Development of a dynamic, mechanistic model of nutritional and reproductive processes in dairy cattleK. Huber A , A. Kenez A , J. P. McNamara B D and S. L. Shields C
A University of Veterinary Medicine, 30173, Hannover, Germany.
B Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
C Elanco Animal Health, Pasco, WA, USA.
D Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Animal Production Science 54(12) 1914-1917 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN14515
Submitted: 25 April 2014 Accepted: 20 June 2014 Published: 29 August 2014
Our knowledge of genetics, nutrient metabolism and reproductive physiology demands an integrated systems approach to both research and on-farm application. Existing mechanistic, dynamic and biochemical models exist which describe (1) nutrient metabolism and control of nutritional processes and (2) estrous cyclicity in lactating dairy cows. The metabolic model contains a simple aggregated model of lipogenesis, esterification and lipolysis; however, it is not sufficiently detailed to provide a research framework for future research. The estrous model describes the cyclicity of follicular development as well as several key reproductive hormones, but it does not contain any nutritional control as we understand it. Therefore, we developed a more detailed model of metabolism in adipose tissue, including uptake of glucose and fatty acids, fatty acid activation to the AcylCoA form, lipogenesis from acetate and butyrate, esterification of glycerol and fatty acids, and lipolysis and release of fatty acids and glycerol. The estrous model was expanded to include control of follicular growth by IGFI (~1 mm increase in diameter for a 20 ng/mL difference in IGFI; and degradation of estrogen and progesterone (~1.6 % increase in degradation per kg DM intake equivalent). Changes in follicular growth due to IGFI and increase in steroid degradation due to increased metabolic rate (as happens during lactation) demonstrate subtle and unpredictable changes in hormonal cyclicity, similar in fact to the complex effects of anabolic and catabolic signals in the cow. The model demonstrates behaviour and sensitivity to nutrient uptake and metabolic rate consistent with known biological processes. This model may be used to help interpret genomic and transcriptomic data, to pinpoint the most effective ways to select and manage for changes in productive and reproductive efficiency.
Additional keywords: adipose, reproduction, systems biology.
ReferencesBaldwin RL (1995) ‘Modeling ruminant digestion and metabolism.’ (Chapman and Hall: New York)
Baldwin RL, France J, Gill MA (1987) Metabolism of the lactating cow. I. Animal elements of a mechanistic model. The Journal of Dairy Research 54, 74–105.
Boer HMT, Stötzel C, Röblitz SR, Deuflard P, Veerkamp RF, Woelders H (2011) A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: follicle development and endocrine interactions. Journal of Theoretical Biology 278, 20–31.
| A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: follicle development and endocrine interactions.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3Mvjs1amuw%3D%3D&md5=57c3cf5d6d3ef481cb6036df09b03a15CAS |
Butler WR (2003) Energy balance relationships with follicular development, ovulation and fertility in postpartum dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 83, 211–218.
| Energy balance relationships with follicular development, ovulation and fertility in postpartum dairy cows.CrossRef |
Hanigan MH, Palliser CC, Gregorini P (2009) Altering the representation of hormones and adding consideration of gestational metabolism in a metabolic cow model reduced prediction errors. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 5043–5056.
| Altering the representation of hormones and adding consideration of gestational metabolism in a metabolic cow model reduced prediction errors.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtF2qtrbO&md5=ab2d2bcaac40cfc611927b502a17afd3CAS |
Kawashima C, Fukihar S, Maeda M, Kaneko E, Montoya CA, Matsui M, Shimizu T, Matsunaga N, Kida K, Miyake YI, Schams D, Miyamoto A (2007) Relationship between metabolic hormones and ovulation of dominant follicle during the first follicular wave post-partum in high producing dairy cows. Reproduction 133, 155–163.
| Relationship between metabolic hormones and ovulation of dominant follicle during the first follicular wave post-partum in high producing dairy cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjs1aju7Y%3D&md5=913673f07da0e51a673c769746606743CAS | 17244742PubMed |
Lean I, Rabiee A (2006) Quantitative metabolic and epidemiological approaches to the fertility of the dairy cow. In ‘Proceedings of the Dairy Cattle Reproductive Council, DCRC, November 2006’. pp. 115–131.
McNamara JP (2000) Integrating genotype and nutrition on utilisation of body reserves during lactation of dairy cattle. In ‘Symposium on ruminant physiology’. (Ed. PB Cronje) pp. 353–370. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)
McNamara JP, Baldwin RL (2000) Estimation of parameters describing lipid metabolism in lactation: challenge of existing knowledge described in a model of metabolism. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 128–143.
| Estimation of parameters describing lipid metabolism in lactation: challenge of existing knowledge described in a model of metabolism.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXotVOmsQ%3D%3D&md5=6cb685df7ac17142d3d1f16b3adacdd7CAS | 10659973PubMed |
McNamara JP, Shields SL (2013) Reproduction during lactation of dairy cattle: integrating nutritional aspects of reproductive control in a systems research approach. Animal Frontiers 3, 76–83.
| Reproduction during lactation of dairy cattle: integrating nutritional aspects of reproductive control in a systems research approach.CrossRef |
McNamara JP,, Valdez F (2005) Effects of dietary chromium propionate and calcium propionate on adipose tissue metabolism and milk production of dairy cattle in the transition period. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 2498–2507.
| Effects of dietary chromium propionate and calcium propionate on adipose tissue metabolism and milk production of dairy cattle in the transition period.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlsFCmsb0%3D&md5=641463103a0d9237603a0aee5a8eba1aCAS |
Phillips JG, Citron TL, Sage JS, Cummins KA, Cecava MJ, McNamara JP (2003) Adaptations in body muscle and fat in transition dairy cattle fed differing amounts of protein and methionine hydroxy analog. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 3634–3647.
| Adaptations in body muscle and fat in transition dairy cattle fed differing amounts of protein and methionine hydroxy analog.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXptFaju7o%3D&md5=d70b0f6c8fda6c46ab9bb7922a320198CAS |
Rocco SM, McNamara JP (2013) Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 7. Metabolism and gene expression as a function of genetic merit and dietary energy intake. Journal of Dairy Science 96, 3108–3119.
| Regulation of bovine adipose tissue metabolism during lactation. 7. Metabolism and gene expression as a function of genetic merit and dietary energy intake.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXktFejtrw%3D&md5=408e67bdee656d1047a6691d30d1d187CAS | 23477813PubMed |
Sangsritavong S, Combs DK, Sartori R, Wiltbank MC (2002) High feed intake increases blood flow and metabolism of progesterone and estradiol-17β in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 2831–2842.
| High feed intake increases blood flow and metabolism of progesterone and estradiol-17β in dairy cattle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xptlagsbc%3D&md5=7ea8164ea3ac753a9ec21861d295c709CAS | 12487450PubMed |
Shields SL, Woelders H, Boer M, Stötzel C, Röeblitz S, Plöntzke J, McNamara JP (2012) Integrating nutritional and reproductive models to improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 92, 556
Sumner JS, McNamara JP (2007) Expression of key genes controlling lipolysis in adipose tissue of Holstein dairy cattle during the dry period and lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 5237–5246.
Stötzel C, Plöntzke J, Röeblitz S (2011) Advances in modeling of the bovine estrous cycle: administration of PGF2α. ZIB-report 11–17, Zuse Institute, Berlin.