CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Sexual Health   
Sexual Health
Journal Banner
  Publishing on sexual health from the widest perspective
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Committee
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Advertisers
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow Interview with Kit Fairley
blank image
Hear Kit Fairley speak about what is sexual health.


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 10(3)

Anal cancers attributed to human papillomavirus are more common in areas in Victoria, Australia, with higher HIV notifications

Lenka A. Vodstrcil A B C , Jane Hocking C , Tim R. H. Read A B , Andrew E. Grulich D and Christopher K. Fairley A B E

A Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Hospital, 580 Swanston Street, Carlton, Vic. 3053. Australia.
B Sexual Health Unit, School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, 580 Swanston Street, Carlton, Vic. 3053, Australia.
C Centre for Women’s Health, Gender and Society, School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Level 3, 207 Bouverie Steet, Carlton South, Vic. 3053, Australia.
D Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
E Corresponding author. Email: cfairley@unimelb.edu.au

Sexual Health 10(3) 220-223 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH12184
Submitted: 29 October 2012  Accepted: 11 January 2013   Published: 24 April 2013

PDF (159 KB) $25
 Export Citation

Background: Anal cancer is more common in men who have sex with men with HIV. We aimed to determine if there was an association between anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and HIV notifications in men in Victoria, Australia, at a population level. Methods: We calculated the male age-standardised incidence rates for anal SCC, brain cancer and colon cancer for each local government area (LGA) in Victoria from 1982 to 31 December 2010 using the Victorian Cancer Registry. Male HIV rates in each LGA were calculated using the Victorian HIV Registry. Results: There were 288 men diagnosed with anal SCC, 8793 with brain cancer and 23?938 with colon cancer in 57 LGAs. There were 3163 men notified with HIV during the same period in the same LGAs (range: 4–435 per LGA). There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.45, P < 0.001, r2 = 0.20) between the age-standardised rate of anal SCC and the rate of HIV notifications in men in each LGA but no correlation between the male age-standardised rate of colon (Pearson’s r = –0.11, P = 0.40) or brain (r = –0.05, P = 0.71) cancers, and the rate of HIV. The rate of anal cancer was ~50% higher in LGAs with the highest HIV notification rate (incidence rate ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.10–1.97). Conclusions: At a population level, about one in five cases (r2 = 0.20) of anal SCCs in men are explained by the rate of HIV notifications in that LGA.

Additional keywords: epidemiology, men who have sex with men, squamous cell carcinoma.


[1]  Cogliano V, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F. Carcinogenicity of human papillomaviruses. Lancet Oncol 2005; 6: 204.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[2]  Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007; 370: 59–67.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[3]  Grulich AE, Jin F, Conway EL, Stein AN, Hocking J. Cancers attributable to human papillomavirus infection. Sex Health 2010; 7: 244–52.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[4]  De Vuyst H, Clifford GM, Nascimento MC, Madeleine MM, Franceschi S. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva, vagina and anus: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2009; 124: 1626–36.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[5]  Joseph DA, Miller JW, Wu X, Chen VW, Morris CR, Goodman MT, et al Understanding the burden of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancers in the US. Cancer 2008; 113: 2892–900.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[6]  Jin F, Stein AN, Conway EL, Regan DG, Law M, Brotherton JM, et al Trends in anal cancer in Australia, 1982–2005. Vaccine 2011; 29: 2322–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[7]  Daling JR, Weiss NS, Hislop TG, Maden C, Coates RJ, Sherman KJ, et al Sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, and the incidence of anal cancer. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 973–7.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[8]  D’Souza G, Wiley DJ, Li X, Chmiel JS, Margolick JB, Cranston RD, et al Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008; 48: 491–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[9]  Machalek DA, Poynten M, Jin F, Fairley CK, Farnsworth A, Garland SM, et al Anal human papillomavirus infection and associated neoplastic lesions in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: 487–500.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[10]  Gustafsson L, Ponten J, Bergstrom R, Adami HO. International incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer before cytological screening. Int J Cancer 1997; 71: 159–65.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[11]  The Kirby Institute. HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia. Annual surveillance report 2011. Sydney: The Kirby Institute; 2011.

[12]  Smith AM, Rissel CE, Richters J, Grulich AE, de Visser RO. Sex in Australia: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual experience among a representative sample of adults. Aust N Z J Public Health 2003; 27: 138–45.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[13]  Department of Health (DoH). HIV Surveillance summary annual report for 2009. Melbourne Epidemiology and Surveillance, Communicable Disease – Prevention and Control, DoH; 2009. Available online at: http://docs.health.vic.gov.au/docs/doc/HIV-Surveillance-summary-annual-report-for-2009 [verified March 2013].

[14]  Grulich AE, Kaldor JM. Trends in HIV incidence in homosexual men in developed countries. Sex Health 2008; 5: 113–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[15]  Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Census data. Canberra: ABS; 2012.Available online at: http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/home/data?opendocument#from-banner=LN [verified March 2013].

[16]  Poynten IM, Stein AN, Conway EL, Prestage G, Regan DG, Jin F, et al Geographical clustering of anal cancer incidence in Australia. Sex Health 2012; 9: 509–512.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[17]  Smith AM, Rissel CE, Richters J, Grulich AE, de Visser RO. Sex in Australia: the rationale and methods of the Australian Study of Health and Relationships. Aust N Z J Public Health 2003; 27: 106–17.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2014