CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Reproduction, Fertility and Development   
Reproduction, Fertility and Development
Journal Banner
  Vertebrate Reproductive Science & Technology
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Scope
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
Awards and Prizes
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our email Early Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter LinkedIn

red arrow Connect with SRB
blank image
facebook TwitterIcon

Affiliated Societies

RFD is the official journal of the International Embryo Transfer Society and the Society for Reproductive Biology.


 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 24(3)

Reproductive performance and fertility in male and female adult mice chronically treated with hexarelin

P. B. Puechagut A, A. C. Martini A B, G. Stutz A, M. E. Santillán A, E. M. Luque A, M. Fiol de Cuneo A B, R. D. Ruiz A B and L. M. Vincenti A C

A Instituto de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Santa Rosa 1085, X5000ESU, Córdoba, Argentina.
B Established Investigators of the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET, Argentina).
C Corresponding author. Email: vincentilaura@gmail.com

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 24(3) 451-460 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD11009
Submitted: 5 January 2011  Accepted: 6 July 2011   Published: 11 November 2011


 
PDF (181 KB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Hexarelin (HEXr), a synthetic ghrelin analogue, has been associated with modifications of reproductive physiology. In previous studies of adult mice, we detected that HEXr induced significantly reduced ovulation rate and significant correlation coefficients between sexual maturation and corporal weight in offspring. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic HEXr administration on sperm concentration and functional activity, oestrous cyclicity and pregnancy index, in addition to the number of fetuses and its correlation with the number of corpora lutea. Adult Albino swiss mice were injected (sc) daily with HEXr: 100 μg kg–1 day–1 (HEXr D1) or 200 μg kg–1 day–1 (HEXr D2) for 53 days in males and 30 days in females. We detected a significantly decreased ratio in the number of fetuses per corpora lutea in females treated with HEXr D2 for 30 days before mating and during the first 6 days of pregnancy, in addition to a downward trend in the pregnancy index and percentage of females impregnated by each male treated with both doses of the analogue. Although we did not find any significant effect on additional parameters evaluated in both genders, we propose certain effects of HEXr on the implantation process and/or early development of embryos and over the in vivo reproductive capability of males.

Additional keywords: ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogues, reproduction.


References

Akamizu, T., and Kangawa, K. (2006). Translational research on the clinical applications of ghrelin. Endocr. J. 53, 585–591.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Arvat, E., Maccagno, B., Ramunni, J., Di Vito, L., Broglio, F., Deghenghi, R., Camanni, F., and Ghigo, E. (1997). Hexarelin, a synthetic growth-hormone releasing peptide, shows no interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin on adrenocorticotropin and cortisol secretion in humans. Neuroendocrinology 66, 432–438.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Arvat, E., Maccario, M., Di Vito, L., Broglio, F., Benso, A., Gottero, C., Papotti, M., Muccioli, G., Diéguez, C., Casanueva, F. F., Deghenghi, R., Cammani, F., and Ghigo, E. (2001). Endocrine activities of ghrelin, a natural growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), in humans: comparison and interactions with hexarelin, a nonnatural peptidyl GHS, and GH-releasing hormone. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86, 1169–1174.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Baldanzi, G., Filigheddu, N., Cutrupi, S., Catapano, F., Bonissoni, S., Fubini, A., Malan, D., Baj, G., Granata, R., Broglio, F., Papotti, M., Surico, N., Bussolino, F., Isgaard, J., Deghenghi, R., Sinigaglia, F., Prat, M., Muccioli, G., Ghigo, E., and Graziani, A. (2002). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin inhibit cell death in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells through ERK1/2 and PI 3-kinase/AKT. J. Cell Biol. 159, 1029–1037.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Barreiro, M. L., and Tena-Sempere, M. (2004). Ghrelin and reproduction: a novel signal linking energy status and fertility? Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 226, 1–9.
| CAS | PubMed |

