CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review an Article
Referee Guidelines
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>        Online Early    

Population structure and biology of shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the south-west Indian Ocean

J. C. Groeneveld A F , G. Cliff B C , S. F. J. Dudley D , A. J. Foulis A , J. Santos E and S. P. Wintner B C

A Oceanographic Research Institute, PO Box 10712, Marine Parade 4056, Durban, South Africa.
B KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Private Bag 2, Umhlanga Rocks 4320, South Africa.
C Biomedical Resource Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa.
D Fisheries Management, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, South Africa.
E Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, NO-9037, Tromsø, Norway.
F Corresponding author. Email: jgroeneveld@ori.org.za

Marine and Freshwater Research - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF13341
Submitted: 23 December 2013  Accepted: 1 May 2014   Published online: 24 September 2014


 
PDF (955 KB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

The population structure, reproductive biology, age and growth, and diet of shortfin makos caught by pelagic longliners (2005–10) and bather protection nets (1978–2010) in the south-west Indian Ocean were investigated. The mean fork length (FL) of makos measured by observers on longliners targeting tuna, swordfish and sharks was similar, and decreased from east to west, with the smallest individuals occurring near the Agulhas Bank edge, June to November. Nearly all makos caught by longliners were immature, with equal sex ratio. Makos caught by bather protection nets were significantly larger, males were more frequent, and 93% of males and 55% of females were mature. Age was assessed from band counts of sectioned vertebrae, and a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to sex-pooled length-at-age data predicted a birth size (L0) of 90 cm, maximum FL (L) of 285 cm and growth coefficient (k) of 0.113 y–1. Males matured at 190 cm FL, aged 7 years, and females at 250 cm, aged 15 years. Litter sizes ranged from nine to 14 pups, and the presence of gravid females in bather protection nets suggested that some pupping occurred in shelf waters. Teleosts (mainly Trachurus capensis) occurred in 84% of stomachs collected on longliners, whereas elasmobranchs (63.5%) were most common in samples collected from bather protection nets, followed by teleosts (43.1%) and cephalopods (36.5%). Larger prey size may be a factor that attracts large makos to coastal waters.

Additional keywords: demography, GLM, pelagic longline fisheries, shark bycatch, stomach contents.


References

Akaike, H. (1974). A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 19, 716–723.
CrossRef |

Beamish, R. J., and Fournier, D. A. (1981). A method for comparing the precision of a set of age determinations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38, 982–983.
CrossRef |

Beckley, L. E. (1983). Sea-surface temperature variability around Cape Recife, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 79, 436–438.

Bishop, S., Francis, M., Duffy, C., and Montgomery, J. (2006). Age, growth, maturity, longevity and natural mortality of the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in New Zealand waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 57, 143–154.
CrossRef |

Branstetter, S., and Musick, J. A. (1994). Age and growth estimates for the sand tiger in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 123, 242–254.
CrossRef |

Buencuerpo, V., Rios, S., and Morón, J. (1998). Pelagic sharks associated with the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, fishery in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the Strait of Gibraltar. Fishery Bulletin 96, 667–685.

Bustamante, C., and Bennett, M. B. (2013). Insights into the reproductive biology and fisheries of two commercially exploited species, shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) and blue shark (Prionace glauca), in the south-east Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Research 143, 174–183.
CrossRef |

Cailliet, G. M., Smith, W. D., Mollet, H. F., and Goldman, K. J. (2006). Age and growth studies of chondrichthyan fishes: the need for consistency in terminology, verification, validation, and growth function fitting. Environmental Biology of Fishes 77, 211–228.
CrossRef |

Campana, S. (2001). Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods. Journal of Fish Biology 59, 197–242.
CrossRef |

Campana, S., Natanson, L., and Myklevoll, S. (2002). Bomb dating and age determination of large pelagic sharks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59, 450–455.
CrossRef |

Campana, S., Marks, L., and Joyce, W. (2005). The biology and fishery of shortfin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus) in Atlantic Canadian waters. Fisheries Research 73, 341–352.
CrossRef |

Casey, J., and Kohler, N. (1992). Tagging studies on the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the western North Atlantic. Marine and Freshwater Research 43, 45–60.
CrossRef |

Castro, J. (1996). Biology of the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus, off the southeastern United States. Bulletin of Marine Science 59, 508–522.

