Australian Mammalogy Australian Mammalogy Society
Journal of the Australian Mammal Society
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Blood constituents of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)

Jai M. Green-Barber A , Oselyne T. W. Ong A , Anusha Kanuri A , Hayley J. Stannard A and Julie M. Old A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Science and Health, Hawkesbury, Western Sydney University, Locked bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: j.old@westernsydney.edu.au

Australian Mammalogy - https://doi.org/10.1071/AM17002
Submitted: 1 November 2016  Accepted: 25 May 2017   Published online: 10 August 2017

Abstract

Baseline haematology, blood chemistry and acute phase protein parameters have not previously been published for free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Eight eastern grey kangaroos, including three adult males, three adult females and two subadult males from two different populations, were examined. Assays assessed the antibacterial activity of kangaroo serum against one Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. The kangaroo serum had a strong antibacterial response to Klebsiella pneumoniae, and moderate responses to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The presence and level of acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in kangaroos was investigated. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A were present in kangaroo serum, but only haptoglobin was elevated in a kangaroo with capture myopathy and necrotic wounds. The findings of this study provide preliminary data on health parameters of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos. These parameters can be used to assist in assessing health in free-ranging populations.

Additional keywords: acute phase protein, antibacterial defence, blood chemistry, haematology, macropod, marsupial.


References

Alsemgeest, S., Kalsbeek, H., Wensing, T., Koeman, J., Van Ederen, A., and Gruys, E. (1994). Concentrations of serum amyloid-a (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) as parameters of inflammatory diseases in cattle. The Veterinary Quarterly 16, 21–23.
Concentrations of serum amyloid-a (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) as parameters of inflammatory diseases in cattle.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2c3nvFWiuw%3D%3D&md5=f79edfd701b6b2494e93114a184258cbCAS |

Arnold, G. (1987). Blood urea nitrogen, haemaglobin level and fecal nitrogen concentrations as indices of the nutritional status of western grey kangaroo. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nutrition of Herbivores 2, 181–182.

Arundel, J., Beveridge, I., and Presidente, P. (1979). Parasites and pathological findings in enclosed and free-ranging populations of Macropus rufus (Demarest) (Marsupialia) at Menindee, New South Wales. Wildlife Research 6, 361–379.
Parasites and pathological findings in enclosed and free-ranging populations of Macropus rufus (Demarest) (Marsupialia) at Menindee, New South Wales.CrossRef |

Baker, M. L., and Gemmell, R. T. (1999). Physiological changes in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) following relocation from Armidale to Brisbane, Australia. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 284, 42–49.
Physiological changes in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) following relocation from Armidale to Brisbane, Australia.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1M3pslehsA%3D%3D&md5=388558416d0e352abcfb743e57d9d942CAS |

Barnes, T. S., Goldizen, A. W., and Coleman, G. T. (2008). Hematology and serum biochemistry of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44, 295–303.
Hematology and serum biochemistry of the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmsFKitrw%3D&md5=8d07cf45f1f17ce7a87a1837fd141c66CAS |

Barnett, J., How, R., and Humphreys, W. (1979). Blood parameters in natural populations of Trichosurus species (Marsupialia: Phalangeridae). I. Age, sex and seasonal variation in T. caninus and T. vulpecula. II. Influence of habitat and population strategies of T. caninus and T. Vulpecula. Australian Journal of Zoology 27, 913–926.
Blood parameters in natural populations of Trichosurus species (Marsupialia: Phalangeridae). I. Age, sex and seasonal variation in T. caninus and T. vulpecula. II. Influence of habitat and population strategies of T. caninus and T. Vulpecula.CrossRef |

Cray, C., Zaias, J., and Altman, N. H. (2009). Acute phase response in animals: a review. Comparative Medicine 59, 517–526.
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXht1ahsbzM&md5=079dde07b6e3cf12a7305ad998249151CAS |

