CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review Article
Referee Guidelines
Early Career Referee Mentoring
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

 

Open Access Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 62(9)

Climate change and its implications for Australia’s freshwater fish

John R. Morrongiello A B M N, Stephen J. Beatty C, James C. Bennett D E, David A. Crook B F, David N. E. N. Ikedife D, Mark J. Kennard G H, Adam Kerezsy H I, Mark Lintermans J, Dale G. McNeil B K, Bradley J. Pusey G H and Thomas Rayner L

A School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800, Australia.
B eWater Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
C Centre for Fish, Fisheries and Aquatic Ecosystem Research, School of Biological Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.
D Entura-Hydro Tasmania, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.
E Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay, Tas. 7005, Australia.
F Department of Sustainability and Environment, Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Heidelberg, Vic. 3084, Australia.
G Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge Commonwealth Environmental Research Facility, Griffith University, Nathan, Qld 4111, Australia.
H Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Nathan, Qld 4111, Australia.
I Bush Heritage Australia, Melbourne, Vic. 3000, Australia.
J Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
K South Australian Research and Development Institute, Aquatic Sciences, Henley Beach, SA 5022, Australia.
L Australian Wetlands and Rivers Institute, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
M Present address: CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.
N Corresponding author. Email: john.morrongiello@csiro.au

Marine and Freshwater Research 62(9) 1082-1098 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF10308
Submitted: 7 December 2010  Accepted: 8 May 2011   Published: 21 September 2011


 
 Full Text
 PDF (587 KB)
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Freshwater environments and their fishes are particularly vulnerable to climate change because the persistence and quality of aquatic habitat depend heavily on climatic and hydrologic regimes. In Australia, projections indicate that the rate and magnitude of climate change will vary across the continent. We review the likely effects of these changes on Australian freshwater fishes across geographic regions encompassing a diversity of habitats and climatic variability. Commonalities in the predicted implications of climate change on fish included habitat loss and fragmentation, surpassing of physiological tolerances and spread of alien species. Existing anthropogenic stressors in more developed regions are likely to compound these impacts because of the already reduced resilience of fish assemblages. Many Australian freshwater fish species are adapted to variable or unpredictable flow conditions and, in some cases, this evolutionary history may confer resistance or resilience to the impacts of climate change. However, the rate and magnitude of projected change will outpace the adaptive capacities of many species. Climate change therefore seriously threatens the persistence of many of Australia’s freshwater fish species, especially of those with limited ranges or specific habitat requirements, or of those that are already occurring close to physiological tolerance limits. Human responses to climate change should be proactive and focus on maintaining population resilience through the protection of habitat, mitigation of current anthropogenic stressors, adequate planning and provisioning of environmental flows and the consideration of more interventionist options such as managed translocations.

Additional keywords: arid zone, drought, environmental flows, freshwater fish, life history, local adaptation, refugia, threatened species.


References

Adkison, M. D. (1995). Population differentiation in Pacific salmon: local adaptation, genetic drift, or the environment? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52, 2762–2777.
CrossRef |

Aldous, A., Fitzsimons, J., Richter, B., and Bach, L. (2011). Droughts, floods and freshwater ecosystems: evaluating climate change impacts and developing adaptation strategies. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 223–231.
CrossRef | CAS |

Allen, G. R., Midgley, S. H., and Allen, M. (2002). ‘Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia.’ (Western Australian Museum: Perth.)

Balcombe, S. R., Sheldon, F., Capon, S., Bond, N., Hadwen, W., Marsh, N., and Bernays, S. (2011). Climate change threats to native fish in degraded rivers and floodplains of the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1099–1114.
CrossRef |

Balcombe, S. R., and Arthington, A. H. (2009). Temporal changes in fish abundance in response to hydrological variability in a dryland floodplain river. Marine and Freshwater Research 60, 146–159.
CrossRef |

Balcombe, S. R., Arthington, A. A., Foster, N. D., Thoms, M. C., Wilson, G. G., and Bunn, S. E. (2006). Fish assemblages of an Australian dryland river: abundance, assemblage structure and recruitment patterns in the Warrego River, Murray–Darling Basin. Marine and Freshwater Research 57, 619–633.
CrossRef |

Barlow, C. G., Hogan, A. E., and Rodgers, L. J. (1987). Implication of translocated fishes in the apparent extinction in the wild of the Lake Eacham rainbowfish, Melanotaenia eachamensis. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38, 897–902.
CrossRef |

Bates, B. C., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Wu, S., and Palutikof, J. P. (Eds) (2008). ‘Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.’ (IPCC Secretariat: Geneva, The Switzerland.)

