CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > International Journal of Wildland Fire   
International Journal of Wildland Fire
  Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
20-Year Author Index
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with CP
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn

red arrow Connect with IAWF
blank image
facebook twitter LinkedIn


Article << Previous     |         Contents Vol 19(7)

Post-fire regeneration strategies and flammability traits of California chaparral shrubs

Peter D. Cowan A B and David D. Ackerly A

A Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
B Corresponding author. Email: pdc@berkeley.edu

International Journal of Wildland Fire 19(7) 984-989 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF09072
Submitted: 8 July 2009  Accepted: 14 May 2010   Published: 5 November 2010

PDF (116 KB) $25
 Export Citation

Fire behaviour is strongly influenced by fuel load and structure; however, efforts to describe fuel patterns have largely ignored differences among species or post-fire regeneration strategies. In California chaparral, evergreen shrubs can be grouped into three post-fire regeneration strategies that correlate with a wide variety of physiological and demographic characteristics including seasonal water status and the timing of reproduction in response to fire. To test if regeneration strategy is also associated with flammability, we compared the fuel loads and structure of two post-fire seeders, Adenostoma fasciculatum and Ceanothus cuneatus, and two obligate resprouters, Heteromeles arbutifolia and Prunus ilicifolia. Species and post-fire regeneration strategies did not differ in total fuel per area, or bulk density. The proportion of fuels smaller than 6 mm in diameter differed among species, but not consistently with regeneration strategy. However, species with a post-fire seeding regeneration strategy had higher proportions of dead branches. We discuss how this difference could have arisen from evolutionary, demographic, or physiological processes.

Additional keywords: Adenostoma fasciculatum, Ceanothus cuneatus, dead fuels, fuel loads, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Mutch hypothesis, Prunus ilicifolia.


Ackerly D (2004) Functional strategies of chaparral shrubs in relation to seasonal water deficit and disturbance. Ecological Monographs 74, 25–44.
CrossRef |

Anderson HE (1970) Forest fuel ignitibility. Fire Technology 6, 312–319.
CrossRef | CAS |

Anderson HE (1982) Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-122. (Ogden UT)

Bond WJ, Midgley JJ (1995) Kill thy neighbor: an individualistic argument for the evolution of flammability. Oikos 73, 79–85.
CrossRef |

Bond WJ, Midgley JJ (2003) The evolutionary ecology of sprouting in woody plants. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164, S103–S114.
CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Diaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE, Reich PB, ter Steege H, Morgan HD, van der Heijden MGA, Pausas JG, Poorter H (2003) A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51, 335–380.
CrossRef |

Countryman CM, Philpot CW (1970) Physical characteristics of chamise as a wildland fuel. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper PSW-RP-66. (Berkeley, CA)

Dell JD, Philpot CW (1965) Variations in the moisture content of several, fuel size components of live and dead chamise. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note PSW-83. (Berkeley, CA)

Dimitrakopoulos AP, Panov PI (2001) Pyric properties of some dominant Mediterranean vegetation species. International Journal of Wildland Fire 10, 23–27.
CrossRef |

Engstrom JD, Butler JK, Smith SG, Baxter LL, Fletcher TH, Weise DR (2004) Ignition behavior of live California chaparral leaves. Combustion Science and Technology 176, 1577–1591.
CrossRef | CAS |

Etlinger MG, Beall FC (2004) Development of a laboratory protocol for fire performance of landscape plants. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13, 479–488.
CrossRef |

Fujioka FM, Gill AM, Viegas DX, Wotton BM (2009) Fire danger and fire behavior modeling systems in Australia, Europe, and North America. In ‘Wildland Fires and Air Pollution’. (Eds A Bytnerowicz, MJ Arbaugh, AR Riebau, C Andersen) pp. 471–497. (Elsevier: Amsterdam)

Groeneveld J, Enright NJ, Lamont BB, Wissel C (2002) A spatial model of coexistence among three Banksia species along a topographic gradient in fire-prone shrublands. Journal of Ecology 90, 762–774.
CrossRef |

Hanes TL (1971) Succession after fire in chaparral of southern California. Ecological Monographs 41, 27–52.
CrossRef |

Jacobsen AL, Davis SD, Fabritius SL (2004) Fire frequency impacts non-sprouting chaparral shrubs in the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California. In ‘Proceedings 10th MEDECOS Conference’, 25 April–1 May 2004, Rhodes, Greece. (Eds M Arianoutsou, VP Papanastasis) (Millpress: Rotterdam)

Kerr B, Schwilk DW, Bergman A, Feldman MW (1999) Rekindling an old flame: a haploid model for the evolution and impact of flammability in resprouting plants. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1, 807–833..