Cripps, J. K., Martin, J. K., and Coulson, G. (2016). Anthelmintic treatment does not change foraging strategies of female eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus. PLoS One 11, e0147384.
Anthelmintic treatment does not change foraging strategies of female eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus.CrossRef |

De Beer, M., Kindy, M. S., Lane, W. S., and De Beer, F. (1994). Mouse serum amyloid A protein (SAA5) structure and expression. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269, 4661–4667.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXitV2rsro%3D&md5=7bb21eb79ef78d691e44301cf1ab3665CAS |

Deane, E. M., Basden, K., Burnett, L., Proos, A., and Cooper, D. W. (1997). Serum analytes in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Australian Veterinary Journal 75, 141–142.
Serum analytes in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2s3hvFKqsw%3D%3D&md5=1e59d9fc268c1067c6e76d419f1c867bCAS |

Dobryszycka, W. (1997). Biological functions of haptoglobin – new pieces to an old puzzle. European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 35, 647–654.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXmsFGms7c%3D&md5=f989e3acbe0ddedcf9463104c2483a80CAS |

Domingo-Roura, X., Newman, C., Calafell, F., and Macdonald, D. W. (2001). Blood biochemistry reflects seasonal nutritional and reproductive constraints in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74, 450–460.
Blood biochemistry reflects seasonal nutritional and reproductive constraints in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3Mzps1Sjsg%3D%3D&md5=76cbc3fb31f0e9b6f708603aed01dde9CAS |

Edwards, M., Hinds, L., Deane, E., and Deakin, J. (2012). A review of complementary mechanisms which protect the developing marsupial pouch young. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 37, 213–220.
A review of complementary mechanisms which protect the developing marsupial pouch young.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xms12rsr0%3D&md5=e075a28fb7358d6a0a3b16c89ebcfba7CAS |

Fuller, T. K., Kerr, K. D., and Karns, P. D. (1985). Hematology and serum chemistry of bobcats in northcentral Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 21, 29–32.
Hematology and serum chemistry of bobcats in northcentral Minnesota.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2MXhs1CnsL8%3D&md5=a249890e197e4529c5fce8e85cdfd579CAS |

Garnick, S. W., Elgar, M. A., Beveridge, I., and Coulson, G. (2010). Foraging efficiency and parasite risk in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Behavioral Ecology 21, 129–137.
Foraging efficiency and parasite risk in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).CrossRef |

Gaughwin, M., and Judson, G. (1980). Haematology and clinical chemistry of hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 16, 275–280.
Haematology and clinical chemistry of hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL3M%2FkvFyksw%3D%3D&md5=e78c00f7fea8cbcb7b80fb417d3b852aCAS |

Green-Barber, J., Stannard, H., and Old, J. (2017). A suspected case of myopathy in a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Australian Mammalogy , .
A suspected case of myopathy in a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).CrossRef |

Gordon, D. M., and Cowling, A. (2003). The distribution and genetic structure of Escherichia coli in Australian vertebrates: host and geographic effects. Microbiology 149, 3575–3586.
The distribution and genetic structure of Escherichia coli in Australian vertebrates: host and geographic effects.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhtVWnsLzL&md5=6314945841e8ee5066f82e9595427368CAS |

Hall, A. J., Wells, R. S., Sweeney, J. C., Townsend, F. I., Balmer, B. C., Hohn, A. A., and Rhinehart, H. L. (2007). Annual, seasonal and individual variation in hematology and clinical blood chemistry profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology 148, 266–277.
Annual, seasonal and individual variation in hematology and clinical blood chemistry profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida.CrossRef |

Haynes, J., and Skidmore, G. (1991). Hematology of the dasyurid Marsupials Sminthopsis crassicaudata and Sminthopsis macroura. Australian Journal of Zoology 39, 157–169.
Hematology of the dasyurid Marsupials Sminthopsis crassicaudata and Sminthopsis macroura.CrossRef |