Beatty, S. J., McAleer, F. J., and Morgan, D. L. (2009). Migration patterns of fishes of the Blackwood River and relationships to groundwater intrusion. Centre for Fish & Fisheries Research, Murdoch University. Report to Department of Water, Government of Western Australia, Perth. Available at http://www.cffr.murdoch.edu.au/reports/FishMigrationsBlackwoodRiver_Nov%202009.pdf [accessed 6 February 2011].

Beatty, S. J., Morgan, D. L., Klunzinger, M., and Lymbery, A. J. (2010a). Aquatic macrofauna of Ellen Brook and the Brockman River: fresh water refuges in a salinised catchment. Report to the Ellen–Brockman Integrated Catchment Group. Centre for Fish & Fisheries Research, Murdoch University, Perth. Available at http://www.cffr.murdoch.edu.au/reports/EllenBrockmanFinalReportCFFR.pdf [accessed 7 February 2011].

Beatty, S. J., Morgan, D. L., McAleer, F. J., and Ramsay, A. (2010b). Groundwater contribution to baseflow maintains habitat connectivity for Tandanus bostocki (Teleosteii: Plotosidae) in a south-western Australian river. Ecology Freshwater Fish 19, 595–608.
CrossRef |

Beatty, S. J., Morgan, D. L., Rashnavadi, M., and Lymbery, A. J. (2011). Salinity tolerances of endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 91–100.
CrossRef | CAS |

Beechie, T., Buhle, E., Ruckelshaus, M., Fullerton, A., and Holsinger, L. (2006). Hydrologic regime and the conservation of salmon life history diversity. Biological Conservation 130, 560–572.
CrossRef |

Bennett, J. C., Ling, F. L. N., Graham, B., Grose, M. R., Corney, S. P., White, C. J., Holz, G. K., Post, D. A., Gaynor, S. M., and Bindoff, N. L. (2010). Climate futures for Tasmania: water and catchments technical report. Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania. Available at http://www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/government_action/climate_futures [accessed 23 March 2011].

Bond, N. R., and Lake, P. S. (2005). Ecological restoration and large-scale ecological disturbance: the effects of drought on the response by fish to a habitat restoration experiment. Restoration Ecology 13, 39–48.
CrossRef |

Bond, N., Thomson, J., Reich, P., and Stein, J. L. (2011). Using species distribution models to infer potential climate change-induced range shifts of freshwater fish in south-eastern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1043–1061.
CrossRef |

Booth, D. J., Bond, N., and Macreadie, P. (2011). Detecting range shifts among Australian fishes in response to climate change. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1027–1042.
CrossRef |

Buisson, L., Thuiller, W., Lek, S., Lim, P., and Grenouillet, G. (2008). Climate change hastens the turnover of stream fish assemblages. Global Change Biology 14, 2232–2248.
CrossRef |

Bunn, S. E., and Arthington, A. H. (2002). Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environmental Management 30, 492–507.
CrossRef |

Bunn, S. E., Edward, D. H., and Loneragan, N. R. (1986). Spatial and temporal variation in the macroinvertebrate fauna of streams of the northern jarrah forest, Western Australia: community structure. Freshwater Biology 16, 67–91.
CrossRef |

Carpenter, S. R., Fisher, S. G., Grimm, N. B., and Kitchel, J. F. (1992). Global change and freshwater ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23, 119–139.
CrossRef |

Chan T., Hart B., Kennard M., Pusey B., Shenton W., Douglas M. M., Valentine E., Patel S. (2011). Bayesian network models for environmental flow decision making in the Daly River, Northern Territory, Australia. River Research and Applications, in press. doi:10.1002/RRA.1456

Chessman, B. C. (2009). Climatic changes and 13-year trends in stream macroinvertebrate assemblages in New South Wales, Australia. Global Change Biology 15, 2791–2802.
CrossRef |

Chivas, A. R., Garcia, A., van der Kaars, S., Couapel, M. J. J., Holt, S., Reeves, J. M., Wheeler, D. J., Switzer, A. D., Murray-Wallace, C. V., and Banerjee, D. (2001). Sea-level and environmental changes since the last interglacial in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia: an overview. Quaternary International 83–85, 19–46.
CrossRef |

Closs, G. P., and Lake, P. S. (1996). Drought, differential mortality and the coexistence of a native and an introduced fish species in a south east Australian intermittent stream. Environmental Biology of Fishes 47, 17–26.
CrossRef |

