. Fundamental investigations exploring the mechanisms and processes involved in galvanic corrosion in drinking water could help to implement proper corrective measures to safeguard public health from lead contamination.

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    | Supplementary Material (489 KB)
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Published online 23 November 2015
Compositions and isotopic differences of iso- and anteiso-alkanes in black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) across a salinity gradient in a subtropical estuary 
Ding He, Bernd R. T. Simoneit, Blanca Jara and Rudolf Jaffé

Environmental context. Mangroves dominate at the interface between land and sea, especially along tropical and subtropical coasts. To gain a better understanding of how mangroves respond to various environmental stress factors, we investigated the use of monomethylalkanes as potential chemical tracers for black mangroves. The application of these chemical tracers could elucidate how black mangroves respond to environmental stress such as sea level rise in mixed mangrove environments.

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Published online 23 November 2015
Surfactant toxicity to Artemia franciscana and the influence of humic acid and chemical composition 
Rachel D. Deese, Madeline R. LeBlanc and Robert L. Cook

Environmental context. Surfactants, a pollutant class routinely introduced into aquatic environments, can be toxic to a variety of species. It is thus important to understand how surfactants’ toxicity is influenced by their interactions with other environmental constituents, including natural organic matter. We report the changes in toxicity of three surfactants to brine shrimp in the presence of unmodified and chemically modified humic acids.

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Published online 23 November 2015
Theoretical study of the gaseous hydrolysis of NO2 in the presence of NH3 as a source of atmospheric HONO 
Xu Wang, Feng-Yang Bai, Yan-Qiu Sun, Rong-Shun Wang, Xiu-Mei Pan and Fu-Ming Tao

Environmental context. Nitrous acid is an important atmospheric trace gas, but the sources and the chemical mechanisms of its production are not well understood. This study explores the effects of ammonia and water on the hydrolysis of nitrogen dioxide and nitrous acid production. The calculated results show that ammonia is more effective than water in promoting the hydrolysis reaction of nitrogen dioxide.

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Published online 16 November 2015
Dialkylsulfate formation in sulfuric acid-seeded secondary organic aerosol produced using an outdoor chamber under natural sunlight 
Jiaying Li, Myoseon Jang and Ross L. Beardsley

Environmental context. Laboratory and field studies have both provided evidence for organosulfate formation by esterification of H2SO4 with organic compounds in aerosols. Using an outdoor chamber, the production of dialkylsufate was measured for organic aerosols produced by photooxidation of various hydrocarbons in the presence of H2SO4 aerosol and NOx. The formation of organosulfates influences the decrease of both aerosol acidity and aerosol hygroscopicity.

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Published online 16 November 2015
Arsenic metabolism in cyanobacteria 
Shin-ichi Miyashita, Chisato Murota, Keisuke Kondo, Shoko Fujiwara and Mikio Tsuzuki

Environmental context. Cyanobacteria are ecologically important, photosynthetic organisms that are widely distributed throughout the environment. They play a central role in arsenic transformations in terms of both mineralisation and formation of organoarsenic species as the primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. In this review, arsenic resistance, transport and biotransformation in cyanobacteria are reviewed and compared with those in other organisms.

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Published online 08 October 2015
Evaluating the concentration addition approach for describing expected toxicity of a ternary metal mixture (Ni, Cu, Cd) using metal speciation and response surface regression 
Yamini Gopalapillai and Beverley Hale

Environmental context. Environmental quality guidelines are often based on an ‘additive’ approach using single metal toxicity values. We evaluated the ‘additive’ approach by testing it on three priority pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Cd), and found that the toxicity of the metal mixture was less than additive when dose was expressed as total metal concentration, but it was additive when dose was expressed as bioavailable metal. We suggest that for metal mixtures, a more realistic indicator of risk is provided by calculations based on the bioavailable form of metals.

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    | Supplementary Material (136 KB)
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Published online 06 October 2015
Developing a sentinel mollusc species for toxicity assessment: metal exposure, dose and response – laboratory v. field exposures and resident organisms 
Anne Taylor and William Maher

Environmental context. Metal contamination in estuarine sediments can affect ecosystem health. Molluscs are commonly used as environmental indicators because they accumulate contaminants that cause adverse health effects. We investigated metal uptake and effects in the Sydney cockle, comparing exposure to contaminated lake sediments in situ and in laboratory aquariums. Although differences were observed between the different exposure types, all approaches were found to be valid for investigating metal health effects in this organism.