Horadagoda, N. U., Knox, K. M. G., Gibbs, H. A., Reid, S. W. J., Horadagoda, A., Edwards, S. E. R., and Eckersall, P. D. (1999). Acute phase proteins in cattle: discrimination between acute and chronic inflammation. The Veterinary Record 144, 437–441.
Acute phase proteins in cattle: discrimination between acute and chronic inflammation.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1M3nsVynsQ%3D%3D&md5=c1b9d0acec55f08ef4991a745db2a23cCAS |

Hultén, C., and Demmers, S. (2002). Serum amyloid A (SAA) as an aid in the management of infectious disease in the foal: comparison with total leucocyte count, neutrophil count and fibrinogen. Equine Veterinary Journal 34, 693–698.
Serum amyloid A (SAA) as an aid in the management of infectious disease in the foal: comparison with total leucocyte count, neutrophil count and fibrinogen.CrossRef |

Jackson, S. (2003). ‘Australian Mammals: Biology and Captive Management.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Jacobsen, S., and Andersen, P. H. (2007). The acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) as a marker of inflammation in horses. Equine Veterinary Education 19, 38–46.
The acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) as a marker of inflammation in horses.CrossRef |

Jacobsen, S., Kjelgaard-Hansen, M., Petersen, H. H., and Jensen, A. L. (2006). Evaluation of a commercially available human serum amyloid A (SAA) turbidometric immunoassay for determination of equine SAA concentrations. Veterinary Journal (London, England) 172, 315–319.
Evaluation of a commercially available human serum amyloid A (SAA) turbidometric immunoassay for determination of equine SAA concentrations.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xns1Gqtbw%3D&md5=af0502d6007c68d07bfd872bf87a8a97CAS |

King, W. J., Wilson, M. E., Allen, T., Festa-Bianchet, M., and Coulson, G. (2011). A capture technique for free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) habituated to humans. Australian Mammalogy 33, 47–51.
A capture technique for free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) habituated to humans.CrossRef |

Ladds, P. (2009). ‘Pathology of Australian Native Wildlife.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

McKenzie, S., Deane, E. M., and Burnett, L. (2002). Haematology and serum biochemistry of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Comparative Clinical Pathology 11, 229–237.
Haematology and serum biochemistry of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xns1Ogtb8%3D&md5=35546ffef9247fbc8e8890cdc2631f38CAS |

McKenzie, S., Deane, E. M., and Burnett, L. (2004). Are serum cortisol levels a reliable indicator of wellbeing in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology 138, 341–348.
Are serum cortisol levels a reliable indicator of wellbeing in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii? CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2cvgvVantw%3D%3D&md5=6e15c31a11857661c505838a57123695CAS |

Merchant, M. E., Roche, C., Elsey, R. M., and Prudhomme, J. (2003). Antibacterial properties of serum from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 136, 505–513.
Antibacterial properties of serum from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).CrossRef |

Okesina, A. B., Donaldson, D., Lascelles, P. T., and Morris, P. (1995). Effect of gestational age on levels of serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in healthy pregnant women. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 48, 25–29.
Effect of gestational age on levels of serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in healthy pregnant women.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXkt1eqt7g%3D&md5=b19535879143da28e8ae20d56352b70fCAS |

Ong, O. T., Green-Barber, J. M., Kanuri, A., Young, L. J., and Old, J. M. (2017). Antimicrobial activity of red-tailed phascogale (Phascogale calura) serum. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 51, 41–48.
Antimicrobial activity of red-tailed phascogale (Phascogale calura) serum.CrossRef |

Osawa, R., Blanshard, W. H., and O’Callaghan, P. G. (1992). Microflora of the pouch of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 28, 276–280.
Microflora of the pouch of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK383pt1ehsQ%3D%3D&md5=32a85acee22e9d766d3fdc600ee0e070CAS |

Peck, S., Corkrey, R., Hamede, R., Jones, M., and Canfield, P. (2015). Hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals for wild Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii). Veterinary Clinical Pathology 44, 519–529.
Hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals for wild Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii).CrossRef |

Power, M. L., Slade, M. B., Sangster, N. C., and Veal, D. A. (2004). Genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium from a wild population of eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus inhabiting a water catchment. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 4, 59–67.
Genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium from a wild population of eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus inhabiting a water catchment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhvVOrt7k%3D&md5=28997ebee2a0af32421137a2a37b79acCAS |

Presidente, P. (1978). Diseases seen in free-ranging marsupials and those held in captivity. Proceedings of Course for Veterinarians. Fauna, parts A and B 36, 457–471.