Cook, B. D., Bunn, S. E., and Hughes, J. M. (2007). Molecular genetic and stable isotope signatures reveal complementary patterns of population connectivity in the regionally vulnerable southern pygmy perch (Nannoperca australis). Biological Conservation 138, 60–72.
CrossRef |

Costelloe, J. F., Reid, J. R. W., Pritchard, J. C., Puckridge, J. T., Bailey, V. E., and Hudson, P. J. (2010). Are alien fish disadvantaged by extremely variable flow regimes in arid-zone rivers? Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 857–863.
CrossRef | CAS |

Cresswell, I., Petheram, C., Harrington, I., Buettikofer, H., Hodgen, M., (2009). Water resources of northern Australia. In ‘Northern Australia Land and Water Science Review. Final Report to the Northern Australia Land and Water Taskforce’. (Ed. P. Stone.) pp. 1–40. (Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government: Canberra.) Available at http://www.nalwt.gov.au/files/Chapter_01-Water_Resources_in_northern_Australia_Final.pdf [accessed 20 September 2010].

Crook, D. A., and Sanger, A. C. (1998a). Threatened fishes of the world. Galaxias johnstonii Scott, 1936 (Galaxiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 53, 154.

Crook, D. A., and Sanger, A. C. (1998b). Threatened fishes of the world. Galaxias fontanus Fulton, 1978 (Galaxiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 53, 32.

Crook, D. A., Reich, P., Bond, N. R., McMaster, D., Koehn, J. D., and Lake, P. S. (2010a). Using biological information to support proactive strategies for managing freshwater fish during drought. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 379–387.
CrossRef | CAS |

Crook, D. A., Koster, W. M., Macdonald, J. I., Nicol, S. J., Belcher, C. A., Dawson, D. R., O’Mahony, D. J., Lovett, D., Walker, A., and Bannam, L. (2010b). Catadromous migrations by female tupong (Pseudaphritis urvillii) in coastal streams in Victoria, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 474–483.
CrossRef | CAS |

CSIRO (2008). Water availability in the Murray–Darling Basin. A report to the Australian Government from the CSIRO Murray–Darling Basin Sustainable Yields Project. CSIRO, Australia. Available at http://www.csiro.au/files/files/po0n.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

CSIRO (2009a). Surface water yields in south-west Western Australia. A report to the Australian Government from the CSIRO South-West Western Australia Sustainable Yields Project. CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country Flagship, Australia. Available at http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/waterforahealthycountry/swsy/pdf/SWSY-Main-Report-SurfaceWater.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

CSIRO (2009b). Groundwater yields in south-west Western Australia. A report to the Australian Government from the CSIRO South-West Western Australia Sustainable Yields Project. CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country Flagship, Australia. Available at http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/waterforahealthycountry/swsy/pdf/SWSY-Main-Report-Groundwater.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

CSIRO and Bureau of Meteorology (2007). Climate change in Australia: technical report. CSIRO, Melbourne. Available at http://climatechangeinaustralia.com.au/technical_report.php [accessed 23 March 2011].

Davies, P. M. (2010). Climate change implications for river restoration in global biodiversity hotspots. Restoration Ecology 18, 261–268.
CrossRef |

Dudgeon, D., Arthington, A. H., Gessner, M. O., Kawabata, Z. I., Knowler, D. J., Lévêque, C., Naiman, R. J., Prieur-Richard, A.-H., Soto, D., Stiassny, M. L. J., and Sullivan, C. A. (2006). Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 81, 163–182.
CrossRef |

Durrant, J. (2009). Streamflow trends in south-western Western Australia. Surface water hydrology series – report no. HY32. Department of Water, Government of Western Australia. Available at http://www.water.wa.gov.au/PublicationStore/first/87846.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

Eliot, I., Finlayson, C. M., and Waterman, P. (1999). Predicted climate change, sea-level rise and wetland management in the Australian wet–dry tropics. Wetlands Ecology and Management 7, 63–81.
CrossRef |

Fairfax, R., Fensham, R., Wager, R., Brooks, S., Webb, A., and Unmack, P. (2007). Recovery of the red-finned blue-eye: an endangered fish from springs of the Great Artesian Basin. Wildlife Research 34, 156–166.
CrossRef |

