CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Wildlife Research   
Wildlife Research
Journal Banner
  Ecology, management and conservation in natural and modified habitats
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Scope
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn

 

Article << Previous     |         Contents Vol 40(7)

Captive husbandry and veterinary care of northern New Zealand dotterels (Charadrius obscurus aquilonius) during the CV Rena oil-spill response

B. D. Gartrell A G, R. Collen B, J. E. Dowding C, H. Gummer D, S. Hunter A, E. J. King E, L. Laurenson F, C. D. Lilley E, K. J. Morgan A, H. M. McConnell A, K. Simpson F and J. M. Ward A

A Wildbase, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Private Bag 11222, Massey University, Palmerston North, 4442, New Zealand.
B 62 Bain Street, Invercargill, New Zealand.
C DM Consultants, PO Box 36-274, Merivale, Christchurch 8146, New Zealand.
D 6 Weku Road, Pukerua Bay, New Zealand.
E Department of Conservation, PO Box 462, New Plymouth, Taranaki, New Zealand.
F Auckland Zoo, 117 Motions Road, Auckland 1002, New Zealand.
G Corresponding author. Email: B.Gartrell@massey.ac.nz

Wildlife Research 40(7) 624-632 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR13120
Submitted: 28 June 2013  Accepted: 23 December 2013   Published: 30 January 2014


 
PDF (438 KB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Context: Oil spills cause significant detrimental impacts on many shoreline species. There is limited information in the scientific literature about the management and response of shorebirds to oil spills. Northern New Zealand dotterels (Charadrius obscurus aquilonius) were pre-emptively captured as part of the oiled wildlife response to the container vessel Rena oil spill, to ensure the survival of a regional population should there be a catastrophic release of oil. Previous attempts to hold dotterels in captivity have resulted in high mortality.

Aims: To describe the captive husbandry and veterinary management of wild-caught adult dotterels, to outline the common problems encountered, and make recommendations for future captive management.

Methods: The dotterels were caught by noose mat on beaches at risk of further contamination by oil. Initially, dotterels were kept individually indoors and force-fed until they converted to self-feeding on a diet of an artificial insect analogue, ox heart and mealworms. Once self-feeding, the birds were shifted to individual outdoor aviaries.

Key results: Sixty dotterels were caught. About half of birds had oil contamination of the legs, nine birds had light oil staining of feathers and only three of these birds required washing. The degree of oiling and washing did not affect survival. Dotterels took a median of 5 days (range 1–15 days) to convert to the captive diet. Common problems encountered in captivity included carpal and beak abrasions (61.7%) and pododermatitis (75%); however, these did not affect survival. Seven birds (11.7%) developed respiratory disease and six of these died from aspergillosis. The incidence of aspergillosis increased with length of time in captivity and was largely refractory to treatment. The 54 surviving birds were released at their capture sites after a median time of 49 days in captivity (with a range of 39–61 days).

Conclusions: The captive management of the dotterels achieved a 90% survival rate over a period of about 2 months. Deaths were solely due to respiratory aspergillosis, but intensive captive husbandry was required to convert the birds to a captive diet, to minimise traumatic injuries and to manage pododermatitis.

Implications: Although the captive management of shorebird species as a pre-emptive strategy to minimise the effects of oil spills carries significant costs and risks to the birds, it should be considered in the emergency management of high-priority species.

Additional keywords: pre-emptive capture, shorebird.


References

Alonso-Alvarez, C., Munilla, I., Lapez-Alonso, M., and Velando, A. (2007). Sublethal toxicity of the Prestige oil spill on yellow-legged gulls. Environment International 33, 773–781.
| CAS | PubMed |

Altwegg, R., Crawford, R. J. M., Underhill, L. G., and Williams, A. J. (2008). Long-term survival of de-oiled Cape gannets Morus capensis after the Castillo de Bellver oil spill of 1983. Biological Conservation 141, 1924–1929.

Amirault-Langlais, D. L., Thomas, P. W., and McKnight, J. (2007). Oiled piping plovers (Charadrius melodus melodus) in eastern Canada. Waterbirds 30, 271–274.
CrossRef |

Anderson, D. W., Newman, S. H., Kelly, P. R., Herzog, S. K., and Lewis, K. P. (2000). An experimental soft-release of oil-spill rehabilitated American coots (Fulica americana): I. Lingering effects on survival, condition and behavior. Environmental Pollution 107, 285–294.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Anonymous (2012a). Charadrius obscurus. In ‘IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2’. (International Union for Conservation of Nature Publications [IUCN] Unit: Gland, Switzerland.) Available at www.iucnredlist.org [verified 14 January 2014].

