Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

An overview of energy and protein utilisation during growth in simple-stomached animals

Paul J. Moughan
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

Riddet Institute, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Email: P.J.Moughan@massey.ac.nz

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15791
Submitted: 10 November 2015  Accepted: 27 June 2016   Published online: 25 August 2016

Abstract

The biological processes underlying the partitioning of amino acids and energy during animal growth are well understood qualitatively. However, if a deeper mechanistic understanding is to be achieved, such as to allow generalised predictions of growth outcomes, these biological processes need to be described quantitatively, along with critical control points. Concepts and rules can be formulated at mechanistic and semi-mechanistic levels, and often reflecting causation, to allow nutrient intake and partitioning to be described in a quantitative manner for different animal and environmental conditions. An overview is given of amino acid and energy partitioning during growth in monogastric animals, in terms of causation and quantitatively based descriptors. Current knowledge is far from complete, and areas requiring new insights and a more in-depth understanding of causative mechanisms include voluntary food-intake control, dynamics of nutrient uptake, temporary post-prandial nutrient storage, relationships among nutrient intakes, protein turnover and maintenance-energy requirement, colonic amino acid uptake in poultry, bioavailability of amino acids other than lysine, diet effects on gut endogenous amino acid loss, inevitable amino acid catabolism, preferential amino acid catabolism, and diet, age and genotype effects on body protein synthesis and degradation.

Additional keywords: amino acids, ATP, lysine, metabolism, modelling, nutrient utilisation.


References

Baker DH, Johnson RW (1999) Disease stress, cytokines and amino acid needs of pigs. Pig News and Info. 20, 123N–124N.

Baldwin RL (1976) Principles of modelling animal systems. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 36, 128–139.

Baldwin RL, Black JL (1979) ‘Simulation of the effects of nutritional and physiological status on the growth of mammalian tissues: description and evaluation of a computer program.’ CSIRO Animal Research Laboratories Technical Paper No. 6. (CSIRO: Melbourne)

Bastianelli D, Sauvant D (1995) Modelling digestion and absorption in the pig. In ‘Proceedings of the IVth international workshop on modelling nutrient utilisation in farm animals’. (Eds A Danfaer, P Lescoat) pp. 107–115. (National Institute of Animal Sciences: Foulum, Denmark)

Bastianelli D, Sauvant D, Rérat A (1996) Mathematical modeling of digestion and nutrient absorption in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 74, 1873–1887.

Batterham ES (1992) Availability and utilization of amino acids for growing pigs. Nutrition Research Reviews 5, 1–18.
Availability and utilization of amino acids for growing pigs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXksVyitrs%3D&md5=35e371223156e0718fa47a1efde9c868CAS | 19094310PubMed |

Birkett S, de Lange K (2001a) Limitations of conventional models and a conceptual framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization by animals. British Journal of Nutrition 86, 647–659.
Limitations of conventional models and a conceptual framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization by animals.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhvVWhsQ%3D%3D&md5=b4d6036a9c50df374ad8cf0b82ea5e34CAS | 11749675PubMed |

Birkett S, de Lange K (2001b) A conceptual framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization of growing monogastric animals. British Journal of Nutrition 86, 661–674.
A conceptual framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization of growing monogastric animals.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhvVWhtg%3D%3D&md5=dc159aac5ca9f5a73d29ff1fe6d00bdfCAS | 11749676PubMed |

Black JL (1995a) The evolution of animal growth models. In ‘Modelling growth in the pig’. (Eds PJ Moughan, MWA Verstegen, MI Visser-Reyneveld) pp. 3–9. (Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, The Netherlands)

Black JL (1995b) Approaches to modelling. In ‘Modelling growth in the pig’. (Eds PJ Moughan, MWA Verstegen, MI Visser-Reyneveld) pp. 11–22. (Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, The Netherlands)

Black JL (1995c) The testing and evaluation of models. In ‘Modelling growth in the pig’. (Eds PJ Moughan, MWA Verstegen, MI Visser-Reyneveld) pp. 23–31. (Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, The Netherlands)

Black JL (2000) Bioavailability: the energy component of a ration for monogastric animals. In ‘Feed evaluation: principles and practice’. (Eds PJ Moughan, MWA Verstegen, MI Visser-Reyneveld) pp. 133–152. (Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, The Netherlands)

Black JL, Davies GT (1991) Ideal-protein: its variable composition. In ‘Manipulating pig production III’. (Ed. ES Batterham) p. 111. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Attwood, Vic.)