Faulks, L. K., Gilligan, D. M., and Beheregaray, L. B. (2010). Clarifying an ambiguous evolutionary history: range-wide phylogeography of an Australian freshwater fish, the golden perch (Macquaria ambigua). Journal of Biogeography 37, 1329–1340.
CrossRef |

Fausch, K. D., Torgersen, C. E., Baxter, C. V., and Li, H. W. (2002). Landscapes to riverscapes: bridging the gap between research and conservation of stream fishes. Bioscience 52, 483–498.
CrossRef |

Gillanders, B. M., Elsdon, T. S., Halliday, I. A., Jenkins, G. P., Robins, J. B., and Valesini, F. J. (2011). Potential effects of climate change on Australian estuaries and fish-utilising estuaries: a review. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1115–1131.
CrossRef |

Golder and Associates (2008). Analysis of the lower Blackwood River and tributaries flow, groundwater and climate relationships and recommendation of management triggers. Report no. 077641626001 R Rev1. Report to the Department of Water, Government of Western Australia, Perth. Available at http://www.water.wa.gov.au/PublicationStore/first/97074.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

Graham, C. T., and Harrod, C. (2009). Implications of climate change for the fishes of the British Isles. Journal of Fish Biology 74, 1143–1205.
CrossRef | CAS |

Grose, M. R., Barnes-Keoghan, I., Corney, S. P., White, C. J., Holz, G. K., Bennett, J. B., Gaynor, S. M., and Bindoff, N. L. (2010). Climate futures for Tasmania: general climate impacts. Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart. Available at http://www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/government_action/climate_futures [accessed 23 March 2011].

Haines, A. T., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. (1988). A global classification of river regimes. Applied Geography 8, 255–272.
CrossRef |

Halse, S. A., Ruprecht, J. K., and Pinder, A. M. (2003). Salinisation and prospects for biodiversity in rivers and wetlands of southwest Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 51, 673–688.
CrossRef |

Hamilton, S. K. (2010). Biogeochemical implications of climate change for tropical rivers and floodplains. Hydrobiologia 657, 19–35.
CrossRef | CAS |

Hamr, P. (1995). Threatened fishes of the world: Galaxias peaderensis Frankenberg, 1968 (Galaxiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 43, 406.

Harasymiw, B. J. (1983). ‘LaTrobe Valley Water Resources Biological Studies. Vol. IV: Effects of Temperature on Life Stages of LaTrobe River Fish Species.’ (State Electricity Commission of Victoria: Melbourne.)

Hardie, S. A., Jackson, J. E., Barmuta, L. A., and White, R. W. G. (2006). Status of galaxiid fishes in Tamania, Australia: conservation listings, threats and management issues. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 16, 235–250.
CrossRef |

Hardie, S. A., White, R. W. G., and Barmuta, L. A. (2007). Reproductive biology of the threatened golden galaxias Galaxias auratus Johnston and the influence of lake hydrology. Journal of Fish Biology 71, 1820–1840.
CrossRef |

Heino, J., Virkkala, R., and Toivonen, H. (2009). Climate change and freshwater biodiversity: detected patterns, future trends and adaptations in northern regions. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 84, 39–54.
CrossRef |

Hobbs, R. J., Arico, S., Aronson, J., Baron, J. S., Bridgewater, P., Cramer, V. A., Epstein, P. R., Ewel, J. J., Klink, C. A., Lugo, A. E., Norton, D., Ojima, D., Richardson, D. M., Sanderson, E. W., Valladares, F., Vila, M., Zamora, R., and Zobel, M. (2006). Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Global Ecology and Biogeography 15, 1–7.
CrossRef |

Hobday, A. J., and Lough, J. M. (2011). Projected climate change in Australian marine and freshwater environments. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1000–1014.
CrossRef |

Horner, G. J., Baker, P. J., Mac Nally, R., Cunningham, S. C., Thomson, J. R., and Hamilton, F. (2009). Mortality of developing floodplain forests subjected to a drying climate and water extraction. Global Change Biology 15, 2176–2186.
CrossRef |

Howitt, J. A., Baldwin, D. S., Rees, G. N., and Williams, J. L. (2007). Modelling blackwater: predicting water quality during flooding of lowland river forests. Ecological Modelling 203, 229–242.
CrossRef |

Hughes, J. M. (2007). Constraints on recovery: using molecular methods to study connectivity of aquatic biota in rivers and streams. Freshwater Biology 52, 616–631.
CrossRef |

Hughes, J., Goudkamp, K., Hurwood, D., Hancock, M., and Bunn, S. (2003). Translocation causes extinction of a local population of the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis. Conservation Biology 17, 1007–1012.
CrossRef |

