CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Sexual Health   
Sexual Health
Journal Banner
  Publishing on sexual health from the widest perspective
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Committee
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Advertisers
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow Interview with Kit Fairley
blank image
Hear Kit Fairley speak about what is sexual health.

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 10(3)

Anatomic distribution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections in men who have sex with men

N. Reinton A , H. Moi B , A. O. Olsen B , N. Zarabyan A , J. Bjerner A , T. M. Tønseth C and A. Moghaddam A D

A Fürst Medisinsk Laboratorium, Søren Bulls vei 25, N-1051 Oslo, Norway.
B Department of Rheumatology, Dermatology and Infectious Diseases, The Olafia Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0560 Oslo, Norway.
C Brynsenglegene, Brynsengveien 2, 0667 Oslo, Norway.
D Corresponding author. Email: amoghaddam@furst.no

Sexual Health 10(3) 199-198 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH12092
Submitted: 22 June 2012  Accepted: 3 December 2012   Published: 5 April 2013


 
PDF (123 KB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Background: New cases of gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) infections have been steadily increasing in Scandinavian countries over the last decade. There is a particular urgency in reducing new infections as isolation of multiple drug resistant strains of gonorrhoea is becoming more frequent. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and sites of infection of common sexually transmissible infections (STIs) in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: We have performed a retrospective analysis of the three major STIs, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and Mycoplasma genitalium in urogenital, anorectal and oropharyngeal samples from MSM that attended two STI clinics in Oslo. Results: One hundred and thirty-six men (6.0%) out of 2289 MSM tested were found to be positive for gonorrhoea using a porA gene targeted nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Of these, 106 (77.9%) would not have been identified through testing first-void urine alone. Two hundred and twenty eight (10.0%) patients from 2289 tested were found to be positive for chlamydia, 164 (71.9%) of which were identified through anorectal specimens. Ninety-one (5.1%) patients from 1778 tested were found to be positive for M. genitalium, with 65 (71.4%) identified through testing of anorectal specimens. Conclusions: Our results supports the European findings that the MSM population carries a high burden of STIs and that testing the anorectum and oropharynx will identify a significantly higher percentage of infected patients and reservoirs of STIs.

Additional keywords: anorectal samples, Norway, oropharyngeal samples, Scandinavia, urogenital samples.


References

[1]  Moi H. Care of sexually transmitted infections in the Nordic countries. Int J STD AIDS 2001; 12: 819–23.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[2]  Noar SM. Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior: review and synthesis of meta-analytic evidence. AIDS Behav 2008; 12: 335–53.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[3]  Fenton KA, Imrie J. Increasing rates of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual men in Western europe and the United States: why? Infect Dis Clin North Am 2005; 19: 311–31.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[4]  Nasjonalt Folkehelseinstituttet. Gonoré og syfilis i Norge 2011. Oslo: Nasjonalt Folkehelseinstituttet; 2012. Available online at: http://www.fhi.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=233&trg=Area_5774&MainArea_5661=5588:0:15,1787:1:0:0:0:0&MainLeft_5588=5774:0:15,1787:1:0:0:0:0&Area_5774=5544:97000:1:5776:1:0:0 [verified January 2013]

[5]  Health Protection Agency (HPA) GRASP: the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme. London: HPA; 2009. Available online at: http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&Page&HPAwebAutoListName/Page/1221117908959 [verified January 2013].

[6]  Chisholm SA, Alexander S, Desouza-Thomas L, Maclure-Webster E, Anderson J, Nichols T, et al Emergence of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae clone showing decreased susceptibility to cefixime in England and Wales. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011; 66: 2509–12.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[7]  Cole MJ, Unemo M, Hoffmann S, Chisholm S, Ison C, van de Laar MJ. The European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme, 2009. Eurosurveillance. 2011; 16: 1–6.

[8]  World Health Organisation (WHO) The WHO Western Pacific Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2001. World Health Organization. Commun Dis Intell 2002; 26: 541–5.