Putnam, F. (1973). Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Omega? The Past, Present and Future of Plasma Proteins. Protides of the Biological Fluids: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Colloquium 21, 3–18.

Richardson, S. J., Dziegielewska, K. M., Andersen, N. A., Frost, S., and Schreiber, G. (1998). The acute phase response of plasma proteins in the polyprotodont marsupial Monodelphis domestica. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 119, 183–188.
The acute phase response of plasma proteins in the polyprotodont marsupial Monodelphis domestica.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1c7ptF2msA%3D%3D&md5=48cca27e9d00039a020dc82ca2c10539CAS |

Robert, K. A., and Schwanz, L. E. (2013). Monitoring the health status of free-ranging tammar wallabies using hematology, serum biochemistry, and parasite loads. Journal of Wildlife Management 77, 1232–1243.
Monitoring the health status of free-ranging tammar wallabies using hematology, serum biochemistry, and parasite loads.CrossRef |

Roberts, M., Neaves, L., Claassens, R., and Herbert, C. (2010a). Darting eastern grey kangaroos: a protocol for free-ranging populations. In ‘Macropods: The Biology of Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-Kangaroos’. (Eds G. Coulson and M. Eldridge.) pp. 325–339. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne, Vic.)

Roberts, M. W., Smythe, L., Dohnt, M., Symonds, M., and Slack, A. (2010b). Serologic-based investigation of leptospirosis in a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) indicating the presence of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46, 564–579.
Serologic-based investigation of leptospirosis in a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) indicating the presence of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz.CrossRef |

Ruykys, L., Rich, B., and McCarthy, P. (2012). Haematology and biochemistry of warru (Petrogale lateralis MacDonnell Ranges race) in captivity and the wild. Australian Veterinary Journal 90, 331–340.
Haematology and biochemistry of warru (Petrogale lateralis MacDonnell Ranges race) in captivity and the wild.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsFert7fL&md5=3c7565b4602be1b6598cd02e7b88b682CAS |

Sarma, J. V., and Ward, P. A. (2011). The complement system. Cell and Tissue Research 343, 227–235.
The complement system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXisVOlsQ%3D%3D&md5=a68aa5a31ab242a24e5fa17bc0604706CAS |

Shield, J. (1971). A seasonal change in blood cell volume of the Rottnest Island quokka, Setonix brachyurus. Journal of Zoology 165, 343–354.
A seasonal change in blood cell volume of the Rottnest Island quokka, Setonix brachyurus.CrossRef |

Spencer, P., and Speare, R. (1992). Hematology of wild allied rock-wallabies, Petrogale assimilis Ramsay, 1877 (Marsupialia, Macropodidae), in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Zoology 40, 355–364.
Hematology of wild allied rock-wallabies, Petrogale assimilis Ramsay, 1877 (Marsupialia, Macropodidae), in north Queensland.CrossRef |

Stannard, H. J., Young, L. J., and Old, J. M. (2013). Further investigation of the blood characteristics of Australian quoll (Dasyurus spp.) species. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 42, 476–482.
Further investigation of the blood characteristics of Australian quoll (Dasyurus spp.) species.CrossRef |

Stannard, H. J., Thompson, P., McAllan, B. M., and Raubenheimer, D. (2016). Hematology and serum biochemistry reference ranges of healthy captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and their association with age, gender and seasonal variation. Mammalian Biology 81, 393–398.
Hematology and serum biochemistry reference ranges of healthy captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and their association with age, gender and seasonal variation.CrossRef |