Bertoldi, M. L. Bertoldi, M. L. Bertoldi, M. L. Bertoldi, M. L. Bertoldi, M. L. Bertoldi, M. L. Bertoldi, M. L. Bertoldi, M. L. Bertoldi, M. L. (2011). Inhibitory effects of ghrelin on sexual behavior: role of the peptide in the receptivity reduction induced by food restriction in mice. Horm. Metab. Res. 43, 494–499.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Barreiro, M. L., Gaytán, F., Caminos, J. E., Pinilla, L., Casanueva, F. F., Aguilar, E., Diéguez, C., and Tena-Sempere, M. (2002). Cellular location and hormonal regulation of ghrelin expression in rat testis. Biol. Reprod. 67, 1768–1776.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Barreiro, M. L., Suominen, J. S., Gaytán, F., Pinilla, L., Chopin, L. K., Casanueva, F. F., Diéguez, C., Aguilar, E., Toppari, J., and Tena-Sempere, M. (2003). Developmental, stage-specific and hormonally regulated expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor messenger RNA in rat testis. Biol. Reprod. 68, 1631–1640.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Bertoldi, M. L., Luque, E. M., Carlini, V. P., Vincenti, L. M., Stutz, G., Santillán, M. E., Ruiz, R. D., Fiol de Cuneo, M., and Martini, A. C. (2011). Inhibitory effects of ghrelin on sexual behavior: role of the peptide in the receptivity reduction induced by food restriction in mice. Horm. Metab. Res. , .
CrossRef | PubMed |

Bowers, C. Y., Momany, F., Reynolds, C. A., Chang, D., Hong, A., and Chang, K. (1980). Structure-activity relationship of a synthetic pentapeptide that specifically releases growth hormone in vitro. Endocrinology 106, 663–667.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Bresciani, E., Pitsikas, N., Tamiazzo, L., Luoni, M., Bulgarelli, I., Cocchi, D., Locatelli, V., and Torsello, A. (2008). Feeding behavior during long-term hexarelin administration in young and old rats. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 31, 647–652.
| CAS | PubMed |

Caminos, J. E., Tena-Sempere, M., Gaytan, F., Sanchez-Criado, J. E., Barreiro, M. L., Nogueiras, R., Casanueva, F. F., Aguilar, E., and Dieguez, C. (2003). Expression of ghrelin in the cyclic and pregnant rat ovary. Endocrinology 144, 1594–1602.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Casanueva, F. F., and Dieguez, C. (1999). Neuroendocrine regulation and actions of leptin. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 20, 317–363.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Cornwall, G. A., Vindivich, D., Tillman, S., and Chang, T. S. K. (1988). The effect of sulfhydryl oxidation on the morphology of immature hamster epididymal spermatozoa induced to acquire motility in vitro. Biol. Reprod. 39, 141–155.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

De Ambrogi, M., Volpe, S., and Tamanini, C. (2003). Ghrelin: central and peripheral effects of a novel peptydil hormone. Med. Sci. Monit. 9, 217–224.

De Gennaro-Colonna, V., Rossoni, G., Cocchi, D., Rigamonti, A. E., Berti, F., and Muller, E. E. (2000). Endocrine, metabolic and cardioprotective effects of hexarelin in obese Zucker rats. J. Endocrinol. 166, 529–536.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Dupont, J., Maillard, V., Coyral-Castel, S., Ramé, C., and Froment, P. (2010). Ghrelin in female and male reproduction. Int. J. Pept. 2010, Article ID 158102.
CrossRef |

Fernández-Fernández, R., Tena-Sempere, M., Aguilar, E., and Pinilla, L. (2004). Ghrelin effects on gonadotropin secretion in male and female rats. Neurosci. Lett. 362, 103–107.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Fernández-Fernández, R., Navarro, V. M., Barreiro, M. L., Vigo, E. M., Tovar, S., Sirotkin, A. V., Casanueva, F. F., Aguilar, E., Dieguez, C., Pinilla, L., and Tena-Sempere, M. (2005a). Effect of chronic hyperghrelinemia on puberty onset and pregnancy outcome in the rat. Endocrinology 146, 3018–3025.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Fernández-Fernández, R., Tena-Sempere, M., Navarro, V. M., Barreiro, M. L., Castellano, J. M., Aguilar, E., and Pinilla, L. (2005b). Effects of ghrelin upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin secretion in adult female rats: in vivo and in vitro studies. Neuroendocrinology 82, 245–255.
| PubMed |

Fiol de Cuneo, M., Ruiz, R. D., Ponce, A., Maldonado, X., and Lacuara, J. L. (1994). Time-related changes in functional activity of mouse spermatozoa during in vitro or in vivo incubation. J. Exp. Anim. Sci. 36, 189–200.
| CAS | PubMed |

Fraser, L. R. (1993). Calcium channels play a pivotal role in the sequence of ionic changes involved in initiation of mouse sperm acrosomal exocytosis. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 36, 368–376.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Frick, K. M., Burlingame, L. A., Arters, J. A., and Berger-Sweeney, J. (1999). Reference memory, anxiety and estrous cyclicity in C57BL/6NIA mice are affected by age and sex. Neuroscience 95, 293–307.
CrossRef |

