Methane emissions and feeding behaviour of feedlot cattle supplemented with nitrate or ureaJ. I. Velazco A B C , D. J. Cottle A and R. S. Hegarty A
A School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.
B National Institute of Agricultural Research, Ruta 8 Km 281, Treinta y Tres 33000, Uruguay.
C Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Animal Production Science 54(10) 1737-1740 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN14345
Submitted: 13 March 2014 Accepted: 23 June 2014 Published: 19 August 2014
Nitrate may serve as a non-protein nitrogen (NPN) source in ruminant diets while also reducing enteric methane emissions. A study was undertaken to quantify methane emissions of cattle when nitrate replaced urea in a high concentrate diet. Twenty Angus steers were allocated to two treatment groups and acclimated to one of two iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous finisher rations (containing NPN as urea or as calcium nitrate), with all individual feeding events recorded. A single methane measurement device (C-lock Inc., Rapid City, SD, USA) was exchanged weekly between treatments (2 × 1-week periods per treatment) to provide estimations of daily methane production (DMP; g CH4/day). A 17% reduction in estimated DMP (P = 0.071) resulted from nitrate feeding, attributed to both a tendency for reduced dry matter intake (DMI; P = 0.088) and H2 capture by the consumed nitrate. NO3-fed cattle consumed a larger number of meals (14.69 vs 7.39 meals/day; P < 0.05) of smaller size (0.770 vs 1.820 kg/meal) each day, so the average interval between a feeding event and methane measurement was less in NO3-fed cattle (3.44 vs 5.15 h; P < 0.05). This difference could potentially have skewed the estimated DMP and contributed to the tendency (P = 0.06) for NO3-fed cattle to have a higher methane yield (g CH4/kg DMI) than urea-fed cattle. This study found short-term methane emission measurements made over 2 weeks (per treatment group) were adequate to show dietary nitrate tended to reduce emission and change the feeding pattern of feedlot cattle. Changes in feeding frequency may have confounded the ability of short-term methane measurements to provide data suitable for accurately estimating methane per unit feed intake.
Additional keywords: greenhouse gases, measurement.
ReferencesAustralian Fodder Industry Association (2011) ‘Laboratory methods manual.’ (Australian Fodder Industry Association Ltd: Melbourne)
Bindon BM (2001) Genesis of the Cooperative Research Centre for the Cattle and Beef Industry: integration of resources for beef quality research (1993–2000). Animal Production Science 41, 843–853.
| Genesis of the Cooperative Research Centre for the Cattle and Beef Industry: integration of resources for beef quality research (1993–2000).CrossRef |
Cottle DJ, Nolan JV, Wiedemann SG (2011) Ruminant enteric methane mitigation: a review. Animal Production Science 51, 491–514.
| Ruminant enteric methane mitigation: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXntVGisLY%3D&md5=5199c518bcbf607cd2261a9a90b2975eCAS |
Crompton LA, Mills JAN, Reynolds CK, France J (2011) Fluctuations in methane emissions in response to feeding patterns in lactating dairy cows. In ‘Modeling nutrient digestion and utilisation in farm animals’. pp. 176–180 (Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen, The Netherlands)
Garnsworthy PC, Craigon J, Hernandez-Medrano JH, Saunders N (2012) On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 3166–3180.
| On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XntlyntLc%3D&md5=a0c9bd04e1e1066b4db0fe6de5b0d973CAS | 22612952PubMed |
Goopy JP, Woodgate R, Donaldson A, Robinson DL, Hegarty RS (2011) Validation of a short term methane measurement using a portable static chamber to estimate daily methane production in sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 166–167, 219–226.
| Validation of a short term methane measurement using a portable static chamber to estimate daily methane production in sheep.CrossRef |
Hammond KJ, Humphries DJ, Crompton LA, Kirton P, Green C, Reynolds CK (2013) Methane emissions from growing dairy heifers estimated using an automated head chamber (GreenFeed) compared to respiration chambers or SF6 techniques. Advances in Animal Biosciences 4, 391
Hegarty RS (2013) Applicability of short-term emission measurements for on-farm quantification of enteric methane. Animal 7, 401–408.
| Applicability of short-term emission measurements for on-farm quantification of enteric methane.CrossRef | 23739481PubMed |
Hegarty RS, Miller J, Robinson DW, Li L, Oelbrandt N, Luijben K, Nolan JV, Bremner G, McGrath J, Perdok HB (2013) Growth, efficiency and carcass attributes of cattle supplemented with calcium nitrate or urea. Advances in Animal Biosciences 4, 440
Hegesh E, Gruener N, Cohen S, Bochkovsky R, Shuval HI (1970) A sensitive micromethod for the determination of methemoglobin in blood. Clinica Chimica Acta 30, 679–682.
