CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Functional Plant Biology   
Functional Plant Biology
Journal Banner
  Plant function and evolutionary biology
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Evolutionary Reviews
Sample Issue
Call for Papers
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
Awards and Prizes
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn

red arrow PrometheusWiki
blank image
Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Open Access Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 41(12)

Response of floret fertility and individual grain weight of wheat to high temperature stress: sensitive stages and thresholds for temperature and duration

P. V. Vara Prasad A B and Maduraimuthu Djanaguiraman A

A Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Science Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.
B Corresponding author. Email: vara@ksu.edu

Functional Plant Biology 41(12) 1261-1269 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP14061
Submitted: 23 February 2014  Accepted: 31 May 2014   Published: 19 August 2014

 Full Text
 PDF (447 KB)
 Export Citation

Short episodes of high temperature (HT) stress during reproductive stages of crop development cause significant yield losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat plants of cultivar Chinese Spring were grown at various temperature regimes at several stages of reproductive development for different durations. The objectives of this research were to (i) identify the stage(s) most sensitive to HT stress during reproductive development, and (ii) determine threshold temperature and duration of HT stress that decrease floret fertility and individual grain weight. Two periods (first at 8–6 days before anthesis and second at 2–0 days before anthesis) during reproductive development were most sensitive to short episodes (2 or 5 days) of HT stress, causing maximum decreases in floret fertility. Short episodes (5 days) of mean daily temperatures >24°C imposed at start of heading quadratically decreased floret fertility, with the values reaching close to 0% around mean daily temperature of 35°C; and floret fertility and individual grain weight decreased linearly with increasing duration (in the range from 2 to 30 days) of HT stress when imposed at start of heading or start of grain filling respectively. HT stress caused morphological abnormalities in pollen, stigma and style. The combination of lower floret fertility (leading to decreased grain numbers) and decreased individual grain weights can cause significant decreases in grain yield. Further research to search for genetic variability for these traits and use them in breeding programs to develop tolerant genotypes that can provide yield stability under current and future climates is warranted.

Additional keywords: abiotic stress, pollen, sensitive stage, sporogenesis, threshold, Triticum aestivum.


Ahmed FE, Hall AE, DeMason DA (1992) Heat injury during floral development in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany 79, 784–791.
CrossRef |

Bailing L, Ruilin Y (1991) Structure and development of stigmatic branches and style and their relation to pollen tube growth in wheat. Acta Botanica Sinica 33, 712–717.

Barkley A, Tack J, Nalley LL, Bergtold J, Bowden R, Fritz A (2013) ‘The impact of climate, disease, and wheat breeding on wheat variety yields in Kansas, 1985–2011. Bulletin 665.’ (Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service)

Brenchley R, Spannagl M, Pfeifer M, Barker GA, D’Amore R, Allen AM, McKenzie N, Kramer M, Kerhornou A, Bolser D, Kay S, Waite D, Trick M, Bancroft I, Gu Y, Hou NX, Luo MC, Sehgal S, Gill B, Kianian S, Anderson O, Kersey P, Dovrak J, McCombie WR, Hall A, Mayer KFX, Edwards K, Bevan MW, Hall N (2012) Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole-genome shotgun sequencing. Nature 491, 705–710.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Castro M, Peterson CJ, Rizza MD, Dellavalle PD, Vazquez D, Ibanez V, Ross A (2007) Influence of heat stress on wheat grain characteristics and protein molecular weight distribution. In ‘Wheat production in stressed environment’. (Eds HT Buck, JE Nisi, N Salomon) pp. 365–371. (Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Dias AS, Lidon FC (2009) Evaluation of grain filling rate and duration in bread and durum wheat, under heat stress after anthesis. Journal Agronomy & Crop Science 195, 137–147.
CrossRef |

Djanaguiraman M, Prasad PVV, Boyle DL, Schapaugh WT (2013a) Soybean pollen anatomy, viability and pod set under high temperature stress. Journal Agronomy & Crop Science 199, 171–177.
CrossRef |

Djanaguiraman M, Prasad PVV, Schapaugh WT (2013b) High day- or night-time temperature alters leaf assimilation, reproductive success, and phosphotidic acid of pollen grain in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Crop Science 53, 1594–1604.
CrossRef |

Djanaguiraman M, Prasad PVV, Murugan M, Perumal M, Reddy UK (2014) Physiological differences among sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes under high temperature stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 100, 43–54.
CrossRef | CAS |

Dorion S, Lalonde S, Saini HS (1996) Induction of male sterility in wheat by meiotic-stage water deficit is preceded by a decline in invertase activity and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in anthers. Plant Physiology 111, 137–145.

Farooq M, Bramley H, Palta JA, Siddique KHM (2011) Heat stress in wheat during reproductive and grain-filling phases. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 30, 491–507.
CrossRef |

Gibson LR, Paulsen GM (1999) Yield components of wheat grown under high temperature stress during reproductive growth. Crop Science 39, 1841–1846.
CrossRef |

Gross Y, Kigel J (1994) Differential sensitivity of high temperature of stages in the reproductive development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Field Crops Research 36, 201–212.
CrossRef |

Hays DB, Mason RE, Do JH, Menz M, Reynolds M (2007) Expression quantitative trait loci mapping heat tolerance during reproductive development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) In ‘Wheat production in stressed environments’. (Eds HT Buck, JE Nisi, N Salomon) pp. 373–382. (Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Hess M, Hesse M (1994) Ultrastructural observations on anther tapetum development of freeze-fixed Ledebouria socialis Roth (Hyacinthaceae). Planta 192, 421–430.
CrossRef | CAS |