Humphries, P. (1995). Life history, food and habitat of southern pygmy perch, Nannoperca australis, in the Macquarie River, Tasmania. Marine and Freshwater Research 46, 1159–1169.
CrossRef |

Humphries, P., and Lake, P. S. (2000). Fish larvae and the management of regulated rivers. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 16, 421–432.
CrossRef |

Humphries, P., King, A. J., and Koehn, J. D. (1999). Fish, flows and flood plains: links between freshwater fishes and their environment in the Murray–Darling River system, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 56, 129–151.
CrossRef |

IOCI (2002). ‘Climate Variability and Change in South Western Australia.’ Indian Ocean Climate Initiative. Available at http://www.ioci.org.au/pdf/IOCI_TechnicalReport02.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

IPCC (2007). ‘Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.’ Contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Jones, R. N., and Durack, P. J. (2005). Estimating the impacts of climate change on Victoria’s runoff using a hydrological sensitivity model. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Melbourne. Available at http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/1161F8AC6816BBD5CA25738400825BD1/$File/Climate+change+and+runoff.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

Kawecki, T. J., and Ebert, D. (2004). Conceptual issues in local adaptation. Ecology Letters 7, 1225–1241.
CrossRef |

Kennard, M. J., Arthington, A. H., Pusey, B. J., and Harch, B. D. (2005). Are alien fish a reliable indicator of river health? Freshwater Biology 50, 174–193.
CrossRef |

Kennard, M. J., Pusey, B. J., Olden, J. D., MacKay, S. J., Stein, J. L., and Marsh, N. (2010). Classification of natural flow regimes in Australia to support environmental flow management. Freshwater Biology 55, 171–193.
CrossRef |

Kerezsy, A. (2009). ‘Gambusia Control in Spring Wetlands.’ (South Australian Arid Lands Natural Resources Management Board: Adelaide.)

Kerezsy, A. (2010). The distribution, recruitment and movement of fish in far western Queensland. Ph.D. Thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane.

King, A. J., Tonkin, Z., and Mahoney, J. (2009). Environmental flows enhance native fish spawning and recruitment in the Murray River, Australia. River Research and Applications 25, 1205–1218.
CrossRef |

Kingsford, R. T. (2011). Conservation management of rivers and wetlands under climate change – a synthesis. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 217–222.
CrossRef | CAS |

Kingsford, R. T., Walker, K. F., Lester, R. E., Young, W. J., Fairweather, P. G., Sammut, J., and Geddes, C. (2011). A Ramsar wetland in crisis – the Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 255–265.
CrossRef | CAS |

Kinnison, M. T., and Hairston, N. G. (2007). Eco-evolutionary conservation biology: contemporary evolution and the dynamics of persistence. Functional Ecology 21, 444–454.
CrossRef |

Koehn, J. D. (2004). Carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways. Freshwater Biology 49, 882–894.
CrossRef |

Koehn, J. D., and MacKenzie, R. F. (2004). Priority management actions for alien freshwater fish species in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38, 457–472.
CrossRef |

Koster, W., and Dawson, D. (2009). Investigation of the movements of Australian grayling in the Bunyip River using acoustic telemetry. Unpublished report for Melbourne Water. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.

Lake, P. S. (2003). Ecological effects of perturbation by drought in flowing waters. Freshwater Biology 48, 1161–1172.
CrossRef |

Lintermans, M. (2004). Human-assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38, 481–501.
CrossRef |

Lintermans, M. (2006). The re-establishment of the endangered Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica, in the Queanbeyan River, New South Wales, with an examination of dietary overlap with alien trout. CRC Freshwater Ecology Technical Report. Available at http://freshwater.canberra.edu.au/publications.nsf/f8748e6acfab1b7fca256f1e001536e1/9ffa733471131b0aca25725f00244a04?OpenDocument [accessed 23 March 2011].

Lintermans, M. (2007). ‘Fishes of the Murray–Darling Basin: An Introductory Guide.’ (Murray–Darling Basin Commission: Canberra.)