Anonymous (2012b). ‘Tauranga Incident Page, Maritime New Zealand.’ Available at http://www.maritimenz.govt.nz/Environmental/Responding-to-spills-and-pollution/Past-spill-responses/Rena-response.asp [verified 14 January 2014].

Beernaert, L. A., Pasmans, F., Baert, K., Van Waeyenberghe, L., Chiers, K., Haesebrouck, F., and Martel, A. (2009). Designing a treatment protocol with voriconazole to eliminate Aspergillus fumigatus from experimentally inoculated pigeons. Veterinary Microbiology 139, 393–397.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Beernaert, L. A., Pasmans, F., Van Waeyenberghe, L., Haesebrouck, F., and Martel, A. (2010). Aspergillus infections in birds: a review. Avian Pathology 39, 325–331.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Boardman, W. S. J. (1996). Review of non-parasitic infectious diseases of New Zealand wildlife. Kokako 3, 15–18.

Borzone, C. A., and Rosa, L. C. (2009). Impact of oil spill and posterior clean-up activities on wrack-living talitrid amphipods on estuarine beaches. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 57, 315–323.
CrossRef |

Burger, J. (1997). Effects of oiling on feeding behavior of Sanderlings and semipalmated plovers in New Jersey. The Condor 99, 290–298.
CrossRef |

De La Cruz, S. E. W., Takekawa, J. Y., Spragens, K. A., Yee, J., Golightly, R. T., Massey, G., Henkel, L. A., Scott Larsen, R., and Ziccardi, M. (2013). Post-release survival of surf scoters following an oil spill: an experimental approach to evaluating rehabilitation success. Marine Pollution Bulletin 67, 100–106.
| CAS |

Di Somma, A., Bailey, T., Silvanose, C., and Garcia-Martinez, C. (2007). The use of voriconazole for the treatment of aspergillosis in falcons (Falco species). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 21, 307–316.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Domínguez, J., and Vidal, M. (2009). Factors affecting plumage oiling levels in a Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus population after a major oil spill. Acta Ornithologica 44, 119–126.
CrossRef |

Dowding, J. E. (1994). Morphometrics and ecology of the New Zealand Dotterel (Charadrius obscurus) with a description of a new subspecies. Notornis 41, 221–233.

Dowding, J., and Chamberlin, S. (1991). Annual movement patterns and breeding-site fidelity of the New Zealand dotterel (Charadrius obscurus). Notornis 38, 89–102.

Dowding, J. E., and Davis, A. M. (2007). ‘New Zealand Dotterel (Charadrius obscurus) Recovery Plan, 2004–2014.’ (Department of Conservation: Wellington, New Zealand.)

Esler, D., Bowman, T. D., Trust, K. A., Ballachey, B. E., Dean, T. A., Jewett, S. C., and O’Clair, C. E. (2002). Harlequin duck population recovery following the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill: progress, process and constraints. Marine Ecology Progress Series 241, 271–286.

Fuller, C., Bonner, J., Page, C., Ernest, A., McDonald, T., and McDonald, S. (2004). Comparative toxicity of oil, dispersant, and oil plus dispersant to several marine species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23, 2941–2949.
| PubMed |

Goldsworthy, S. D., Giese, M., Gales, R. P., Brothers, N., and Hamill, J. (2000). Effects of the Iron baron oil spill on little penguins (Eudyptula minor). II. Post-release survival of rehabilitated oiled birds. Wildlife Research 27, 573–582.
CrossRef |

Goold, M. (1996). Aspergillosis – some notes: with special emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. Kokako 3, 8–11.

Golet, G. H., Seiser, P. E., McGuire, A. D., Roby, D. D., Fischer, J. B., Kuletz, K. J., Irons, D. B., Dean, T. A., Jewett, S. C., and Newman, S. H. (2002). Long-term direct and indirect effects of the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill on pigeon guillemots in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 241, 287–304.