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Published online 06 October 2015
Metal speciation from stream to open ocean: modelling v. measurement 
Edward Tipping, Stephen Lofts and Anthony Stockdale

Environmental context. The chemical speciation of metals strongly influences their transport, fate and bioavailability in natural waters. Analytical measurement and modelling both play important roles in understanding speciation, while modelling is also needed for prediction. Here, we analyse a large set of data for fresh waters, estuarine and coastal waters, and open ocean water, to examine how well measurements and modelling predictions agree.

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blank image Environmental Chemistry
Volume 13 Number 2 2016
Biological and Environmental Chemistry of DMS(P) and Related Compounds

 
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Foreword to the special issue on ‘Biological and environmental chemistry of DMS(P) and related compounds' 
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Rafel Simó
pp. i-iii

This Special Issue presents a selection of papers on recent advances in the knowledge of the biological and environmental chemistry of methylated sulfur compounds, mainly dimethylsulfoniopropionate, dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoxide, in the ocean and other aquatic environments. Research topics include algal, coral and mollusc physiology, microbial metabolism, inter-organism associations, sulfur biogeochemistry under current environmental conditions and ocean acidification, air–sea exchange and numerical modeling from the individual cell to the global ocean.

 
 

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Role of dimethylsulfoniopropionate as an osmoprotectant following gradual salinity shifts in the sea-ice diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus 
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Barbara R. Lyon , Jennifer M. Bennett-Mintz , Peter A. Lee , Michael G. Janech and Giacomo R. DiTullio
pp. 181-194

Environmental context. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a small sulfur compound biosynthesised by algae, plays an important role in global climate, particularly in polar regions. We investigated the environmental controls on DMSP levels, and provide the first experimental measurements of DMSP and associated physiological changes in a polar diatom exposed to a range of gradual salinity shifts representative of sea-ice conditions. Quantitative estimates of DMSP in polar diatoms following salinity changes will facilitate new mathematical models to predict seasonal responses and reactions to climate change.

   | Supplementary Material (686 KB)
 

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Effects of iron limitation and UV radiation on Phaeocystis antarctica growth and dimethylsulfoniopropionate, dimethylsulfoxide and acrylate concentrations 
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Joanna D. Kinsey , David J. Kieber and Patrick J. Neale
pp. 195-211

Environmental context. Low iron concentrations and solar ultraviolet radiation can affect the growth of marine algae. We observed reduced growth and substantial increases in dissolved dimethylsulfoxide and cellular acrylate concentrations in low-iron cultures of a prevalent Southern Ocean algal species, Phaeocystis antarctica, with comparatively small increases observed for cellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate concentrations. Exposure of P. antarctica to high levels of ultraviolet and visible light had very little effect on concentrations of these compounds in culture, even under iron-limitation. Our results highlight the importance of iron to P. antarctica.

   | Supplementary Material (689 KB)
 

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A steady-state physiological model for intracellular dimethylsulfoxide in marine phytoplankton 
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Michel Lavoie , Maurice Levasseur and William G. Sunda
pp. 212-219

Environmental context. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is important in the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur. Using a mathematical flux model of DMSO production and loss rates, we find that the high intracellular DMSO concentrations measured in phytoplankton cannot be produced without invoking unrealistically high intracellular concentrations of the precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate, or much lower phytoplankton cellular efflux rates than currently reported. Our study emphasises the need for further investigations of DMSO fluxes across intracellular and outer cell membranes.

   | Supplementary Material (578 KB)
 

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Effects of environmental changes, tissue types and reproduction on the emissions of dimethyl sulfide from seaweeds that form green tides 
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Kathryn L. Van Alstyne , Sue-Ann Gifford , Jenna M. Dohman and Monique M. Savedo
pp. 220-230

Environmental context. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is released by marine algae and is important to sulfur transfer between the oceans and the atmosphere. We measured DMS emissions from algae that form large blooms, and found that the hydration of the plants, seawater temperatures and salinity affect DMS release, but their effects were species-specific. Thus, the effect of algal blooms on sulfur transfer will depend on the bloom’s species composition and the environmental conditions experienced by the algae.

 
 

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Exceptional accumulation and retention of dimethylsulfoniopropionate by molluscs 
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Richard W. Hill and John W. H. Dacey
pp. 231-238

Environmental context. Animals that eat marine algae strongly affect the rate at which a compound that algae synthesise, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), is converted to the important atmospheric climate gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). In studying the processing of DMSP by algae-eating molluscs, we have discovered that some molluscs accumulate and retain DMSP exceptionally well, but this can be very variable. With this knowledge, investigators will be able to design improved experiments to understand the effects of molluscs on DMS production in local ecosystems.