Llewellyn, L. C. (1973). Spawning development and temperature tolerance of the spangeld perch Madigania unicolor (Günther), from inland waters in Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24, 73–94.
CrossRef |

Llewellyn, L. C. (1974). Spawning, development and distribution of the southern pigmy perch Nannoperca australis australis Günther from inland waters in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 25, 121–149.
CrossRef |

Lough, J. M., Hobday, A. J., and Jones, D. (2011). Observed climate change in Australian marine and freshwater environments. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 984–999.
CrossRef |

Lyon, J. P., and O’Connor, J. P. (2008). Smoke on the water: can riverine fish populations recover following a catastrophic fire-related sediment slug? Austral Ecology 33, 794–806.
CrossRef |

Magoulick, D. D., and Kobza, R. M. (2003). The role of refugia for fishes during drought: a review and synthesis. Freshwater Biology 48, 1186–1198.
CrossRef |

Mayer, X., Ruprecht, J., and Bari, M. (2005). Stream salinity status and trends in south-west Western Australia. Department of Environment. Available at http://www.water.wa.gov.au/PublicationStore/first/47530.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

McCullough, D. A., Bartholow, J. M., Jager, H. I., Beschta, R. L., Cheslak, E. F., Deas, M. L., Ebersole, J. L., Foott, J. S., Johnson, S. L., Marine, K. R., Mesa, M. G., Petersen, J. H., Souchon, Y., Tiffan, K. F., and Wurtsbaugh, W. A. (2009). Research in thermal biology: burning questions for coldwater stream fishes. Reviews in Fisheries Science 17, 90–115.
CrossRef |

McJannet, D., Wallace, J., and Reddell, P. (2007). Precipitation interception in Australian tropical rainforests: II. Altitudinal gradients of cloud interception, stemflow, throughfall and interception. Hydrological Processes 21, 1703–1718.
CrossRef |

McJannet, D. L., Wallace, J. W., Henderson, A., and McMahon, J. (2009). High and low flow regime changes at environmental assets across northern Australia under future climate and development scenarios. A report to the Australian Government from the CSIRO Northern Australian Sustainable Yields Project. CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship, Division of Land and Water, Canberra. Available at http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/waterforahealthycountry/nasy/documents/TechReports/NASY-flow-regime-changes-environmental.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

McMaster, D., and Bond, N. R. (2008). A field and experimental study on the tolerances of fish to Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Marine and Freshwater Research 59, 177–185.
CrossRef | CAS |

McNeil, D. G., and Closs, G. P. (2007). Behavioural responses of a south-east Australian floodplain fish community to gradual hypoxia. Freshwater Biology 52, 412–420.
CrossRef | CAS |

McNeil, D. G., and Schmarr, D. W. (2009). Recovery of Lake Eyre Basin fishes following drought: 2008/09 fish survey report. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2009/000407-1. SARDI Research Report Series No. 411. Available at http://saalnrm.sa.gov.au/Portals/8/pdf/Reports/rep_lebfish_sardi_march09.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

McNeil, D. G., Schmarr, D. W., and White, M. (2010). Assessment of native vegetation and endemic fish (Mogurnda clivicola) at springs in the Northern Flinders Ranges. SARDI Publication Series. South Australian Research and Development Institute, Aquatic Sciences, Adelaide.

Morgan, D. L., Gill, H. S., and Potter, I. C. (1998). Distribution, identification and biology of freshwater fishes in south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supp No. 56, 1–97.

Morgan, D. L., Gill, H. S., and Potter, I. C. (2000). Age composition, growth and reproductive biology of the salamanderfish Lepidogalaxias salamandroides: a re-examination. Environmental Biology of Fishes 57, 191–204.
CrossRef |

Morrongiello, J., Elith, J., and Crook, D. (2006). Impacts of drought on fish in Victorian rivers and streams. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Melbourne.

Morrongiello, J. R., Bond, N. R., Crook, D. A., and Wong, B. B. M. (2010). Nuptial coloration varies with ambient light environment in a freshwater fish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23, 2718–2725.
CrossRef | CAS |

Morrongiello, J. R., Crook, D. A., King, A. J., Ramsey, D. S. L., and Brown, P. (2011). Impacts of drought and predicted effects of climate change on fish growth in temperate Australian lakes. Global Change Biology 17, 745–755.
CrossRef |

Murphy, B. F., and Timbal, B. (2008). A review of recent climate variability and climate change in southeastern Australia. International Journal of Climatology 28, 859–879.
CrossRef |

Nicholls, N. (2005). Climate variability, climate change and the Australian snow season. Australian Meteorological Magazine 54, 177–185.

Nicholls, N., Drosdowsky, W., and Lavery, B. (1997). Australian rainfall variability and change. Weather 52, 66–72.

