Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effect of quantity and source of rumen nitrogen on the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in steers consuming tropical forage

M. K. Bowen A B D , D. P. Poppi A and S. R. McLennan C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Agriculture and Food Science and School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld 4343, Australia.

B Present address: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Rockhampton, Qld 4701, Australia.

C The University of Queensland, Centre for Animal Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, Brisbane Qld 4105, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: maree.bowen@daf.qld.gov.au

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15739
Submitted: 21 October 2015  Accepted: 20 October 2015   Published online: 2 December 2016

Abstract

Low values for the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS) in cattle consuming tropical forages are related to low rumen degradable crude protein (RDP) intakes. This study examined the effect on the EMPS of the quantity and source of nitrogen (N) supplied to the rumen of eight entire and four rumen-fistulated Brahman steers consuming mature tropical grass hay (57.3 g crude protein/kg DM). Four treatment diets were fed in a Latin square design and included a basal diet of mature pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha) hay (control) and hay plus supplements estimated to provide 150 g RDP/kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), as urea or casein, or 300 g RDP/kg DOMI as casein. The EMPS was only increased (P < 0.05) above that for the control diet (167 vs 123 g microbial crude protein (MCP)/kg DOMI) when RDP was provided at the highest rate of 293 g/kg DOMI. This increase was also associated with an ~4-fold increase in the concentration of NH3-N (277 vs 73 mg/L) and of branched-chain volatile fatty acids (44 vs 10 mmol/mol of total volatile fatty acids) in rumen fluid of the steers. However, the source of rumen degradable N (urea or casein) had no effect on the EMPS (109–115 g MCP/kg DOMI) when supplied at ~150 g RDP/kg DOMI. There was no effect of treatment on in vivo neutral detergent fibre digestibility (599 g/kg DM) or the rate (0.037/h) or extent (potential degradable fraction: 636 g/kg OM) of in sacco disappearance of pangola grass hay. In addition, rumen particle dilution rate was unaffected by treatment (0.022/h) and rumen fluid dilution rate, although showing some treatment differences (0.048–0.062/h), was poorly correlated with EMPS. It was concluded that only high amounts of RDP supply to the rumen, in the form of true protein, resulted in increased EMPS whereas at the lower intakes of RDP formulated to achieve EMPS in the range suggested in the feeding standards (130–170 g MCP/kg DOMI) there was no difference in providing the RDP as non-protein N or degradable-protein.

Additional keywords: nitrogen source, urinary purine derivatives.


References

Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) (1993) ‘Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. An advisory manual prepared by the AFRC technical committee on responses to nutrients.’ (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

Amos HE, Evans J (1976) Supplementary protein for low quality bermudagrass diets and microbial protein synthesis. Journal of Animal Science 43, 861–868.
Supplementary protein for low quality bermudagrass diets and microbial protein synthesis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE28XlvFWitrc%3D&md5=90f13a911f8940ea0bb55675e48e559dCAS |

Balcells J, Parker DS, Guada JA, Piero JM (1992) Simultaneous analysis of allantoin and oxypurines in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications 575, 153–157.
Simultaneous analysis of allantoin and oxypurines in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XitFSmsrk%3D&md5=776de9332e9b699067025c3e0aa38078CAS |

Beever DE, Dhanoa MS, Losada HR, Evans RT, Cammell SB, France J (1986) The effect of forage species and stage of harvest on the processes of digestion occurring in the rumen of cattle. British Journal of Nutrition 56, 439–454.
The effect of forage species and stage of harvest on the processes of digestion occurring in the rumen of cattle.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL1c%2FltVOmtA%3D%3D&md5=8cf6cb1fd5e1c41512d3f5fc9c3e1c4eCAS |

Ben-Ghedalia D, McMeniman NP, Armstrong DG (1978) The effect of partially replacing urea nitrogen with protein N on N capture in the rumen of sheep fed a purified diet. British Journal of Nutrition 39, 37–44.
The effect of partially replacing urea nitrogen with protein N on N capture in the rumen of sheep fed a purified diet.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE1cXhvVyltb4%3D&md5=606c914c447100c3bbb94f52be6dced9CAS |

Bolleter WT, Bushman CJ, Tidwell PW (1961) Spectrophotometric determination of ammonia as indophenol. Analytical Chemistry 33, 592–594.
Spectrophotometric determination of ammonia as indophenol.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF3MXmtl2nug%3D%3D&md5=81e01645be64c1cb94db9bd27a66d091CAS |

Boniface AN, Murray RM, Hogan JP (1986) Optimum level of ammonia in the rumen liquor of cattle fed tropical pasture hay. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 16, 151–154.