 
 

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Dimethylated sulfur compounds in coral-reef ecosystems 
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Elisabeth Deschaseaux , Graham Jones and Hilton Swan
pp. 239-251

Environmental context. Dimethylated sulfur compounds can exert multiple biological and environmental effects including climate regulation. Climate change and other anthropogenic factors are predicted to affect coral-reef ecosystems where these sulfur compounds are particularly abundant. We review the processes that regulate the production of dimethylated sulfur compounds in coral reefs and the potential consequences of environmental changes on their biogenic cycle in such fragile ecosystems under future climate change scenarios.

 
 

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Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in corals and its interrelations with bacterial assemblages in coral surface mucus 
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P. R. Frade , V. Schwaninger , B. Glasl , E. Sintes , R. W. Hill , R. Simó and G. J. Herndl
pp. 252-265

Environmental context. Corals produce copious amounts of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a sulfur compound implicated in climate regulation. We studied DMSP concentrations inside corals and unveiled the linkage between DMSP availability and the abundance of DMSP-degrading bacterial groups inhabiting the corals’ surface. Our findings suggest that DMSP mediates the interplay between corals and microbes, highlighting the importance of sulfur compounds for microbial processes in corals and for the resilience of coral reef ecosystems.

   | Supplementary Material (1.2 MB)  |        Open Access Article
 

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Assessment of DMSP turnover reveals a non-bioavailable pool of dissolved DMSP in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico 
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Chengxuan Li , Gui-Peng Yang , David J. Kieber , Jessie Motard-Côté and Ronald P. Kiene
pp. 266-279

Environmental context. DMSP is one of the most important substrates for marine bacteria and its cycling contributes substantially to fluxes of carbon and sulfur in the ocean. Accurate determination of the concentration of DMSP available to bacteria is essential to quantifying DMSP consumption rates, and this work improves those determinations by identifying non-bioavailable pools of DMSP that have previously gone unrecognised. Improved estimates of DMSP consumption rates will lead to better understanding of its role in ocean food web and biogeochemical dynamics.

 
 

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Influence of the Mississippi River plume and non-bioavailable DMSP on dissolved DMSP turnover in the northern Gulf of Mexico 
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Jessie Motard-Côté , David J. Kieber , Allison Rellinger and Ronald P. Kiene
pp. 280-292

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) comprises an important fraction of the organic carbon produced by phytoplankton, and is a major source of carbon and sulfur for heterotrophic bacteria. Here, we show that a non-bioavailable fraction of DMSP recently discovered in coastal waters also exists in oligotrophic open-ocean waters. Taking account of the non-bioavailable pool improved estimates of cycling rates of DMSP and its contribution to bacterial nutrition.

 
 

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Influence of vitamin B12 availability on oceanic dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate 
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Peter A. Lee , Erin M. Bertrand , Mak A. Saito and Giacomo R. DiTullio
pp. 293-301

Environmental context. Cobalamin, or vitamin B12, is receiving increased attention as a critical trace nutrient in the growth and metabolic processes of oceanic phytoplankton and bacterial communities. We present evidence that indicates B12 has a more significant role in the biogeochemical cycling of the climatically important compounds dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate than previously understood. Several possible mechanisms are examined that link cellular-level processes involving B12 to global-scale biogeochemical processes involving the oceanic cycling of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethylsulfide.

 
 

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Revising upper-ocean sulfur dynamics near Bermuda: new lessons from 3 years of concentration and rate measurements 
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Naomi M. Levine , Dierdre A. Toole , Aimee Neeley , Nicholas R. Bates , Scott C. Doney and John W. H. Dacey
pp. 302-313

Environmental context. Microscopic marine organisms have the potential to influence the global climate through the production of a trace gas, dimethylsulfide, which contributes to cloud formation. Using 3 years of observations, we investigated the environmental drivers behind the production and degradation of dimethylsulfide and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate. Our results highlight the important role of the microbial community in rapidly cycling these compounds and provide an important dataset for future modelling studies.

   | Supplementary Material (1.3 MB)  |        Open Access Article
 

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Ocean acidification has different effects on the production of dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate measured in cultures of Emiliania huxleyi and a mesocosm study: a comparison of laboratory monocultures and community interactions 
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Alison L. Webb , Gill Malin , Frances E. Hopkins , Kai Lam Ho , Ulf Riebesell , Kai G. Schulz , Aud Larsen and Peter S. Liss
pp. 314-329

Environmental context. Approximately 25 % of CO2 released to the atmosphere by human activities has been absorbed by the oceans, resulting in ocean acidification. We investigate the acidification effects on marine phytoplankton and subsequent production of the trace gas dimethylsulfide, a major route for sulfur transfer from the oceans to the atmosphere. Increasing surface water CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) affects the growth of phytoplankton groups to different degrees, resulting in varying responses in community production of dimethylsulfide.