IPCC (2013) Summary for policymakers. In ‘Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’. (Eds TF Stocker, D Qin, GK Plattner, M Tignor, SK Allen, J Boschung, A Nauels, Y Xia, V Bex, PM Midgley) pp. 1–28. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)

Jagadish SVK, Craufurd PQ, Wheeler TR (2007) High temperature stress and spikelet fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 58, 1627–1635.
CrossRef | CAS |

Jagadish SVK, Muthurajan R, Oane R, Wheeler TR, Heuer S, Bennett J, Craufurd PQ (2010) Physiological and proteomic approaches to dissect reproductive stage heat tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 61, 143–156.
CrossRef | CAS |

Jain M, Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH, Chourey PS (2007) Effect of season-long high temperature growth conditions on sugar-to-starch metabolism in developing microspores of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Planta 227, 67–79.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Lalonde S, Beebe DU, Saini HS (1997) Early signs of disruption of wheat anther development associated with the induction of male sterility by meiotic stage water deficit. Sexual Plant Reproduction 10, 40–48.
CrossRef |

Lobell DB, Field CB (2007) Global scale climate-crop yield relationships and the impact of recent warming. Environmental Research Letters 2, 014002
CrossRef |

Pradhan GP, Prasad PVV, Fritz AK, Kirkham MB, Gill BS (2012) High temperature tolerance in Aegilops species and its potential transfer to wheat. Crop Science 52, 292–304.
CrossRef |

Prasad PVV, Craufurd PQ, Summerfield RJ (1999) Fruit number in relation to pollen production and viability in groundnut exposed to short episodes of heat stress. Annals of Botany 84, 381–386.
CrossRef |

Prasad PVV, Craufurd PQ, Kakani VG, Wheeler TR, Boote KJ (2001) Influence of high temperature during pre- and post-anthesis stages of floral development on fruit-set and pollen germination in peanut. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 28, 233–240.

Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH, Thomas JMG (2002) Effects of elevated temperature and carbon dioxide on seed-set and yield of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global Change Biology 8, 710–721.
CrossRef |

Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH, Thomas JMG (2003) Super-optimal temperatures are detrimental to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) reproductive processes and yield under both ambient and elevated carbon dioxide. Global Change Biology 9, 1775–1787.
CrossRef |

Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH, Sheehy JE (2006a) Species, ecotype and cultivar differences in spikelet fertility and harvest index of rice in response to high temperature stress. Field Crops Research 95, 398–411.
CrossRef |

Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH (2006b) Adverse high temperature effects on pollen viability, seed-set, seed yield and harvest index of grain-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) are more severe at elevated carbon dioxide due to higher tissue temperatures. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 139, 237–251.
CrossRef |

Prasad PVV, Pisipati SR, Mutava RN, Tuinstra MR (2008a) Sensitivity of grain sorghum to high temperature stress during reproductive development. Crop Science 48, 1911–1917.
CrossRef |

Prasad PVV, Pisipati SR, Ristic Z, Bukovnik U, Fritz AK (2008b) Impact of night time temperature on physiology and growth of spring wheat. Crop Science 48, 2372–2380.
CrossRef |

Qin D, Wu H, Peng H, Yao Y, Ni Z, Li Z, Zhou C, Sun Q (2008) Heat stress-responsive transcriptome analysis in heat susceptible and tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by using wheat genome array. BMC Genomics 9, 432
CrossRef | PubMed |

Saini HS (1997) Effects of water stress on male gametophyte development in plants. Sexual Plant Reproduction 10, 67–73.
CrossRef |

Saini HS, Aspinall D (1982) Abnormal sporogenesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) induced by short periods of high temperature. Annals of Botany 49, 835–846.

Stone PJ, Nicolas ME (1995) Effect of timing of heat stress during grain filling on two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance. I. Grain growth. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22, 927–934.
CrossRef |

Stone PJ, Nicolas ME (1998) The effect of duration of heat stress during grain filling on two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance: grain growth and fractional protein accumulation. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 25, 13–20.
CrossRef | CAS |

Streck NA (2005) Climate change and agroecosystems: the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on crop growth, development and yield. Ciência Rural 35, 730–740.
CrossRef |

Swanson R, Edlund AF, Preuss D (2004) Species specificity in pollen–pistil interactions. Annual Review of Genetics 38, 793–818.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Takeoka Y, Hiroi K, Kitano H, Wada T (1991) Pistil hyperplasia in rice spikelets as affected by heat-stress. Sexual Plant Reproduction 4, 39–43.
CrossRef |

Tashiro T, Wardlaw IF (1990) The response of high temperature shock and humidity changes prior to and during early stages of grain development in wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 17, 551–561.
CrossRef |

Tubiello FN, Rosenzweig C, Goldberg RA, Jagtap S, Jones JW (2002) Effects of climate change on US crop production: simulation results using two different GCM scenarios. Part I: Wheat, potato, maize, and citrus. Climate Research 20, 259–270.
CrossRef |

Wang YP, Gifford RM (1995) A model of wheat grain growth and its applications to different temperature and carbon dioxide levels. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22, 843–855.
CrossRef |

Wheeler TR, Batts GR, Ellis RH, Hadley P, Morison JIL (1996) Growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops in response to CO2 and temperature. Journal of Agricultural Science 127, 37–48.
CrossRef |

Wolters-Arts M, Lush WM, Mariani C (1998) Lipids are required for directional pollen tube growth. Nature 392, 818–821.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Yang J, Sears RG, Gill BS, Paulsen GM (2002) Growth and senescence characteristics associated with tolerance of wheat alien amphiploids to high temperature under controlled conditions. Euphytica 126, 185–193.
CrossRef | CAS |

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2016