Bowen MK, Poppi DP, McLennan SR, Doogan VJ (2006) A comparison of the excretion rate of endogenous purine derivatives in the urine of Bos indicus and Bos taurus steers. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57, 173–177.
A comparison of the excretion rate of endogenous purine derivatives in the urine of Bos indicus and Bos taurus steers.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xhslelu78%3D&md5=cb25ef746b20449b1fb1e2da222d1559CAS |

Bowen MK, Poppi DP, McLennan SR (2008) Ruminal protein degradability of a range of tropical pastures. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 806–810.
Ruminal protein degradability of a range of tropical pastures.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXnsVGhtLw%3D&md5=758250b3c55ba94126cbdd04262e091cCAS |

Bowen MK, Poppi DP, McLennan SR (2010) Rumen degradability of a tropical grass hay in cattle grazing different pasture types. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 28, 57

Bowen MK, Poppi DP, McLennan SR (2016) Efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis in cattle grazing tropical pasture as estimated by a novel technique. Animal Production Science
Efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis in cattle grazing tropical pasture as estimated by a novel technique.CrossRef |

Bryant MP (1973) Nutritional requirements of the predominant rumen cellulolytic bacteria. Federation Proceedings 32, 1809–1813.

Bryant MP, Robinson IM (1962) Some nutritional characteristics of predominant culturable rumen bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 84, 605–614.

Chen XB, Gomes MJ (1995) ‘Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives: an overview of the technical details.’ (International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute: Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK)

Chikunya S, Newbold CJ, Rode L, Chen XB, Wallace RJ (1996) Influence of dietary rumen-degradable protein on bacterial growth in the rumen of sheep receiving different energy sources. Animal Feed Science and Technology 63, 333–340.
Influence of dietary rumen-degradable protein on bacterial growth in the rumen of sheep receiving different energy sources.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XntlKks7c%3D&md5=53a8c08faf1197903e58c175af9a01d3CAS |

Corbett JL (1987) Energy and protein utilization by grazing animals. In ‘Temperate pastures: their production, use and management’. (Eds JL Wheeler, CJ Pearson, GE Robards) pp. 341–355. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Corbett JL, Furnival EP, Inskip MW, Pickering FS (1982) Protein digestion in grazing sheep. In ‘Forage protein in ruminant animal production’. Occasional Publication No. 6. (Eds DJ Thomson, DE Beever, RG Gunn) pp. 141–143. (British Society of Animal Production: Thames Ditton, UK)

Cruz Soto R, Muhammed SA, Newbold CJ, Stewart CS, Wallace RJ (1994) Influence of peptides, amino acids and urea on microbial activity in the rumen of sheep receiving grass hay and on the growth of rumen bacteria in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology 49, 151–161.
Influence of peptides, amino acids and urea on microbial activity in the rumen of sheep receiving grass hay and on the growth of rumen bacteria in vitro.CrossRef |

de Vega A, Poppi DP (1997) Extent of digestion and rumen conditions as factors affecting passage of liquid and digesta particles in sheep. The Journal of Agricultural Science 128, 207–215.
Extent of digestion and rumen conditions as factors affecting passage of liquid and digesta particles in sheep.CrossRef |

Detmann E, Valente EEL, Batista ED, Huhtanen P (2014) An evaluation of the performance and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle fed tropical grass pastures with supplementation. Livestock Science 162, 141–153.
An evaluation of the performance and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle fed tropical grass pastures with supplementation.CrossRef |

Djouvinov DS, Todorov NA (1994) Influence of dry matter intake and passage rate on microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep and its estimation by cannulation and a non-invasive method. Animal Feed Science and Technology 48, 289–304.
Influence of dry matter intake and passage rate on microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep and its estimation by cannulation and a non-invasive method.CrossRef |

Foss Tecator (2002a) Application sub-note ASN 3805. The determination of neutral detergent fibre using the fibercap system. Foss Tecator, Hoganas, Sweden.

Foss Tecator (2002b) Application sub-note ASN 3804. The determination of acid detergent fibre using the fibercap system. Foss Tecator, Hoganas, Sweden.

Hume ID (1970a) The response of microbial protein in the rumen. II. A response to higher volatile fatty acids. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 21, 297–304.
The response of microbial protein in the rumen. II. A response to higher volatile fatty acids.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3cXks1eqsro%3D&md5=6692fec10dae093bcca834d0537fc163CAS |

Hume ID (1970b) Synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen. III. The effect of dietary protein. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 21, 305–314.
Synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen. III. The effect of dietary protein.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3cXkvVGhs74%3D&md5=3b29367c264e6dabc69d6c5f25b9d6a4CAS |

Hunter RA, Siebert BD (1985) Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 1. Rumen digestion. British Journal of Nutrition 53, 637–648.
Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 1. Rumen digestion.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL28%2FltFCitw%3D%3D&md5=9bb0251da8160a2eab2098edd74a1c87CAS |

McDonald I (1981) A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. Journal of Agricultural Science 96, 251–252.
A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXktVCjtL0%3D&md5=368de3921e259227591a4a6ed2a835c7CAS |

Morrison M, Hogan JP, Murray RM (1988) Evaluation in vitro of ammonia nitrogen requirements for rumen fermentation and protein synthesis with mature tropical forage. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 17, 266–269.