Black JL, Griffiths DA (1975) Effects of live weight and energy intake on nitrogen balance and total N requirements of lambs. British Journal of Nutrition 33, 399–413.
Effects of live weight and energy intake on nitrogen balance and total N requirements of lambs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE2MXktVOrtL8%3D&md5=601ecbdf21f5abcbd6753cc84c6f3fc1CAS | 1125170PubMed |

Black JL, Campbell RG, Williams IH, James KJ, Davies GT (1986) Simulation of energy and amino acid utilization in the pig. Research and Development in Agriculture 3, 121–145.

Black JL, Gill M, Beever DE, Thornley JHM, Oldham JD (1987a) Simulation of the metabolism of absorbed energy-yielding nutrients in young sheep. Efficiency of utilization of acetate. The Journal of Nutrition 117, 105–115.

Black JL, Gill M, Thornley JHM, Beever DE, Oldham JD (1987b) Simulation of the metabolism of absorbed energy-yielding nutrients in young sheep. Efficiency of utilization of lipid and amino acids. The Journal of Nutrition 117, 116–128.

Black JL, Davies GT, Bray JH, Giles LR, Chapple RP (1995) Modelling the effects of genotype, environment and health on nutrient utilisation. In ‘Proceedings of IV international workshop on modelling nutrient utilisation in farm animals’. (Eds A Danfaer, P Lescoat) pp. 85–105. (National Institute of Animal Science: Foulum, Denmark)

Black JL, Bray HJ, Giles LR (1999) The thermal and infectious environment. In ‘A quantitative biology of the pig’. (Ed. I Kyriazakis) pp. 71–97. (CABI: Oxford, UK)

Block RJ, Mitchell HH (1946) The correlation of the amino acid composition of proteins with their nutritive value. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 16, 249–278.

Burrin DG, Stoll B, van Goudoever JB, Reeds PJ (2001) Nutrient requirements for intestinal growth and metabolism in the developing pig. In ‘Digestive physiology in pigs. Proceedings 8th symposium’, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. (Eds JE Lindberg, B Ogle) pp. 75–88. (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

Campbell RG (1985) Effect of sex and genotype on energy and protein metabolism in the pig. In ‘Recent advances in animal nutrition in Australia’. (Ed. RB Cumming) (University of New England: Armidale, NSW)

Campbell RG, Dunkin AC (1983) The effects of energy intake and dietary protein on nitrogen retention, growth performance, body composition and some aspects of energy metabolism of baby pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 49, 221–230.
The effects of energy intake and dietary protein on nitrogen retention, growth performance, body composition and some aspects of energy metabolism of baby pigs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3sXlvFels7c%3D&md5=79d2ba61bc7a809e433bb58f4fd3e39bCAS | 6830750PubMed |

Campbell RG, Taverner MR, Curic DM (1983) The influence of feeding level from 20 to 45 kg liveweight on the performance and body composition of female and entire male pigs. Animal Production 36, 193–199.

Campbell RG, Taverner MR, Curic DM (1984) Effect of feeding level and dietary protein content on the growth, body composition and rate of protein deposition in pigs growing from 45 to 90 kg. Animal Production 38, 233–240.
Effect of feeding level and dietary protein content on the growth, body composition and rate of protein deposition in pigs growing from 45 to 90 kg.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXkvV2nsbw%3D&md5=dc818a4c1dc77523540d532518f1006bCAS |

Carr JR, Boorman KN, Cole DJA (1977) Nitrogen retention in the pig. British Journal of Nutrition 37, 143–155.
Nitrogen retention in the pig.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE2sXkvVent7c%3D&md5=c48ceb1d00b7156ae9bc49ccfc62263aCAS | 870018PubMed |

Cole DJA (1979) Amino acid nutrition of the pig. In ‘Recent advances in animal nutrition, 1978. Proceedings of the 12th nutritional conference for feed manufacturers, University of Nottingham’. (Eds W Haresign, D Lewis) pp. 201–205. (Butterworths: London)