Cerna, F., and Licandeo, R. (2009). Age and growth of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the south-eastern Pacific off Chile. Marine and Freshwater Research 60, 394–403.
CrossRef |

Cliff, G., and Dudley, S. F. J. (2011). Reducing the environmental impact of shark-control programs: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 700–709.
CrossRef | CAS |

Cliff, G., Dudley, S. F. J., and Davis, B. (1988). Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 1. The sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo). South African Journal of Marine Science 7, 255–265.
CrossRef |

Cliff, G., Dudley, S. F. J., and Davis, B. (1990). Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 3. The shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque). South African Journal of Marine Science 9, 115–126.
CrossRef |

Compagno, L. J. V. (2001). ‘Sharks of the World: an Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Bullhead, Mackerel and Carpet Sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes).’ FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1, Vol. 2. (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy.)

Cortés, E. (1999). Standardized diet compositions and trophic levels of sharks. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56, 707–717.
CrossRef |

DAFF (2012). ‘Status of the South African Marine Fishery Resources.’ (Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries: Cape Town, South Africa.)

Dudley, S. F. J., and Cliff, G. (2010). Influence of the annual sardine run on catches of large sharks in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and the occurrence of sardine in shark diet. African Journal of Marine Science 32, 383–397.
CrossRef |

Dudley, S. F. J., and Simpfendorfer, C. A. (2006). Population status of 14 shark species caught in the protective gillnets off KwaZulu-Natal beaches, South Africa, 1978–2003. Marine and Freshwater Research 57, 225–240.
CrossRef |

Dudley, S. F. J., Cliff, G., Zungu, M. P., and Smale, M. J. (2005). Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 10. The dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818). African Journal of Marine Science 27, 107–127.
CrossRef |

Duffy, C., and Francis, M. P. (2001). Evidence of summer parturition in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) sharks from New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35, 319–324.
CrossRef |

Dulvy, N. K., Baum, J. K., Clarke, S., Compagno, L. J. V., Cortés, E., Domingo, A., Fordham, S., Fowler, S., Francis, M. P., Gibson, C., Martínez, J., Musick, J. A., Soldo, A., Stevens, J. D., and Valenti, S. (2008). You can swim but you can’t hide: the global status and conservation of oceanic pelagic sharks and rays. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18, 459–482.
CrossRef |

Foulis, A. J. (2013). A retrospective analysis of shark catches made by pelagic longliners off the east coast of South Africa and biology and life history of shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus. Master’s thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. pp. 117.

Francis, M. P. (2006). Morphometric minefields – towards a measurement standard for chondrichthyan fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 77, 407–421.
CrossRef |

Francis, M. P., and Duffy, C. (2005). Length at maturity in three pelagic sharks (Lamna nasus, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Prionace glauca) from New Zealand. Fishery Bulletin 103, 489–500.

Francis, M. P., Griggs, L. H., and Baird, S. J. (2001). Pelagic shark bycatch in the New Zealand tuna longline fishery. Marine and Freshwater Research 52, 165–178.
CrossRef |

Francis, M. P., Campana, S. E., and Jones, C. M. (2007). Age under-estimation in New Zealand porbeagle sharks (Lamna nasus): is there an upper limit to ages that can be determined from shark vertebrae? Marine and Freshwater Research 58, 10–23.
CrossRef |

Gilmore, R. (1993). Reproductive biology of lamnoid sharks. Environmental Biology of Fishes 38, 95–114.
CrossRef |

Goldman, K. J., Branstetter, S., and Musick, J. A. (2006). A re-examination of the age and growth of sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, in the western North Atlantic: the importance of ageing protocols and use of multiple back-calculation techniques. Environmental Biology of Fishes 77, 241–252.
CrossRef |

Heist, E. J., Musick, J. A., and Graves, J. E. (1996). Genetic population structure of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) inferred from restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53, 583–588.
CrossRef | CAS |

Holts, D., and Bedford, D. (1993). Horizontal and vertical movements of the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the southern California Bight. Marine and Freshwater Research 44, 901–909.
CrossRef |

Hyslop, E. (1980). Stomach contents analysis – a review of methods and their application. Journal of Fish Biology 17, 411–429.
CrossRef |

IOTC (2012). Report of the Fifteenth Session of the IOTC Scientific Committee. Appendix XXVII. Executive Summary: Shortfin mako shark. Mahé, Seychelles, 10–15 December 2012. IOTC-2012–SC15_R[E], pp. 218–223.