Nolan JV (1993) Nitrogen kinetics. In ‘Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism’. (Eds JM Forbes, J France) pp. 123–143. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

NRDR (2007) ‘Nutrient requirements of domesticated ruminants.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Panjaitan T, Quigley SP, McLennan SR, Swain T, Poppi DP (2010) Intake, retention time in the rumen and microbial protein production of Bos indicus steers consuming grasses varying in crude protein content. Animal Production Science 50, 444–448.
Intake, retention time in the rumen and microbial protein production of Bos indicus steers consuming grasses varying in crude protein content.CrossRef |

Panjaitan T, Quigley SP, McLennan SR, Swain AJ, Poppi DP (2014) Digestion of forages in the rumen is increased by the amount but not type of protein supplement. Animal Production Science 54, 1363–1367.

Panjaitan T, Quigley SP, McLennan SR, Swain AJ, Poppi DP (2015) Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) algae supplementation increases microbial protein production and feed intake and decreases retention time of digesta in the rumen of cattle. Animal Production Science 55, 535–543.
Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) algae supplementation increases microbial protein production and feed intake and decreases retention time of digesta in the rumen of cattle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXjvVOnsrc%3D&md5=f8869afe30b702057cdc2131704e62b5CAS |

Poppi DP, McLennan SR (1995) Protein and energy utilization by ruminants at pasture. Journal of Animal Science 73, 278–290.
Protein and energy utilization by ruminants at pasture.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXjtVKhur8%3D&md5=c68504c0536ba7786740af6a98b94ba5CAS |

Poppi DP, McLennan SR (2010) Nutritional research to meet future challenges. Animal Production Science 50, 329–338.
Nutritional research to meet future challenges.CrossRef |

Poppi DP, McLennan SR, Bediye S, de Vega A, Zorrilla-Rios J (1997) Forage quality: strategies for increasing nutritive value of forages. In ‘Proceedings of the XVIII international grassland congress’, 8–19 June 1997, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. (Eds JG Buchanan-Smith, LD Bailey, P McCaughey) pp. 307–322. (Association Management Centre of the Canadian Forage Council, Canadian Society of Agronomy and Canadian Society of Animal Science: Calgary, Canada)

Reynolds CK, Kristensen NB (2008) Nitrogen recycling through the gut and the nitrogen economy of ruminants: an asynchronous symbiosis. Journal of Animal Science 86, E293–E305.
Nitrogen recycling through the gut and the nitrogen economy of ruminants: an asynchronous symbiosis.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1c3lsVyrsg%3D%3D&md5=fc685e30705e95f9f064e667f3d9c042CAS |

Satter LD, Slyter LL (1974) Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition 32, 199–208.
Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE2cXltFOjsrk%3D&md5=bea696da1efe14d920c25b18bb6b8f57CAS |

Stouthamer AH, Bettenhaussen C (1973) Utilization of energy for growth and maintenance in continuous and batch cultures of microorganisms. A reevaluation of the method for the determination of ATP production by measuring molar growth yields. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 301, 53–70.
Utilization of energy for growth and maintenance in continuous and batch cultures of microorganisms. A reevaluation of the method for the determination of ATP production by measuring molar growth yields.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3sXht1amtLY%3D&md5=38433df0827bdce826b82f7c625a6ea2CAS |

Sweeney RA (1989) Generic combustion method for determination of crude protein in feeds. Journal – Association of Official Analytical Chemists 72, 770–774.

Tuyen DV, Tolosa XM, Poppi DP, McLennan SR (2015) Effect of varying the proportion of molasses in the diet on intake, digestion and microbial protein production by steers. Animal Production Science 55, 17–26.
Effect of varying the proportion of molasses in the diet on intake, digestion and microbial protein production by steers.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXitVKqsrvM&md5=b666df9237abd9f047b27d64071a5d6bCAS |

Valadares Filho SC, dos Santos Pina D, Chizotti ML, Ferreira Diniz Valaderes R (2010) Ruminal feed protein degradation and microbial protein synthesis. In ‘Nutrient requirements of zebu beef cattle BR-Corte’. 2nd edn. (Eds S De Campos Valadares Filho, M Inacio Marcondes, M Chizzotti, P Veiga Rodrigues Paulino) pp. 13–44. (Federal University of Vicosa, Department of Animal Science: Vicosa, Brazil)



Export Citation