 
 

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Environmental control of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) cycling under ocean acidification 
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Cathleen Zindler-Schlundt , Hannah Lutterbeck , Sonja Endres and Hermann W. Bange
pp. 330-339

Environmental context. Ocean acidification affects marine algae and bacteria, which can produce climate active trace gases such as methane or dimethylsulfide from marine dimethylsulfoxide. We conducted field experiments simulating future ocean acidification, and showed that dimethylsulfoxide concentrations decreased with increasing acidification. Less dimethylsulfoxide in the future can affect climate by influencing the concentration of methane and dimethylsulfide.

 
 

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Isotopic evidence for the origin of dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate-like compounds in a warm, monomictic freshwater lake 
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Michal Sela-Adler , Ward Said-Ahmad , Orit Sivan , Werner Eckert , Ronald P. Kiene and Alon Amrani
pp. 340-351

Environmental context. The volatile sulfur compound, dimethylsulfide (DMS), plays a major role in the global sulfur cycle by transferring sulfur from aquatic environments to the atmosphere. Compared to marine environments, freshwater environments are under studied with respect to DMS cycling. The goal of this study was to assess the formation pathways of DMS in a freshwater lake using natural stable isotopes of sulfur. Our results provide unique sulfur isotopic evidence for the multiple DMS sources and dynamics that are linked to the various biogeochemical processes that occur in freshwater lake water columns and sediments.

 
 

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Spatial variability of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the southern Gulf of Mexico 
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María de la Luz Espinosa , Amparo Martínez , Oscar Peralta and Telma Castro
pp. 352-363

Environmental context. Dimethylsulfide (DMS), the main biogenic sulfur compound in the atmosphere, is produced by the marine biosphere and plays an important role in the atmospheric sulfur cycle. This study recorded the spatial variability of DMS and dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the water column of the southern Gulf of Mexico. The results suggest that the spatial variability of DMS and DMSP is directly related to the hydrodynamics of the study area.

 
 

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Towards a revised climatology of summertime dimethylsulfide concentrations and sea–air fluxes in the Southern Ocean 
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Tereza Jarníková and Philippe D. Tortell
pp. 364-378

The trace gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) is emitted from surface ocean waters to the overlying atmosphere, where it forms aerosols that promote cloud formation and influence Earth’s climate. We present an updated climatology of DMS emissions from the vast Southern Ocean, demonstrating how the inclusion of new data yields higher regional sources compared with previously derived values. Our work provides an important step towards better quantifying the oceanic emissions of an important climate-active gas.

 
 

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Effects of light and phosphorus on summer DMS dynamics in subtropical waters using a global ocean biogeochemical model 
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Italo Masotti , Sauveur Belviso , Laurent Bopp , Alessandro Tagliabue and Eva Bucciarelli
pp. 379-389

Environmental context. Models are needed to predict the importance of the changes in marine emissions of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in response to ocean warming, increased stratification and acidification, and to evaluate the potential effects on the Earth’s climate. We use complementary simulations to further our understanding of the marine cycle of DMS in subtropical waters, and show that a lack of phosphorus may exert a more important control on surface DMS concentrations than an excess of light.

 
 

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Evaluation of diverse approaches for estimating sea-surface DMS concentration and air–sea exchange at global scale 
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Jan-Erik Tesdal , James R. Christian , Adam H. Monahan and Knut von Salzen
pp. 390-412

Environmental context. As climate models increasingly include detailed, process-based models of aerosol formation, they need to represent dimethylsulfide emissions from the ocean. Options for this include data-based climatologies and empirical or process-based models; there are diverse examples of each in the literature. This paper presents the first global-scale comparison of all available approaches and evaluation of their skill relative to observations and their possible roles in future climate models.

 
 

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Dimethylsulfide model calibration in the Barents Sea using a genetic algorithm and neural network 
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Bo Qu , Albert J. Gabric , Meifang Zeng and Zhifeng Lu
pp. 413-424

Environmental context. Future changes in marine biogenic aerosol emissions in Arctic seas are likely to affect the radiative budget of the region. Here we employ a calibrated biogeochemical model to simulate change in sulfate aerosol emissions in the Barents Sea, and find strong increases occur by the late 21st century. If replicated across the Arctic Ocean, such increases in sulfate aerosol loading to the Arctic atmosphere may decrease the rate of warming at polar latitudes.