IUCN (2013). ‘IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1.’ Available at www.iucnredlist.org [accessed 01 November 2013].

Joung, S., and Hsu, H. (2005). Reproduction and embryonic development of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810, in the northwestern Pacific. Zoological Studies 44, 487–496.

Kirkwood, G. P., and Walker, T. I. (1986). Gill net mesh selectivities for gummy shark, Mustelus antarcticus Günther, taken in south-eastern Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 37, 689–697.
CrossRef |

Kitchell, J. F., Essington, T. E., Boggs, C. H., Schindler, D. E., and Walters, C. J. (2002). The role of sharks and longline fisheries in a pelagic ecosystem of the central Pacific. Ecosystems 5, 202–216.
CrossRef |

Loefer, J. K., Sedberry, G. R., and Mcgovern, J. C. (2005). Vertical movements of a shortfin mako in the western North Atlantic as determined by pop-up satellite tagging. Southeastern Naturalist (Steuben, ME) 4, 237–246.
CrossRef |

Lutjeharms, J. R. (2006). The Agulhas current. African Journal of Marine Science 28, 729–732.

MacNeil, M. A., Skomal, G. B., and Fisk, A. T. (2005). Stable isotopes from multiple tissues reveal diet switching in sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series 302, 199–206.
CrossRef |

Maia, A., Queiroz, N., and Correia, J. (2006). Food habits of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, off the southwest coast of Portugal. Environmental Biology of Fishes 77, 157–167.
CrossRef |

Maia, A., Queiroz, N., Cabral, H. N., Santos, A. M., and Correia, J. P. (2007). Reproductive biology and population dynamics of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810, off the southwest Portuguese coast, eastern North Atlantic. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 23, 246–251.
CrossRef |

Mollet, H., Cliff, G., Pratt, H., and Stevens, J. (2000). Reproductive biology of the female shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810, with comments on the embryonic development of lamnoids. Fishery Bulletin 98, 299–318.

Mollet, H. F., Testi, A. D., Compagno, L. J. V., and Francis, M. P. (2002). Re-identification of a lamnid shark embryo. Fishery Bulletin 100, 865–875.

Mucientes, G. R., Queiroz, N., Sousa, L. L., Tarroso, P., and Sims, D. W. (2009). Sexual segregation of pelagic sharks and the potential threat from fisheries. Biology Letters 5, 156–159.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Nakano, H., and Nagasawa, K. (1996). Distribution of pelagic elasmobranchs caught by salmon research gillnets in the North Pacific. Fisheries Science 62, 860–865.
| CAS |

Natanson, L., Kohler, N., Ardizzone, D., Cailliet, G., Wintner, S., and Mollet, H. F. (2006). Validated age and growth estimates for the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the North Atlantic Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 77, 367–383.
CrossRef |

Neer, J. A., Thompson, B. A., and Carlson, J. K. (2005). Age and growth of Carcharhinus leucas in the northern Gulf of Mexico: incorporating variability in size at birth. Journal of Fish Biology 67, 370–383.
CrossRef |

Petersen, S., Honig, M., Ryan, P., Underhill, L., and Compagno, L. J. V. (2009). Pelagic shark bycatch in the tuna- and swordfish-directed longline fishery off southern Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 31, 215–225.
CrossRef |

Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S., Sarkar, D., and R Core Team (2014). nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1–117. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=nlme

Pratt, H. L. (1979). Reproduction in the blue shark, Prionace glauca. Fishery Bulletin 77, 445–470.

