CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Australian Journal of Botany   
Australian Journal of Botany
Journal Banner
  Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Turner Review Series
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
Awards and Prizes
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn

red arrow PrometheusWiki
blank image
Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 62(3)

Designing food and habitat trees for urban koalas: graft compatibility, survival and height of tall eucalypt species grafted onto shorter rootstocks

Stephen J. Trueman A B, Tracey V. McMahon A, Elektra L. Grant A, David A. Walton A and Helen M. Wallace A

A Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Qld 4558, Australia.
B Corresponding author. Email: strueman@usc.edu.au

Australian Journal of Botany 62(3) 196-204 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT14060
Submitted: 22 March 2014  Accepted: 23 May 2014   Published: 24 June 2014

PDF (331 KB) $25
 Export Citation

The Corymbia and Eucalyptus species eaten by koalas are generally large trees, but these are often unpopular with urban landowners and councils because of the dangers of limbs falling from a great height. We aimed to develop shorter koala food and habitat trees for urban areas by heterografting tall eucalypt species onto rootstocks of shorter species and comparing their survival and growth with homografted trees and control ungrafted trees. In total, 12 of 14 interspecific scion/rootstock combinations were grafted successfully in the nursery but graft compatibility and field survival depended on taxonomic relatedness. The six interspecific combinations that had multiple surviving trees at 5 years after planting were all between species within the same taxonomic section or between a species and its own interspecific hybrid. Almost all trees died from grafts between species in different taxonomic sections. In most cases, the height of surviving interspecific grafted trees did not differ from control intraspecific grafted trees or from ungrafted trees of their scion species. Grafting elicited a ‘thrive or not survive’ response that diminished its usefulness for producing shorter trees. However, one combination, E. moluccana/E. behriana, had field survival of 40% and reduced height (4.0 m vs 9.9 m). These could be valuable habitat trees for koalas and other fauna in urban areas.

Additional keywords: Corymbia, dwarfing rootstock, Eucalyptus, grafting, Phascolarctos cinereus, street trees.


Bandeira FS, Xavier A, Otoni WC, Dias JMM (2006) Enxertia in vitro na propagaçâo de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla e E. grandis. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 41, 223–232.
CrossRef |

Barbour RC, Crawford AC, Henson M, Lee DJ, Potts BM, Shepherd M (2008) The risk of pollen-mediated gene flow from exotic Corymbia plantations into native Corymbia populations in Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 256, 1–19.
CrossRef |

Bertrand B, Etienne H, Eskes A (2001) Growth, production, and bean quality of Coffea arabica as affected by interspecific grafting: consequences for rootstock breeding. HortScience 36, 269–273.

Brooker MIH (2000) A new classification of the genus Eucalyptus L’Her. (Myrtaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 13, 79–148.
CrossRef |

Callaghan J, McAlpine C, Mitchell D, Thompson J, Bowen M, Rhodes J, de Jong C, Domalewski R, Scott A (2011) Ranking and mapping koala habitat quality for conservation planning on the basis of indirect evidence of tree-species use: a case study of Noosa Shire, south-eastern Queensland. Wildlife Research 38, 89–102.
CrossRef |

Dickinson GR, Lee DJ, Wallace HM (2012) The influence of pre- and post-zygotic barriers on interspecific Corymbia hybridization. Annals of Botany 109, 1215–1226.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Eldridge K, Davidson J, Harwood C, van Wyk G (1994) Mass vegetative propagation. In ‘Eucalypt domestication and breeding’. (Eds K Eldridge, J Davidson, C Harwood) pp. 228–246. (Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK)

Ellis W, FitzGibbon S, Melzer A, Wilson R, Johnston S, Bercovitch F, Dique D, Carrick F (2013) Koala habitat use and population density: using field data to test the assumptions of ecological models. Australian Mammalogy 35, 160–165.
CrossRef |

Gardner RAW, Bertling I (2005) Effect of winter chilling and paclobutrazol on floral bud production in Eucalyptus nitens. South African Journal of Botany 71, 238–249.

Gascó A, Nardini A, Raimondo F, Gortan E, Motisi A, Lo Gullo MA, Salleo S (2007) Hydraulic kinetics of the graft union in different Olea europaea L. scion/rootstock combinations. Environmental and Experimental Botany 60, 245–250.
CrossRef |

Hartmann HT, Kester DE, Davies FT, Jr, Geneve RL (1997) ‘Plant propagation: principles and practices.’ (Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ)

Huang H, Norton JD, Boyhan GE, Abrahams BR (1994) Graft compatibility among chestnut (Castanea) species. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119, 1127–1132.