[9]  Nasjonalt Folkehelseinstituttet. Klamydiainfeksjoner i Norge 2010. Oslo: Nasjonalt Folkehelseinstitutte; 2011. Available online at: http://www.fhi.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=233&trg=Area_5774&MainArea_5661=5588:0:15,1787:1:0:0:0:0&MainLeft_5588=5774:0:15,1787:1:0:0:0:0&Area_5774=5544:89844:1:5776:1:0:0 [verified January 2013]

[10]  Savage EJ, van de Laar MJ, Gallay A, van der Sande M, Hamouda O, Sasse A, et al Lymphogranuloma venereum in Europe, 2003–2008. Eurosurveillance. 2009; 14: .
| CAS | PubMed |

[11]  de Vries H, Morré S, White J, Moi H. European guideline for the management of lymphogranuloma venereum, 2010. Int J STD AIDS 2010; 21: 533–6.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[12]  Ross JDC, Jensen JS. Mycoplasma genitalium as a sexually transmitted infection: implications for screening, testing, and treatment. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82: 269–71.
CrossRef | CAS |

[13]  Jensen JS, Bradshaw CS, Tabrizi SN, Fairley CK, Hamasuna R. Azithromycin treatment failure in Mycoplasma genitalium-positive patients with nongonococcal urethritis is associated with induced macrolide resistance. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47: 1546–53.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[14]  Jernberg E, Moghaddam A, Moi H. Azithromycin and moxifloxacin for microbiological cure of Mycoplasma genitalium infection: an open study. Int J STD AIDS 2008; 19: 676–9.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[15]  Blystad H, Klouman E. Recommendation for annual HIV and STI testing in MSM introduced in Norway. Eurosurveillance 2005; 10: .
| PubMed |

[16]  Hjelmevoll SO, Olsen ME, Sollid JUE, Haaheim H, Melby KK, Moi H, et al Clinical validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of Neisseria gonorrheae porA pseudogene versus culture techniques. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 517–20.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[17]  Moi H, Reinton N. Moghaddam A. Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Sex Transm Infect 2009; 85: 15–8.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[18]  Chen C-Y, Chi K-H, Alexander S, Martin IMC, Liu H, Ison CA, et al The molecular diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum: evaluation of a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction test using rectal and urethral specimens. Sex Transm Dis 2007; 34: 451–5.
| PubMed |

[19]  Hopkins MJ, Ashton LJ, Alloba F, Alawattegama A, Hart IJ. Validation of a laboratory-developed real-time PCR protocol for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine. Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86: 207–11.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[20]  Moghaddam A, Reinton N. Identification of the Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis variant among patients attending a STI clinic in Oslo, Norway. Eurosurveillance 2007; 12: E070301.3.
| CAS | PubMed |

[21]  Nasjonalt Folkehelseinstituttet. Gonoré og syfilis i Norge 2010. Oslo: Nasjonalt Folkehelseinstituttet; 2011. Available online at: http://www.fhi.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=233&trg=MainLeft_5588&MainArea_5661=5588:0:15,1787:1:0:0:0:0&MainLeft_5588=5544:89770:1:5569:1:0:0 [verified January 2013]

[22]  Smittskyddsinstitutet. Statistik över smittsamma sjukdomar. Strömsund: Smittskyddsinstitutet; Available online at: www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/statistik [verified January 2013]

[23]  Schachter J, Philip SS. Testing men who have sex with men for urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is only half the job, and we need the right tools. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 925–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[24]  Schachter J, Moncada J, Liska S, Shayevich C, Klausner JD. Nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections of the oropharynx and rectum in men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 637–42.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[25]  Bernstein KT, Stephens SC, Barry PM, Kohn R, Philip SS, Liska S, et al Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission from the oropharynx to the urethra among men who have sex with men. Clinical infectious diseases 2009; 49: 1793–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[26]  Marcus JL, Kohn RP, Barry PM, Philip SS, Bernstein KT. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission from the female oropharynx to the male urethra. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 372–3.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[27]  Ameyama S, Onodera S, Takahata M, Minami S, Maki N, Endo K, et al Mosaic-like structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 gene (penA) in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46: 3744–9.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[28]  Jensen AJ, Kleveland CR, Moghaddam A, Haaheim H, Hjelmevoll SO, Skogen V. Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum among students in northern Norway. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2012; : .
| PubMed |

[29]  Peters RPH, Verweij SP, Nijsten N, Ouburg S, Mutsaers J, Jansen CL, et al Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice. BMC Infect Dis 2011; 11: 203–9.
CrossRef |

[30]  Hartgill U, Jakopanec I, Vestrheim DF. Gonorrhea –time for new guidelines. [In Norwegian] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2011; 131(7): 671–2.

[31]  Mayaud P, McCormick D. Interventions against sexually transmitted infections (STI) to prevent HIV infection. Br Med Bull 2001; 58: 129–53.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014