| A sensitive micromethod for the determination of methemoglobin in blood.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3MXltVCjtA%3D%3D&md5=7afbcdd8c225e0cfb5d0182bf8fb183cCAS |
Hulshof RBA, Berndt A, Gerrits WJJ, Dijkstra J, van Zijderveld SM, Newbold JR, Perdok HB (2012) Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets. Journal of Animal Science 90, 2317–2323.
| Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhtFehsbjN&md5=96a48ee0214f4fa24c2e164cb62708e8CAS |
Lassen J, Lovendahl P, Madsen J (2012) Accuracy of noninvasive breath methane measurements using Fourier transform infrared methods on individual cows. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 890–898.
| Accuracy of noninvasive breath methane measurements using Fourier transform infrared methods on individual cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsFSmtro%3D&md5=4664e038c25d41c833e67b0e047f6aeaCAS | 22281353PubMed |
Li L, Davis J, Nolan J, Hegarty R (2012) An initial investigation on rumen fermentation pattern and methane emission on sheep offered diets containing urea or nitrate as the nitrogen source. Animal Production Science 52, 653–658.
McGinn SM, Turner D, Tomkins N, Charmley E, Bishop-Hurley G, Chen D (2011) A non-intrusive measurement of methane emissions from grazing cattle. Journal of Environmental Quality 40, 22–27.
| A non-intrusive measurement of methane emissions from grazing cattle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXps12kug%3D%3D&md5=21c05e7d5071d77cd7671c21e6ecf58dCAS | 21488489PubMed |
Moe PW, Tyrrell HF (1979) Methane production in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 62, 1583–1586.
| Methane production in dairy cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXlt1Og&md5=83e2a753e2e757a8337673236d8a23b3CAS |
Nolan JV, Hegarty RS, Hegarty J, Godwin IR, Woodgate R (2010) Effects of dietary nitrate on fermentation, methane production and digesta kinetics in sheep. Animal Production Science 50, 801–806.
| Effects of dietary nitrate on fermentation, methane production and digesta kinetics in sheep.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtVyrtbzP&md5=fec0fdf6d058f63b6cb019493a242d75CAS |
Payne R, Harding SA, Murray DA, Soutar DM, Baird DB, Glaser AI, Welham SJ, Gilmour AR, Thompson R, Webster R (2011) ‘A guide to regression, nonlinear and generalized linear models in Genstat.’ (VSN International: Hemel Hempstead, UK)
van Zijderveld SM, Gerrits WJJ, Apajalahti JA, Newbold JR, Dijkstra J, Leng RA, Perdok HB (2010) Nitrate and sulfate: effective alternative hydrogen sinks for mitigation of ruminal methane production in sheep. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 5856–5866.
| Nitrate and sulfate: effective alternative hydrogen sinks for mitigation of ruminal methane production in sheep.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXjs1Kis7Y%3D&md5=2c90a9348249f958588d724bd6912c2aCAS | 21094759PubMed |
van Zijderveld SM, Gerrits WJJ, Dijkstra J, Newbold JR, Hulshof RBA, Perdok HB (2011) Persistency of methane mitigation by dietary nitrate supplementation in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 4028–4038.
| Persistency of methane mitigation by dietary nitrate supplementation in dairy cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsVylur4%3D&md5=b403e5eac8ed8ca1f5a91dddfa81918fCAS | 21787938PubMed |
Velazco J, Bremner G, De Barbieri I, Hegarty RS (2013a) Short-term measurements to estimate methane emissions by beef cattle using the GreenFeen emissions monitoring unit. In ‘Recent advances in animal nutrition – Australia’. (Ed. PB Cronje) pp. 61–62. (Animal Science, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England: Armidale, NSW)
Velazco J, Bremner G, Li L, Lujben K, Hegarty RS, Perdok H (2013b) Short-term emission measurements in beef feedlot cattle to demonstrate enteric methane mitigation from dietary nitrate. Advances in Animal Biosciences 4, 279
Zimmerman S, Michal JJ, White R, Johnson KA, Guerouali A, Zimmerman P (2013) Evaluation of a novel system to measure enteric methane emissions from beef cattle on pasture. Journal of Animal Science 91, 471