Montgomery KR (1976) ‘Ether Extractives and Flammability of Mediterranean-type Shrubs.’ (California State Polytechnic University: Pomona, CA)

Mutch RW (1970) Wildland fires and ecosystems – a hypothesis. Ecology 51, 1046–1051.
CrossRef |

Papió C, Trabaud L (1991) Comparative-study of the aerial structure of 5 shrubs of Mediterranean shrublands. Forest Science 37, 146–159..

Pate JS, Froend RH, Bowen BJ, Hansen A, Kuo J (1990) Seedling growth and storage characteristics of seeder and resprouter species of Mediterranean-type ecosystems of SW Australia. Annals of Botany 65, 585–601..

Pausas JG, Bradstock RA, Keith DA, Keeley JE, Network GF (2004) Plant functional traits in relation to fire in crown-fire ecosystems. Ecology 85, 1085–1100.
CrossRef |

Paysen TE, Cohen JD (1990) Chamise chaparral dead fuel fraction is not reliably predicted by age. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 5, 127–131..

Philpot CW (1970) Influence of mineral content on pyrolysis of plant materials. Forest Science 16, 461–471..
| CAS |

R Development Core Team (2009) ‘R: a language and environment for statistical computing.’ (R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna) Available at http://www.R-project.org [Verified 4 October 2010]

Riggan PJ, Goode S, Jacks PM, Lockwood RN (1988) Interaction of fire and community development in chaparral of southern California. Ecological Monographs 58, 155–176.
CrossRef |

Rundel PW (1981) Structural and chemical components of flammability. In ‘Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties’, 11–15 December 1978, Honolulu, HI. (Eds HA Mooney, TM Bonnicksen, NL Christensen, JE Lotan, WA Reiners) USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-26, pp. 183–207. (Washington, DC)

Rundel PW, Parsons DJ (1979) Structural changes in chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) along a fire-induced age gradient. Journal of Range Management 32, 462–466.
CrossRef |

Scarff FR, Westoby M (2006) Leaf litter flammability in some semi-arid Australian woodlands. Functional Ecology 20, 745–752.
CrossRef |

Schwilk DW (2003) Flammability is a niche construction trait: canopy architecture affects fire intensity. American Naturalist 162, 725–733.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Schwilk DW, Ackerly DD (2001) Flammability and serotiny as strategies: correlated evolution in pines. Oikos 94, 326–336.
CrossRef |

Schwilk DW, Ackerly DD (2005) Is there a cost to resprouting? Seedling growth rate and drought tolerance in sprouting and non-sprouting Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae). American Journal of Botany 92, 404–410.
CrossRef |

Schwilk DW, Kerr B (2002) Genetic niche-hiking: an alternative explanation for the evolution of flammability. Oikos 99, 431–442.
CrossRef |

Snyder JR (1984) The role of fire: Mutch ado about nothing. Oikos 43, 404–405.
CrossRef |

Stephens SL, Fry DL (2005) Fire history in coast redwood stands in the north-eastern Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Fire Ecology 1, 2–19.
CrossRef |

Troumbis AY, Trabaud L (1989) Some questions about flammability in fire ecology. Acta Oecologica-Oecologia Plantarum 10, 167–175..

Weise DR, Zhou XY, Sun LL, Mahalingam S (2005) Fire spread in chaparral – ‘go or no-go?’ International Journal of Wildland Fire 14, 99–106.
CrossRef |

Zedler PH, Gautier CR, Mcmaster GS (1983) Vegetation change in response to extreme events – the effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology 64, 809–818.
CrossRef |

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2016