Frieboes, R. M., Murck, H., Maier, P., Schier, T., Holsboer, F., and Steiger, A. (1995). Growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 stimulates sleep, growth hormone, ACTH and cortisol release in normal man. Neuroendocrinology 61, 584–589.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

García, M. C., López, M., Alvarez, C. V., Casanueva, F., Tena-Sempere, M., and Diéguez, C. (2007). Role of ghrelin in reproduction. Reproduction 133, 531–540.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Gaytan, F., Barreiro, M. L., Chopin, L. K., Herington, A. C., Morales, C., Pinilla, L., Casanueva, F. F., Aguilar, E., Dieguez, C., and Tena-Sempere, M. (2003). Immunolocalization of ghrelin and its functional receptor, the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor, in the cyclic human ovary. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 879–887.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Gaytan, F., Barreiro, M. L., Caminos, J. E., Chopin, L. K., Herington, A. C., Morales, C., Pinilla, L., Paniagua, R., Nistal, M., Casanueva, F. F., Aguilar, E., Dieguez, C., and Tena-Sempere, M. (2004). Expression of ghrelin and its functional receptor, the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor, in normal human testis and testicular tumors. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89, 400–409.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Ghè, C., Cassoni, P., Catapano, F., Marrocco, T., Deghenghi, R., Ghigo, E., Muccioli, G., and Papotti, M. (2002). The antiproliferative effect of synthetic peptidyl GH secretagogues in human CALU-1 lung carcinoma cells. Endocrinology 143, 484–491.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., Broglio, F., Giordano, R., Gianotti, L., Mucciolo, G., Papotti, M., Graziani, A., Bisi, G., Deghenghi, R., and Camanni, F. (1999). Endocrine and non-endocrine activities of growth hormone secretagogues in humans. Horm. Res. 51, 9–15.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Gnanapavan, S., Kola, B., Bustin, S. A., Morris, D. G., McGee, P., Fairclough, P., Bhattacharya, S., Carpenter, R., Grossman, A. B., and Korbonits, M. (2002). The tissue distribution of the mRNA of ghrelin and subtypes of its receptor, GSH-R, in humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87, 2988–2991.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Guerlavais, V., Boeglin, D., Mousseaux, D., Oiry, C., Heitz, A., Deghenghi, R., Locatelli, V., Torsello, A., Ghé, C., Catapano, F., Muccioli, G., Galleyrand, J.-C., Fehrentz, J.-A., and Martinez, J. (2003). New active series of growth hormone secretagogues. J. Med. Chem. 46, 1191–1203.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Horvath, T. L., Diano, S., Sotonyi, P., Heiman, M., and Tschöp, M. (2001). Minireview: ghrelin and the regulation of energy balance. A hypothalamic perspective. Endocrinology 142, 4163–4169.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Howard, A. D., Feighner, S. C., Cully, D. F., Arena, J. P., Liberator, P. A., Rosenblum, C. I., Hamelin, M., Hreniuk, D. L., Palyha, O. C., Anderson, J., Paress, P. S., Diaz, C., Chou, M., Liu, K. K., McKee, K. K., Pong, S. S., Chaung, L. Y., Elbrecht, A., Dashkevicz, M., Heavens, R., Rigby, M., Sirinathsinghji, D. J., Dean, D. C., Melillo, D. G., Patchett, A. A., Nargund, R. P., Griffin, P. R., DeMartino, J. A., Gupta, S. K., Schaeffer, J. M., Smith, R. G., and van der Ploeg, L. H. T. (1996). A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release. Science 273, 974–977.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Ishikawa, T., Fujioka, H., Ishimura, T., Takenaka, A., and Fujisawa, M. (2007). Ghrelin expression in human testis and serum testosterone level. J. Androl. 28, 320–324.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Jacks, T., Hickey, G., and Judith, F. (1994). Effects of acute and repeated intravenous administration of L-692,585, a novel non-peptidyl growth hormone secretagogue, on plasma growth hormone, IGF-I, ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, insulin, and thyroxine levels in beagles. J. Endocrinol. 143, 399–406.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Kawamura, K., Sato, N., Fukuda, J., Kodama, H., Kumagai, J., Tanikawa, H., Nakamura, A., Honda, Y., Sato, T., and Tanaka, T. (2003). Ghrelin inhibits the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro. Endocrinology 144, 2623–2633.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Klinger, B., Silbergeld, A., Deghenghi, R., Frenkel, J., and Laron, Z. (1996). Desensitization from long-term intranasal treatment with hexarelina does not interfere with the biological effects of this growth hormone-releasing peptide in short children. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 134, 716–719.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Kluge, M., Schüssler, P., Uhr, M., Yassouridis, A., and Steiger, A. (2007). Ghrelin suppresses secretion of luteinizing hormone in humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 3202–3205.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Kluge, M., Uhr, M., Bleninger, P., Yassouridis, A., and Steiger, A. (2009). Ghrelin suppresses secretion of FSH in males. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 70, 920–923.
CrossRef | CAS |