Stefaniak, T., Gospodarek, A., Klima, F., Schadow, D., and Katnik, I. (1997). Haptoglobin concentration in blood sera of hoofed mammals in captivity. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 45, 223–228.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXmt1WrsLY%3D&md5=9a851cef778f3838ac0d60412ab5cc1eCAS |

Stirrat, S. C. (2003). Body condition and blood chemistry of agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) in the wet–dry tropics. Wildlife Research 30, 59–67.
Body condition and blood chemistry of agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) in the wet–dry tropics.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXmsFCns7k%3D&md5=e4e14d4a3c0122bfa049072717dcdfd8CAS |

Takemoto, R. M., Pavanelli, G. C., Lizama, M. A. P., Luque, J. L., and Poulin, R. (2005). Host population density as the major determinant of endoparasite species richness in floodplain fishes of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Journal of Helminthology 79, 75–84.
Host population density as the major determinant of endoparasite species richness in floodplain fishes of the upper Paraná River, Brazil.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2M7pvVSrsg%3D%3D&md5=001dcffaf9b2c02c5bc3377fb3be7522CAS |

Takenaka, A., Gotoh, S., Watanabe, T., and Takenaka, O. (1988). Developmental changes of plasma alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus in relation to the growth of bones in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata). Primates 29, 395–404.
Developmental changes of plasma alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus in relation to the growth of bones in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXls1OqsLY%3D&md5=fbfab73084dc4896d4ccdf51048ef85cCAS |

Tothova, C., Nagy, O., and Kovac, G. (2014). cute phase proteins and their use in the diagnosis of diseases in ruminants: a review. Veterinarni Medicina 59, 163–180.

Trumble, S. J., Castellini, M. A., Mau, T. L., and Castellini, J. M. (2006). Dietary and seasonal influences on blood chemistry and hematology in captive harbor seals. Marine Mammal Science 22, 104–123.
Dietary and seasonal influences on blood chemistry and hematology in captive harbor seals.CrossRef |

Vaughan, R. J., Warren, K. S., Mills, J. S., Palmer, C., Fenwick, S., Monaghan, C. L., and Friend, A. J. (2009). Hematological and serum biochemical reference values and cohort analysis in the Gilbert’s potoroo (Potorous gilbertii). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40, 276–288.
Hematological and serum biochemical reference values and cohort analysis in the Gilbert’s potoroo (Potorous gilbertii).CrossRef |

Wells, R., Jones, A., Clout, M., Sarre, S., and Anderson, R. (2000). Seasonal effects on the haematology and blood chemistry of wild brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula (Marsupialia: Phalangeridae) in New Zealand. Comparative Haematology International 10, 68–73.
Seasonal effects on the haematology and blood chemistry of wild brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula (Marsupialia: Phalangeridae) in New Zealand.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXitlKmsrs%3D&md5=0269221467708fee06360954cccd5cfbCAS |

Whitehead, A., De Beer, M., Steel, D., Rits, M., Lelias, J., Lane, W., and De Beer, F. (1992). Identification of novel members of the serum amyloid A protein superfamily as constitutive apolipoproteins of high density lipoprotein. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 267, 3862–3867.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXhs1emsro%3D&md5=80c7d93b85c5df823abef6d7a325b32eCAS |

Wilcox, R. S., Vaz, P., Ficorilli, N. P., Whiteley, P. L., Wilks, C. R., and Devlin, J. M. (2011). Gammaherpesvirus infection in a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Australian Veterinary Journal 89, 55–57.
Gammaherpesvirus infection in a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M7jsVSmsQ%3D%3D&md5=25c857fc989a42b35ded891287b2a1cdCAS |

Young, L. J., and Deane, E. M. (2006). A longitudinal study of changes in blood leukocyte numbers in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Comparative Clinical Pathology 15, 63–69.
A longitudinal study of changes in blood leukocyte numbers in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii.CrossRef |



Export Citation