Coles LT, Moughan PJ, Awati A, Darragh AJ, Zou ML (2010) Predicted apparent digestion of energy-yielding nutrients differs between the upper and lower digestive tracts in rats and humans. The Journal of Nutrition 140, 469–476.
Predicted apparent digestion of energy-yielding nutrients differs between the upper and lower digestive tracts in rats and humans.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXnsFKhsb8%3D&md5=8911d3086594433248a710e3718f5d00CAS | 20071653PubMed |

Coles LT, Rutherfurd SM, Moughan PJ (2013) A model to predict the ATP equivalents of macronutrients absorbed from food. Food & Function 4, 432–442.
A model to predict the ATP equivalents of macronutrients absorbed from food.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXjtV2ktLg%3D&md5=7897cd5fe833f8b8126f14aa97f9f01dCAS |

Dunkin AC, Black JL, James KJ (1984) Relationship between energy intake and nitrogen retention in the finisher pig. Animal Production in Australia 15, 672

Dunkin AC, Black JL, James KJ (1986) Nitrogen balance in relation to energy intake in entire male pigs weighing 75 kg. British Journal of Nutrition 55, 201–207.
Nitrogen balance in relation to energy intake in entire male pigs weighing 75 kg.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL1c%2FisV2itw%3D%3D&md5=e71e42deb25d66762e1b4df2d88d2688CAS | 3663575PubMed |

Emmans GC, Kyriazakis I (1999) Growth and body composition. In ‘A quantitative biology of the pig’. (Ed. I Kyriazakis) pp. 181–197. (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

Ferrua MJ, Kong F, Singh RP (2011) Computational modelling of gastric digestion and the role of food material properties. Trends in Food Science & Technology 22, 480–491.
Computational modelling of gastric digestion and the role of food material properties.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht1ehsbrI&md5=3458ec536a3ccf738972a66ef73acaddCAS |

Fuller MF (1980) Protein and amino acid nutrition of the pig. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 39, 193–203.
Protein and amino acid nutrition of the pig.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXks12isLo%3D&md5=76e9f7b9f7680da56f5362d420666dabCAS | 7403065PubMed |

Fuller MF, Livingstone RM, Baird BA, Atkinson T (1979) The optimal amino acid supplementation of barley for the growing pig. 1. Response of nitrogen metabolism to progressive supplementation. British Journal of Nutrition 41, 321–331.
The optimal amino acid supplementation of barley for the growing pig. 1. Response of nitrogen metabolism to progressive supplementation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXktFyks70%3D&md5=d424996b29181e52a560f34ad6104bfcCAS | 427085PubMed |

Gill M, Thornley JHM, Black JL, Oldham JD, Beever DE (1984) Simulation of the metabolism of absorbed energy: yielding nutrients in young sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 52, 621–649.
Simulation of the metabolism of absorbed energy: yielding nutrients in young sheep.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXmtV2kt7w%3D&md5=8e3cb5b73e620bb3d418ea4cdc343e1dCAS | 6498153PubMed |

Green DM, Whittemore CT (2003) Architecture of a harmonized model of the growing pig for the determination of dietary net energy and protein requirements and of excretions into the environment (IMS Pig). Animal Science 84, 279–295.

Hurwitz S, Bornstein S (1973) The protein and amino acid requirements of laying hens: Suggested models for calculation. Poultry Science 52, 1124–1134.
The protein and amino acid requirements of laying hens: Suggested models for calculation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3sXkslOgsrw%3D&md5=88030379ac07f3097e969ed671027a48CAS | 4754026PubMed |

Kielanowski J (1969) Energy and protein metabolism in growing pigs. Revista Cubana de Ciencia Agricola 3, 207–216.