Kojima, M., Hosoda, H., Date, Y., Nakazato, M., Matsuo, H., and Kangawa, K. (1999). Ghrelin is a growth-hormone releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature 402, 656–660.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Korbonits, M., Goldtone, A. P., Gueorguiev, M., and Grossman, A. B. (2004). Ghrelin – a hormone with multiple functions. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 25, 27–68.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Locatelli, V., and Torsello, A. (1997). Growth hormone secretagogues: focus on the growth hormone-releasing peptides. Pharmacol. Res. 36, 415–423.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Locke, W., Kirgis, H. D., Bowers, C. Y., and Abdoh, A. A. (1995). Intracerebroventricular growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 stimulates eating without affecting plasma growth hormone responses in rats. Life Sci. 56, 1347–1352.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Lorenzi, T., Meli, R., Marzioni, D., Morroni, M., Baragli, A., Castellucci, M., Gualillo, O., and Muccioli, G. (2009). Ghrelin: a metabolic signal affecting the reproductive system. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 20, 137–152.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Luque, E. M., Carlini, V. P., Vincenti, L. M., Puechagut, P., Stutz, G., Santillán, M. E., Ruiz, R. D., Martini, A. C., and Fiol de Cuneo, M. (2010). Effects of hexarelin (a ghrelin analogue) on fertilisation and the pre-and postnatal development of mice. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 22, 926–938.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Makler, A. (1980). The improved ten-micrometer chamber for rapid sperm count and motility evaluation. Fertil. Steril. 33, 337–338.
| CAS | PubMed |

Marleau, S., Mulumba, M., Lamontagne, D., and Ong, H. (2006). Cardiac and peripheral actions of growth hormone and its releasing peptides: relevance for the treatment of cardiomyopathies. Cardiovasc. Res. 69, 26–35.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Martini, A. C., Fernández-Fernández, R. S., Tovar, S., Navarro, V. M., Vigo, E., Vazquez, M. J., Davies, J. S., Thompson, N. M., Aguilar, E., Pinilla, L., Wells, T., Dieguez, C., and Tena-Sempere, M. (2006). Comparative analysis of the effects of ghrelin and unacylated ghrelin on luteinizing hormone secretion in male rats. Endocrinology 147, 2374–2382.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

McKee, K. K., Palyha, O. C., Feighner, S. D., Hreniuk, D. L., Tan, C. P., Phillips, M. S., Smith, R. G., van der Ploeg, L. H., and Howard, A. D. (1997). Molecular analysis of rat pituitary and hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptors. Mol. Endocrinol. 11, 415–423.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Micic, D., Casabiell, X., Gualillo, O., Pombo, M., Diéguez, C., and Casanueva, F. F. (1999). Growth hormone secretagogues: the clinical future. Horm. Res. 51, 29–33.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Moreno Reyes, R., Kerkhofs, M., l’Hermite Baleriaux, M., Thorner, M. O., Van Cauter, E., and Copinschi, G. (1998). Evidence against a role for the growth hormone-releasing peptide axis in human slow-wave sleep regulation. Am. J. Physiol. 274, E779–E784.
| CAS | PubMed |

Muccioli, G., Tschöp, M., Papotti, M., Deghenghi, R., Herman, M., and Ghigo, E. (2002). Neuroendocrine and peripheral activities of ghrelin: implications in metabolism and obesity. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 440, 235–254.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Nakahara, K., Hayashida, T., Nakazato, M., Kojima, M., Hosoda, H., Kangawa, K., and Murakami, N. (2003). Effects of chronic treatments with ghrelin on milk secretion in lactating rats. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 303, 751–755.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

National Research Council (2011). ‘National Research Council (US) Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 8th edition. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health.’ (National Academy Press: Washington, DC)