Jones, A. R., Murray, A., Lasiak, T. A., and Marsh, R. E. (2008). The effects of beach nourishment on the sandy-beach amphipod Exoediceros fossor: impact and recovery in Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Marine Ecology 29, 28–36.
CrossRef |

Kikillus, K. H., Gartrell, B. D., and Motion, E. (2011). Prevalence of Salmonella spp., and serovars isolated from captive exotic reptiles in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 59, 174–178.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Lord, A., Waas, J. R., Innes, J., and Whittingham, M. J. (2001). Effects of human approaches to nests of northern New Zealand dotterels. Biological Conservation 98, 233–240.
CrossRef |

McConnell, H., Morgan, K., Gartrell, B., and Overdyck, O. (2009). Prioritising the treatment of oiled wildlife in New Zealand by conservation status. In ‘10th International Effects of Oil on Wildlife Conference, Tallinn, Estonia’. (SeaAlarm: Brussels, Belgium.) Available at http://www.eowconference09.org/wp-content/uploads/06-11-mcconnell-triage1.pdf [verified 16 January 2014].

Mehl, K. R., Drake, K. L., Page, G. W., Sanzenbacher, P. M., Haig, S. M., and Thompson, J. E. (2003). Capture of breeding and wintering shorebirds with leg-hold noose-mats. Journal of Field Ornithology 74, 401–405.

Miskelly, C., Dowding, J. E., Elliott, G. P., Hitchmough, R. A., Powlesland, R. G., Robertson, H. A., Sagar, P. M., Scofield, R. P., and Taylor, G. A. (2008). Conservation status of New Zealand birds, 2008. Notornis 55, 117–135.

Neff, J. M., Page, D. S., and Boehm, P. D. (2011). Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30, 659–672.
| CAS | PubMed |

Piersma, T., and Ramenofsky, M. (1998). Long-term decreases of corticosterone in captive migrant shorebirds that maintain seasonal mass and moult cycles. Journal of Avian Biology 29, 97–104.
CrossRef |

Pye, D. A., and Dowding, J. E. (2002). Nesting period of the northern New Zealand dotterel (Charadrius obscurus aquilonius). Notornis 49, 259–260.

Smith, E. E., Carr, J. A., Wages, M., Wang, J. F., Murali, S., and Kendall, R. (2012). Response of larval frogs to Corexit 9500. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 94, 1199–1210.
| CAS |

Tell, L. A., Clemons, K. V., Kline, Y., Woods, L., Kass, P. H., Martinez, M., and Stevens, D. A. (2010). Efficacy of voriconazole in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) experimentally infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. Medical Mycology 48, 234–244.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Ward, J. M., Gartrell, B. D., Conklin, J. R., and Battley, P. F. (2011). Midazolam as an adjunctive therapy for capture myopathy in bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) with prognostic indicators. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47, 925–935.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Weston, M. A., Dann, P., Jessop, R., Fallaw, J., Dakin, R., and Ball, D. (2008). Can oiled shorebirds and their nests and eggs be successfully rehabilitated? A case study involving the threatened hooded plover Thinornis rubricollis in south-eastern Australia. Waterbirds 31, 127–132.
CrossRef |

Wills, D. E., Murray, J., and Powlesland, R. G. (2003). Impact of management on the breeding success of the northern New Zealand dotterel (Charadrius obscurus aquilonius) on Matakana Island, Bay of Plenty. Notornis 50, 1–10.

Wolfaardt, A. C., Underhill, L. G., Altwegg, R., Visagie, J., and Williams, A. J. (2008a). Impact of the Treasure oil spill on African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dassen Island: case study of a rescue operation. African Journal of Marine Science 30, 405–419.
CrossRef |

Wolfaardt, A. C., Underhill, L. G., Altwegg, R., and Visagie, J. (2008b). Restoration of oiled African penguins Spheniscus demersus a decade after the Apollo Sea spill. African Journal of Marine Science 30, 421–436.

Wolfaardt, A. C., Williams, A. J., Underhill, L. G., Crawford, R. J. M., and Whittington, P. A. (2009). Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds in South Africa, especially African penguins Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannets Morus capensis, 1983–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 31, 31–54.
CrossRef |

Yamamoto, T., Nakaoka, M., Komatsu, T., Kawai, H., and Ohwada, K. (2003). Impacts by heavy-oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka on intertidal ecosystems: recovery of animal community. Marine Pollution Bulletin 47, 91–98.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2016