Greenhouse gas emissions from dung, urine and dairy pond sludge applied to pasture. 2. Methane emissionsK. B. Kelly A C , G. N. Ward B and J. W. Hollier A B
A Agriculture Victoria, Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Tatura, Vic. 3616, Australia.
B Agriculture Victoria, Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Warrnambool, Vic. 3280, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15638
Submitted: 21 September 2015 Accepted: 4 January 2016 Published online: 20 April 2016
Soil is known to be both a source and a sink for methane (CH4), while animal wastes can be a source. In experiments primarily designed to measure nitrous oxide emissions from the application of dairy cow urine, dung and pond sludge to pasture, CH4 emissions were also measured. Daily emissions from nil and urine treatments were the same and ranged from –7.1 × 10–3 to 6.4 × 10–3 kg CH4/ha.day and were strongly related to soil water content. Dung applied in September 2013 at 11 160 kg volatile solids (VS)/ha resulted in an immediate increase in flux, peaking at 1.7 kg CH4/ha.day on the day of application, and persisted for 35 days on a Chromosol soil type. Cumulative emissions (245 days) were 22.5 kg CH4/ha higher for dung than for no dung treatments, equating to 1.94 × 10–3 kg CH4/kg VS. Emissions were elevated for 5 days after the application of sludge (6680 kg VS/ha) in May 2014, with 80% of CH4 emissions in the first 24 h when applied to a Chromosol soil type. Where individual dung pats were applied in May, August and November 2014, and January 2015, at 5110, 3610, 4290 and 5350 kg VS/ha, respectively, emissions were elevated for up to 30 days after application, with cumulative net emissions (over 50 days) of 2.7, 4.7, 3.7 and 4.4 kg CH4/ha. Cumulative emissions from May 2014 (over 350 days) were –0.5, 1.6 and 15.0 kg CH4/ha for the nil, sludge and dung application treatments, respectively, corresponding to 3.3 × 10–4 and 8.5 × 10–4 kg CH4/kg VS for sludge and dung. Where dung was applied seasonally, net cumulative emissions from dung on a Chromosol soil were 9.4, 0.2, 2.5 and 11.1 kg CH4/ha, in spring summer, autumn and winter, respectively. On a Dermosol soil, cumulative emissions from dung were 6.4, <0.1, 3.8, and 14.4 kg CH4/ha. Seasonal emissions of CH4 ranged from 4.3 × 10–6 to 1.1 × 10–3 kg CH4/kg VS. These measured emissions were mostly lower than that calculated from the country-specific emission factors used in Australian Inventory for CH4 emissions from dairy cow dung in temperate Australia of 1.59 × 10–3 kg CH4/kg VS.
Additional keywords: bovine, nitrapyrin, nitrification inhibitor.
ReferencesAmaral J, Ren T, Knowles R (1998) Atmospheric methane consumption by forest soils and extracted bacteria at different pH values. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 2397–2402.
APHA (American Public Health Association) (2005) ‘Standard methods for examination of water and waste water. Version 21.’ (American Public Health Association: Washington, DC)
Cahalan E, Ernfors M, Muller C, Devaney D, Laughlin RJ, Watson CJ, Hennessy D, Grant J, Khalil MI, McGeough KL, Richards KG (2015) The effects of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on nitrous oxide and methane emissions after cattle slurry application to Irish grassland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 199, 339–349.
| The effects of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on nitrous oxide and methane emissions after cattle slurry application to Irish grassland.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhslehsbrI&md5=d6d2983caa94b86e84f4d9644300bc61CAS |
Chadwick DR, Pain BF (1997) Methane fluxes following slurry applications to grassland soils: laboratory experiments. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 63, 51–60.
| Methane fluxes following slurry applications to grassland soils: laboratory experiments.CrossRef |
Chadwick DR, Pain BF, Brookman SKE (2000) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions following application of animal manures to grassland. Journal of Environmental Quality 29, 277–287.
| Nitrous oxide and methane emissions following application of animal manures to grassland.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXot1eisQ%3D%3D&md5=c534bae2bd6fc492e6157ff719f32e1dCAS |
Department of Environment (2015) Australian national inventory report 2013. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/greenhouse-gas-measurement/publications/national-inventory-report-2013 [Verified April 2015]
Flessa H, Dorsch P, Beese F, Konig H, Bouwman AF (1996) Influence of cattle waste on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land. Journal of Environmental Quality 25, 1366–1370.
| Influence of cattle waste on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XnsVyrurg%3D&md5=24282308231fe42579ecb7523311bd66CAS |
Isbell RF (1996) ‘The Australian soil classification.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)
Jarvis S, Lovell RD, Panayides R (1995) Pattern of methane emissions from excreta of grazing cattle. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 27, 1581–1588.
| Pattern of methane emissions from excreta of grazing cattle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXhtVSntrbE&md5=965de6438cf32e30b9f44cba926c00daCAS |
Mazzetto AM, Barneze AS, Feigl BJ, Van Groengin JW, Oenema O, Cerri CC (2014) Temperature and moisture affects methane and nitrous oxide emissions from bovine manure patches in tropical conditions. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 76, 242–248.
| Temperature and moisture affects methane and nitrous oxide emissions from bovine manure patches in tropical conditions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtVCisb%2FO&md5=3b11361868df1b0dbaad7aa56d8b83c2CAS |
Payne RW, Murray DA, Harding SA, Baird DB, Soutar DM (2013) ‘Genstat for Windows. Introduction.’ 10th edn. (VSN International: Hemel Hempstead, UK)
Saggar S, Hedley C, Tate K (2003) Methane sources and sinks in New Zealand grazed pastures. New Zealand Soil News 51, 6–7.
Saggar S, Bolan NS, Bhandral R, Hedley CB, Luo J (2004) A review of emissions of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide from animal excreta deposition and farm effluent application in grazed pastures. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 47, 513–544.
| A review of emissions of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide from animal excreta deposition and farm effluent application in grazed pastures.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhvFyltbg%3D&md5=1eda5246c68e39c4af432bbd5652271bCAS |
Ward GN, Kelly KB, Hollier JW (2016) Greenhouse gas emissions from dung, urine and dairy pond sludge applied to pasture. 1. Nitrous oxide emissions. Animal Production Science 56, in press.
Williams DJ (1993) Methane emissions from manure of free-range dairy cows. Chemosphere 26, 179–187.
| Methane emissions from manure of free-range dairy cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXitFylu7k%3D&md5=16282089eaa2db4d2ee7fed4781089b6CAS |
Yamulki S, Jarvis SC, Owen P (1999) Methane emissions and uptake from soils as influenced by excreta deposition from grazing animals. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 676–682.
| Methane emissions and uptake from soils as influenced by excreta deposition from grazing animals.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhvFyrtLk%3D&md5=ec182e080044eda122a41e0f684c7d16CAS |