Navarro, V. M., Fernandez-Fernandez, R., Castellano, J. M., Roa, J., Mayen, A., Barreiro, M. L., Gaytan, F., Aguilar, E., Pinilla, L., Dieguez, C., and Tena-Sempere, M. (2004). Advanced vaginal opening and precocious activation of the reproductive axis by KiSS-1 peptide, the endogenous ligand of GPR54. J. Physiol. 561, 379–386.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Pettersson, I., Muccioli, G., Granata, R., Deghenghi, R., Ghigo, E., and Isgaard, J. (2002). Natural (ghrelin) and synthetic (hexarelin) GH secretagotues stimulate H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell proliferation. J. Endocrinol. 175, 201–209.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Rahim, A., O’Neill, P. A., and Shalet, S. M. (1998). Growth hormone status during long-term hexarelin therapy. J. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 1644–1649.
CrossRef | CAS |

Rahim, A., O’Neill, P. A., and Shalet, S. M. (1999). The effect of chronic hexarelin administration on the pituitary-adrenal axis and prolactin. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 50, 77–84.
CrossRef | CAS |

Ruiz, R. D., Fiol de Cuneo, M., Santillán, M. E., Ponce, A. A., Vincenti, L., Lacuara, J. L., and Stutz, G. (1995). Hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) for assessing the integrity of the mouse sperm membrane and its relationship with other functional parameters. Effects of 2-deoxyadenosine. J. Exp. Anim. Sci. 37, 156–164.

Shah, S. N., and Nyby, J. G. (2010). Ghrelin’s quick inhibition of androgen-dependent behaviors of male house mice (Mus musculus). Horm. Behav. 57, 291–296.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Sibilia, V., Pagani, F., Guidobono, F., Locatelli, V., Torsello, A., Deghenghi, R., and Netti, C. (2002). Evidence for a central inhibitory role of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin on acid secretion in conscious rats. Neuroendocrinology 75, 92–97.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Soriano-Guillén, L., Barrios, V., and Argente, J. (2004). Aspectos fisiopatológicos y utilidad diagnóstica de la proteína ghrelin en pediatría. An. Pediatr. (Barc.) 61, 5–7.
CrossRef |

Tena-Sempere, M., and Barreiro, M. L. (2002). Leptin in male reproduction: the testis paradigm. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 9–13.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Tena-Sempere, M., Barreiro, M. L., González, L. C., Gaytán, F., Zhand, F. P., Caminos, J. E., Pinilla, L., Casanueva, F. F., Dieguez, C., and Aguilar, E. (2002). Novel expression and functional role of ghrelin in rat testis. Endocrinology 143, 717–725.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Tivesten, A., Bollano, E., Caidahl, K., Kujacic, V., Sun, X. Y., Hedner, T., Hjalmarson, A., Bengtsson, B. A., and Isgaard, J. (2000). The growth hormone secretagogue hexarelin improves cardiac function in rats after experimental myocardial infarction. Endocrinology 141, 60–66.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Torsello, A., Luoni, M., Schweiger, F., Grilli, R., Guidi, M., Bresciani, E., Deghenghi, R., Müller, E. E., and Locatelli, V. (1998). Novel hexarelin analogs stimulate feeding in the rat through a mechanism not involving growth hormone release. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 360, 123–129.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Viani, I., Vottero, A., Tassi, F., Cremonini, G., Sartori, C., Bernasconi, S., Ferrari, B., and Ghizzoni, L. (2008). Ghrelin inhibits steroid biosynthesis by cultured granulosa-lutein cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93, 1476–1481.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Xu, X. B., Pang, J. J., Cao, J. M., Ni, C., Xu, R. K., Peng, X. Z., Yu, X. X., Guo, S., Chen, M. C., and Chen, C. (2005). GH-releasing peptides improve cardiac disfunction and cachexia and suppress stress-related hormones and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats with heart failure. Am. J. Physiol. 289, H1643–H1651.
| CAS |

Yelian, F. D., and Dukelow, W. R. (1992). Effects of a DNA-specific fluorochrome, Hoechst 33258 on mouse sperm motility and fertilizing capacity. Andrologia 24, 167–170.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Zheng, H., Stratton, C. J., Morozumi, K., Jin, J., Yanagimachi, R., and Yan, W. (2007). Lack of Spem1 causes aberrant cytoplasm removal, sperm deformation, and male infertility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 6852–6857.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2015