The dynamic of non-communicable disease control policy in IndonesiaYodi Christiani A C , Paul Dugdale B , Meredith Tavener A and Julie E. Byles A
A Priority Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI), University of Newcastle, Lot 1 Kookaburra Circuit, New Lambton Heights, NSW 2305, Australia. Email: Meredith.Tavener@newcastle.edu.au; Julie.Byles@newcastle.edu.au
B Centre for Health Stewardship, The Australian National University, Building 131, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
C Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Australian Health Review - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AH15196
Submitted: 17 October 2015 Accepted: 1 April 2016 Published online: 23 May 2016
Objective The aim of the present study was to examine non-communicable disease (NCD) policy formation and implementation in Indonesia.
Methods Interviews were conducted with 13 Indonesian health policy workers. The processes and issues relating to NCD policy formation were mapped, exploring the interactions between policy makers, technical/implementation bodies, alliances across various levels and the mobilisation of non-policy actors.
Results Problems in NCD policy formation include insufficient political interest in NCD control, disconnected policies and difficulty in multisectoral coordination. These problems are well illustrated in relation to tobacco control, but also apply to other control efforts. Nevertheless, participants were optimistic that there are plentiful opportunities for improving NCD control policies given growing global attention to NCD, increases in the national health budget and the growing body of Indonesia-relevant NCD-related research.
Conclusion Indonesia’s success in the creation and implementation of NCD policy will be dependent on high-level governmental leadership, including support from the President, the Health Minister and coordinating ministries.
What is known about the topic? The burden of NCD in Indonesia has increased gradually. Nationally, NCD-related mortality accounted for 65% of deaths in 2010. Indonesia is also a country with the highest burden of tobacco smoking in the world. However, the government has not instituted sufficient policy action to tackle NCDs, including tobacco control.
What does this paper add? This paper deepens our understanding of current NCD control policy formation in Indonesia, including the possible underlying reason why Indonesia has weak tobacco control policies. It describes the gaps in the current policies, the actors involved in policy formation, the challenges in policy formation and implementation and potential opportunities for improving NCD control.
What are the implications for practitioners? An effective NCD control program requires strong collaboration, including between government and health professionals. Health professionals can actively engage in policy formation, for example through knowledge production.
Additional keywords: developing countries, policy analysis, policy formation, tobacco control.
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