O’Connor, J. P., and Mahoney, J. C. (2004). Observations of ovarian involution in the Australian grayling (Prototroctes maraena). Ecology Freshwater Fish 13, 70–73.
CrossRef |

Olden, J. D., and Kennard, M. J. (2010). Intercontinental comparision of fish life-history strategies along a gradient of hydrologic variability. In ‘Community Ecology of Stream Fishes: Concepts, Approaches, and Techniques’. (Eds K. B. Gido and D. A. Jackson.) pp. 83–107. (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MA.)

Olden, J. D., Kennard, M. J., and Pusey, B. J. (2008). Species invasions and the changing biogeography of Australian freshwater fishes. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17, 25–37.

Olden, J. D., Kennard, M. J., Lawler, J. J., and Poff, N. L. (2011). Challenges and opportunities in implementing managed relocation for conservation of freshwater species. Conservation Biology 25, 40–47.
CrossRef |

Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37, 637–669.
CrossRef |

Parmesan, C., and Yohe, G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421, 37–42.
CrossRef | CAS |

Pen, L. J., and Potter, I. C. (1991). The biology of the western pygmy perch, Edelia vittata, and comparisons with two other teleost species endemic to south-western Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 31, 365–380.
CrossRef |

Pittock, J., and Finlayson, C. M. (2011). Australia’s Murray–Darling Basin: freshwater ecosystem conservation options in an era of climate change. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 232–243.
CrossRef | CAS |

Pratchett, M. S., Bay, L. K., Gehrke, P. C., Koehn, J. D., Osborne, K., Pressey, R. L., Sweatman, H. P. A., and Wachenfeld, D. (2011). Contribution of climate change to degradation and loss of critical fish habitats in Australian marine and freshwater environments. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1062–1081.
CrossRef |

Puckridge, J. T., Sheldon, F., Walker, K. F., and Boulton, A. J. (1998). Flow variability and the ecology of large rivers. Marine and Freshwater Research 49, 55–72.
CrossRef |

Pusey, B. J. (1990). Seasonality, aestivation and the life history of the salamanderfish Lepidogalaxias salamandroides Mees (Pisces: Lepidogalaxiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 29, 15–26.
CrossRef |

Pusey, B. J., and Edward, D. H. D. (1990). Structure of fish assemblages in waters of the southern acid peat flats, south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41, 721–734.
CrossRef |

Pusey, B. J., and Kennard, M. J. (1996). Species richness and geographical variation in assemblage structure of the freshwater fish fauna of the Wet Tropics region of northern Queensland. Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 563–573.
CrossRef |

Pusey, B. J., and Kennard, M. J. (2009). Aquatic ecosystems of northern Australia. In ‘Northern Australia Land and Water Science Review. Final Report to the Northern Australia Land and Water Taskforce’. (Ed. P. Stone) pp. 1–73. (Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government: Canberra). Available at http://www.nalwt.gov.au/files/Chapter_03-Aquatic_ecosystems_in_northern_Australia.pdf [accessed 20 September 2010].

Pusey, B. J., Kennard, M. J., and Arthington, A. H. (2004). ‘Freshwater Fishes of Northeastern Australia.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Pusey, B. J., Kennard, M. J., and Arthington, A. H. (2008). Origins and maintenance of freshwater fish biodiversity in the Wet Tropics region. In ‘Living in a Dynamic Tropical Forest Landscape’. (Eds N. Stork and S. Turton.) pp. 150–161. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK.)

Pyke, G. H. (2005). A review of the biology of Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15, 339–365.
CrossRef |

Rahel, F. J., and Olden, J. D. (2008). Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species. Conservation Biology 22, 521–533.
CrossRef |

Rayner, T. S., Pusey, B. J., and Pearson, R. G. (2008). Seasonal flooding, instream habitat structure and fish assemblages in the Mulgrave River, north-east Queensland: towards a new conceptual framework for understanding fish-habitat dynamics in small tropical rivers. Marine and Freshwater Research 59, 97–116.
CrossRef |

Rayner, T. S., Pusey, B. J., and Pearson, R. G. (2009). Spatio-temporal dynamics of fish feeding in the lower Mulgrave River, north-eastern Queensland: the influence of seasonal flooding, instream productivity and invertebrate abundance. Marine and Freshwater Research 60, 97–111.
CrossRef |