Jayawickrama KJ, Brett JB, McKeand SE (1991) Rootstock effects in grafted conifers: a review. New Forests 5, 157–173.
CrossRef |

Kendal D, Williams KJH, Williams NSG (2012) Plant traits link people’s plant preferences to the composition of their gardens. Landscape and Urban Planning 105, 34–42.
CrossRef |

Kirkpatrick JN, Daniels GD, Davison A (2011) Temporal and spatial variation in garden and street trees in six eastern Australian cities. Landscape and Urban Planning 101, 244–252.
CrossRef |

Kirkpatrick JN, Davison A, Daniels GD (2012) Resident attitudes towards trees influence the planting and removal of different types of trees in eastern Australian cities. Landscape and Urban Planning 107, 147–158.
CrossRef |

Lee KE, Seddon JM, Corley SW, Ellis WAH, Johnston SD, de Villiers DL, Preece HJ, Carrick FN (2010) Genetic variation and structuring in the threatened koala populations of Southeast Queensland. Conservation Genetics 11, 2091–2103.
CrossRef |

Ljubojević M, Ognjanov V, Zorić L, Maksimović I, Merkulov L, Bošnjaković D, Barać G (2013) Modeling of water movement through cherry plant as preselecting tool for prediction of tree vigor. Scientia Horticulturae 160, 189–197.
CrossRef |

Martínez-Alcántara B, Rodriguez-Gamir J, Martínez-Cuenca MR, Iglesias DJ, Primo-Millo E, Forner-Giner MA (2013) Relationship between hydraulic conductance and citrus dwarfing by the flying dragon rootstock (Poncirus trifoliata L.Raft var. monstruosa). Trees 27, 629–638.
CrossRef |

Matthews A, Lunney D, Gresser S, Maitz W (2007) Tree use by koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) after fire in remnant coastal forest. Wildlife Research 34, 84–93.
CrossRef |

Mng’omba SA, du Toit ES, Akinnifesi FK, Venter HM (2007) Histological evaluation of early graft compatibility in Uapaca kirkiana Müell Arg. scion/stock combinations. HortScience 42, 732–736.

Moore BD, Lawler IR, Wallis IR, Beale CM, Foley WJ (2010) Palatability mapping: a koala’s eye view of spatial variation in habitat quality. Ecology 91, 3165–3176.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Negishi N, Nakahama K, Urata N, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Kawaoka A (2014) Hormone level analysis on adventitious root formation in Eucalyptus globulus. New Forests 45, 577–587.
CrossRef |

Olmstead MA, Lang NS, Lang GA (2010) Carbohydrate profiles in the graft union of young sweet cherry trees grown on dwarfing and vigorous rootstocks. Scientia Horticulturae 124, 78–82.
CrossRef | CAS |

Oraguzie NC, McNeil DL, Thomas MB (1998) Examination of graft failure in New Zealand chestnut (Castanea spp.) selections. Scientia Horticulturae 76, 89–103.
CrossRef |

Parra-O C, Bayly MJ, Drinnan A, Udovicic F, Ladiges P (2009) Phylogeny, major clades and infrageneric classification of Corymbia (Myrtaceae), based on nuclear ribosomal DNA and morphology. Australian Systematic Botany 22, 384–399.
CrossRef |

Pina A, Errea P (2005) A review of new advances in mechanism of graft compatibility–incompatibility. Scientia Horticulturae 106, 1–11.
CrossRef |

Pina A, Errea P, Martens HJ (2012) Graft union formation and cell-to-cell communication via plasmodesmata in compatible and incompatible stem unions of Prunus spp. Scientia Horticulturae 143, 144–150.
CrossRef |

Polkinghorne A, Hanger J, Timms P (2013) Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas. Veterinary Microbiology 165, 214–223.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Potts BM, Dungey HS (2004) Interspecific hybridization of Eucalyptus: key issues for breeders and geneticists. New Forests 27, 115–138.
CrossRef |

Rhodes JR, Ng CF, de Villiers DL, Preece HJ, McAlpine CA, Possingham HP (2011) Using integrated population modelling to quantify the implications of multiple threatening processes for a rapidly declining population. Biological Conservation 144, 1081–1088.
CrossRef |

Seabrook L, McAlpine C, Rhodes J, Baxter G, Bradley A, Lunney D (2014) Determining range edges: habitat quality, climate or climate extremes? Diversity & Distributions 20, 95–106.
CrossRef |

Sullivan BJ, Baxter GS, Lisle AT (2003) Low-density koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in the mulgalands of south-west Queensland. III. Broad-scale patterns of habitat use. Wildlife Research 30, 583–591.
CrossRef |

Sullivan BJ, Baxter GS, Lisle AT, Pahl L, Norris WM (2004) Low-density koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in the mulgalands of south-west Queensland. IV. Abundance and conservation status. Wildlife Research 31, 19–29.
CrossRef |

Tombesi S, Almehdi A, DeJong TM (2011) Phenotyping vigour control capacity of new peach rootstocks by xylem vessel analysis. Scientia Horticulturae 127, 353–357.
CrossRef |

Trueman SJ (2013) The reproductive biology of macadamia. Scientia Horticulturae 150, 354–359.
CrossRef |

Trueman SJ, Adkins MF (2013) Effect of aminoethoxyvinylglycine and 1-methylcyclopropene on leaf abscission and root formation in Corymbia and Eucalyptus cuttings. Scientia Horticulturae 161, 1–7.
CrossRef | CAS |

Wendling I, Trueman SJ, Xavier A (2014a) Maturation and related aspects in clonal forestry – part I: concepts, regulation and consequences of phase change. New Forests 45, 449–471.
CrossRef |

Wendling I, Trueman SJ, Xavier A (2014b) Maturation and related aspects in clonal forestry – part II: reinvigoration, rejuvenation and juvenility maintenance. New Forests 45, 473–486.
CrossRef |

White NA (1999) Ecology of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) in rural south-east Queensland, Australia. Wildlife Research 26, 731–744.
CrossRef |

Williams K (2002) Exploring resident preferences for street trees in Melbourne, Australia. Journal of Arboriculture 28, 161–170.

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2016