 
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    EN16005  Accepted 18 May 2016
    Proteins are a major component of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) leached from terrestrially aged Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves.
    Clayton Harris, Ewen Silvester, Gavin Rees, John Pengelly, Ljiljana Puskar
    Abstract


    EN16001  Accepted 03 May 2016
    Biochar amendment altered the molecular-level composition of native soil organic matter in a temperate forest soil
    Perry Mitchell, Andre Simpson, Ronald Soong, Myrna Simpson
    Abstract


    EN16027  Accepted 26 April 2016
    Tissue-specific uptake of the benzodiazepine oxazepam in adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)
    Martina Heynen, Tomas Brodin, Jonatan Klaminder, Micael Jonsson, Jerker Fick
    Abstract


    EN15115  Accepted 10 March 2016
    Addressing the Anthropocene
    Ariel Anbar, Stephen Romaniello, Braden Allenby, Wallace Broecker
    Abstract


4


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 22 May 2015
Chemical and bioanalytical assessment of coal seam gas associated water

Janet Y. M. Tang, Mauricio Taulis, Jacinta Edebeli, Frederic D. L. Leusch, Paul Jagals, Gregory P. Jackson and Beate I. Escher

2. Published 25 September 2015
Marine microplastic-associated biofilms – a review

Sonja Oberbeckmann, Martin G. J. Löder and Matthias Labrenz

3. Published 25 September 2015
Adsorption of trace metals by microplastic pellets in fresh water

Andrew Turner and Luke A. Holmes

4. Published 25 September 2015
Beyond the ocean: contamination of freshwater ecosystems with (micro-)plastic particles

Rachid Dris, Hannes Imhof, Wilfried Sanchez, Johnny Gasperi, François Galgani, Bruno Tassin and Christian Laforsch

5. Published 25 September 2015
Microplastic contamination in an urban area: a case study in Greater Paris

Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi, Vincent Rocher, Mohamed Saad, Nicolas Renault and Bruno Tassin

6. Published 4 January 2016
First national-scale reconnaissance of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams across the USA

Michelle L. Hladik and Dana W. Kolpin

7. Published 25 September 2015
Characterisation of microplastics and toxic chemicals extracted from microplastic samples from the North Pacific Gyre

Lorena M. Rios Mendoza and Patrick R. Jones

8. Published 25 September 2015
Questions of size and numbers in environmental research on microplastics: methodological and conceptual aspects

Montserrat Filella

9. Published 4 January 2016
Distributions of neonicotinoid insecticides in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: a temporal and spatial variation analysis for pollen and honey samples

Chensheng (Alex) Lu, Chi-Hsuan Chang, Lin Tao and Mei Chen

10. Published 25 September 2015
Focal plane array detector-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging for the analysis of microplastics in environmental samples

Martin Günter Joachim Löder, Mirco Kuczera, Svenja Mintenig, Claudia Lorenz and Gunnar Gerdts

11. Published 25 September 2015
Plastic pollution in Swiss surface waters: nature and concentrations, interaction with pollutants

Florian Faure, Colin Demars, Olivier Wieser, Manuel Kunz and Luiz Felippe de Alencastro

12. Published 22 May 2015
Current perspective on produced water management challenges during hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas recovery

Kelvin Gregory and Arvind Murali Mohan

13. Published 27 July 2015
A recent survey of naturally occurring organohalogen compounds

Gordon W. Gribble

14. Published 19 November 2015
A novel method for the quantification, characterisation and speciation of silver nanoparticles in earthworms exposed in soil

Sunday Makama, Ruud Peters, Anna Undas and Nico W. van den Brink

15. Published 19 November 2015
Transformations that affect fate, form and bioavailability of inorganic nanoparticles in aquatic sediments

Richard Kynaston Cross, Charles Tyler and Tamara S Galloway

16. Published 22 May 2015
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter growth and function in lentic biofilms

Lawton Shaw, Chuyen Phung and Michael Grace

17. Published 19 November 2015
Interaction of humic acids with soil minerals: adsorption and surface aggregation induced by Ca2+

Nanci Kloster and Marcelo Avena

18. Published 22 May 2015
In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a hydraulic fracturing fluid

Madeleine E. Payne, Heather F. Chapman, Janet Cumming and Frederic D. L. Leusch

19. Published 19 November 2015
Phosphorus and arsenic distributions in a seasonally stratified, iron- and manganese-rich lake: microbiological and geochemical controls

Adam Hartland, Martin S. Andersen and David P. Hamilton

20. Published 27 July 2015
Iron-catalysed oxidation and halogenation of organic matter in nature

Peter Comba, Marion Kerscher, Torsten Krause and Heinz Friedrich Schöler


      
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