Pratt, H. L., and Casey, J. G. (1983). Age and growth of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, using four methods. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40, 1944–1957.
CrossRef |

Preti, A., Soykan, C. U., Dewar, H., Wells, R. J. D., Spear, N., and Kohin, S. (2012). Comparative feeding ecology of shortfin mako, blue and thresher sharks in the California current. Environmental Biology of Fishes 95, 127–146.
CrossRef |

R development Core Team (2011). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at http://www.R-project.org/.

Ribot-Carballal, M., Galvan-Magana, F., and Quinonez-Velazquez, C. (2005). Age and growth of the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, from the western coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico. Fisheries Research 76, 14–21.
CrossRef |

Ricker, W. R. (1979). Growth rates and models. In ‘Fish Physiology’. (Eds W. S. Hoar, D. J. Randall and J. R. Brett.) pp. 677–743. (Academic Press: New York, NY.)

Rogers, P. J., Huveneers, C., Page, B., Hamer, D. J., Goldsworthy, S. D., Mitchell, J. G., and Seuront, L. (2012). A quantitative comparison of the diets of sympatric pelagic sharks in gulf and shelf ecosystems off southern Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69, 1382–1393.
CrossRef |

Schrey, A. W., and Heist, E. J. (2003). Microsatellite analysis of population structure in the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60, 670–675.
CrossRef | CAS |

Semba, Y., Nakano, H., and Aoki, I. (2009). Age and growth analysis of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the western and central North Pacific Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 84, 377–391.
CrossRef |

Semba, Y., Aoki, I., and Yokawa, K. (2011). Size at maturity and reproductive traits of shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the western and central North Pacific. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 20–29.
CrossRef |

Sepulveda, C. A., Kohin, S., Chan, C., Vetter, R., and Graham, J. B. (2004). Movement patterns, depth preferences, and stomach temperatures of free-swimming juvenile mako sharks, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the Southern California Bight. Marine Biology 145, 191–199.
CrossRef |

Simpfendorfer, C. A., and Unsworth, P. (1998). Gill-net mesh selectivity of dusky sharks (Carcharhinus obscurus) and whiskery sharks (Furgaleus macki) from south-western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 49, 713–718.
CrossRef |

Stevens, J. D. (1983). Observations on reproduction in the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus. Copeia 1983, 126–130.
CrossRef |

Stevens, J. (1984). Biological observations on sharks caught by sport fisherman of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35, 573–590.
CrossRef |

Stillwell, C., and Kohler, N. (1982). Food, feeding habits, and estimates of daily ration of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39, 407–414.
CrossRef |

Vaske, T., and Rincón, G. (1998). Conteúdo estomacal dos tubarões azul (Prionace glauca) e anequim (Isurus oxyrinchus) em águas oceânicas no sul do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 58, 445–452.

von Bertalanffy, L. (1938). A quantitative theory of organic growth (inquiries on growth laws. II). Human Biology 10, 181–213.
| CAS |

Walter, J., and Ebert, D. (1991). Preliminary estimates of age of the bronze whaler Carcharhinus brachyurus (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae) from southern Africa, with a review of some life history parameters. South African Journal of Marine Science 10, 37–44.
CrossRef |

Wells, R. J. D., Smith, S. E., Kohin, S., Freund, E., Spear, N., and Ramon, D. A. (2013). Age validation of juvenile shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) tagged and marked with oxytetracycline off southern California. Fishery Bulletin 111, 147–160.
CrossRef |

Wetherbee, B. M., Gruber, S. H., and Cortés, E. (1990). Diet, feeding habits, digestion, and consumption in sharks, with special reference to the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 90, 29–47.

Wintner, S., Dudley, S. F. J., and Kistnasamy, N. (2002). Age and growth estimates for the Zambezi shark, Carcharhinus leucas, from the east coast of South Africa. Marine and Freshwater Research 53, 557–566.
CrossRef |

Wood, A. D., Wetherbee, B. M., Kohler, N. E., Juanes, F., and Wilga, C. (2009). Recalculated diet and daily ration of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), with a focus on quantifying predation on bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Fishery Bulletin 107, 1–15.

Yudin, K. G., and Cailliet, G. M. (1990). Age and growth of the gray smoothhound, Mustelus californicus, and the brown smoothhound, M. henlei, sharks from central California. Copeia 1990, 191–204.
CrossRef |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014