Richardson, D. M., Hellmann, J. J., McLachlan, J. S., Sax, D. F., Schwartz, M. W., Gonzalez, P., Brennan, E. J., Camacho, A., Root, T. L., Sala, O. E., Schneider, S. H., Ashe, D. M., Clark, J. R., Early, R., Etterson, J. R., Fielder, E. D., Gill, J. L., Minteer, B. A., Polasky, S., Safford, H. D., Thompson, A. R., and Vellend, M. (2009). Multidimensional evaluation of managed relocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106, 9721–9724.
CrossRef | CAS |

Robertson, A. I., Bunn, S. E., Boon, P. I., and Walker, K. F. (1999). Sources, sinks and transformations of organic carbon in Australian floodplain rivers. Marine and Freshwater Research 50, 813–829.
CrossRef | CAS |

Russell, D. J., Hales, P. W., and Helmke, S. A. (1996). Stream habitat and fish resources in the Russell and Mulgrave Rivers Catchment. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Northern Fisheries Centre, Brisbane.

Schiller, C. B., Bruce, A. M. G., and Gehrke, P. C. (1997). Distribution and abundance of native fish in New South Wales rivers. In ‘Fish and Rivers in Stress’. (Eds P. C. Gehrke and J. H. Harris.) pp. 71–103. (CRC for Freshwater Ecology and New South Wales Fisheries: Sydney.)

Schneider, C., and Moritz, C. (1999). Rainforest refugia and evolution in Australia’s Wet Tropics. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 266, 191–196.
CrossRef |

Silcock, J. (2009). Identification of permanent refuge waterbodies in the Cooper Creek and Georgina–Diamantina River catchments for Queensland and South Australia. South Australian Arid Lands Natural Resources Management Board, Port Augusta. Available at http://www.saalnrm.sa.gov.au/Portals/8/pdf/Reports/rep_June09_IDpermanentwaterbodies.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

Still, C. J., Foster, P. N., and Schneider, S. H. (1999). Simulating the effects of climate change on tropical montane cloud forests. Nature 398, 608–610.
CrossRef | CAS |

Stuart-Smith, R. D., Stuart-Smith, J. F., White, R. W. G., and Barmuta, L. A. (2007). The impact of an introduced predator on a threatened galaxiid fish is reduced by the availability of complex habitats. Freshwater Biology 52, 1555–1563.

Suppiah, R., Hennessy, K. J., Whetton, P. H., McInnes, K., Macadam, I., Bathols, J., Ricketts, J., and Page, C. M. (2007). Australian climate change projections derived from simulations performed for the IPCC 4th assessment report. Australian Meteorological Magazine 131, 131–152.

Tedesco, P. A., Oberdorff, T., Lasso, C. A., Zapata, M., and Hugueny, B. (2005). Evidence of history in explaining diversity patterns in tropical fish. Journal of Biogeography 32, 1899–1907.
CrossRef |

Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L. J., Collingham, Y. C., Erasmus, B. F. N., de Siqueira, M. F., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A. S., Midgley, G. F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M. A., Peterson, A. T., Phillips, O. L., and Williams, S. E. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427, 145–148.
CrossRef | CAS |

Thompson, G. G., and Withers, P. C. (2002). Aerial and aquatic respiration of the Australian desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A. Molecular and Integrated Physiology 131, 871–879.
CrossRef |

Threatened Species Section (2006). Recovery plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006–2010. Department of Primary Industries, Water, Hobart. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/pubs/tasmanian-galaxiidae.pdf [accessed 23 March 2011].

Unmack, P. J. (2001). Biogeography of Australian freshwater fishes. Journal of Biogeography 28, 1053–1089.
CrossRef |

Williams, S. E., Bolitho, E. E., and Fox, S. (2003). Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences , 1887–1892.

Winemiller, K. O. (2005). Life history strategies, population regulation, and implications for fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62, 872–885.
CrossRef |

Woinarski, J., Mackey, B., Nix, H., and Traill, B. (2007). ‘The Nature of Northern Australia. Natural Values, Ecological Processes and Future Prospects.’ (ANUE Press: Canberra.)

Woodroffe, C. D. (1995). Response of tide-dominated mangrove shorelines in northern Australia to anticipated sea-level rise. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 20, 65–85.
CrossRef |

Xenopoulos, M. A., and Lodge, D. M. (2006). Going with the flow: using species–discharge relationships to forecast losses in fish diversity. Ecology 87, 1907–1914.
CrossRef |

Yokoyama, Y., Purcell, A., Lambeck, K., and Johnston, P. (2001). Shore-line reconstruction around Australia during the last glacial maximum and late glacial stage. Quaternary International 83–85, 9–18.
CrossRef |


   
 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014