Kyriazakis I, Emmans GC (1992a) The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of pigs. 1. The effects of energy intake at constant, high protein intake. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 603–613.
The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of pigs. 1. The effects of energy intake at constant, high protein intake.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXmtFSl&md5=dad50341f71b3102522db2c41d8dd6f4CAS | 1493130PubMed |

Kyriazakis I, Emmans GC (1992b) The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of pigs. 2. The effects of varying both energy and protein intake. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 615–625.
The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of pigs. 2. The effects of varying both energy and protein intake.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXmtV2h&md5=9b49abadceaf41eca796c8eda6eb0889CAS | 1493131PubMed |

Lewis D, Annison EF (1974) Protein and amino-acid requirements of poultry, pigs and ruminants. In ‘Nutrition conference for feed manufacturers: 8. Proceedings of the nutrition conference for feed manufacturers, University of Nottingham, 1974’. (Eds H Swan, D Lewis) pp. 27–48. (Butterworths: London)

Lewis D, Cole DJA (1976) Quantitative aspects of pig nutrition. Amino acid requirements. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 35, 87–91.
Quantitative aspects of pig nutrition. Amino acid requirements.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE28Xks1Wksr8%3D&md5=c10dcc241d9058bef03045845b74e7f8CAS | 781688PubMed |

Low AG (1981) Amino acid use by growing pigs. In ‘Recent advances in animal nutrition’. (Ed. W Haresign) pp. 141–156. (Butterworths: London)

Miller DS, Payne PR (1963) A theory of protein metabolism. Journal of Theoretical Biology 5, 398–411.
A theory of protein metabolism.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF2cXktVKhsLk%3D&md5=6993f9a83b2490f7c96665c289180decCAS | 5875167PubMed |

Millward DJ, Rivers JPW (1988) The nutritional role of indispensable amino acids and the metabolic basis for their requirements. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 367–393.

Mitchell HH (1950) Some species and age differences in amino acid requirements. In ‘Protein and amino acid requirements of mammals’. (Ed. AA Albanese) pp. 1–15. (Academic Press: New York)

Moughan PJ (1981) A model to simulate the utilisation of dietary amino acids by the growing pig (20–100 kg). Research Bulletin. (Massey University: Palmerston North, New Zealand)

Moughan PJ (1989) Simulation of the daily partitioning of lysine in the 50 kg liveweight pig: a factorial approach to estimating amino acid requirements for growth and maintenance. Research and Development in Agriculture 6, 7–14.

Moughan PJ (1999) Protein metabolism in the growing pig. In ‘A quantitative biology of the pig’. (Ed. I Kyriazakis) pp. 299–331. (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

Moughan PJ (2003) Simulating the partitioning of dietary amino acids: new directions. Journal of Animal Science 81, E60–E67.

Moughan PJ (2008) Efficiency of amino acid utilization in simple-stomached animals and humans: a modelling approach. In ‘Mathematical modelling in animal nutrition’. (Eds J France, E Kebreab) pp. 241–253. (CABI: Wallingford, UK)

Moughan PJ, Smith WC (1984) Prediction of dietary protein quality based on a model of the digestion and metabolism of nitrogen in the growing pig. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 27, 501–507.
Prediction of dietary protein quality based on a model of the digestion and metabolism of nitrogen in the growing pig.CrossRef |

Moughan PJ, Verstegen MWA (1988) The modelling of growth in the pig. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 36, 145–166.

Moughan PJ, Smith WC, Pearson G (1987) Description and validation of a model simulating growth in the pig (20–90 kg liveweight). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 30, 481–489.
Description and validation of a model simulating growth in the pig (20–90 kg liveweight).CrossRef |

Moughan PJ, Kerr RT, Smith WC (1995) The role of simulation models in the development of economically-optimal feeding regimens for the growing pig. In ‘Modelling growth in pig’. EAAP Publication No. 78. (Eds PJ Moughan, MWA Verstegen, MI Visser-Reyneveld) pp. 209–222. (Wageningen Pers: Wageningen, The Netherlands)

Munro HN (1964) General aspects of the regulation of protein metabolism by diets and hormones. In ‘Mammalian protein metabolism. Vol. 1’. (Eds HN Munro, JB Allison) pp. 382–468. (Academic Press: New York)

Osborne TB, Mendel LB (1914) Amino acids in nutrition and growth. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 17, 325–349.

Payne PR (1972) Protein quality of diets, chemical scores and amino acid imbalances. In ‘Protein and amino acid functions’. (Ed. EJ Bigwood) pp. 259-306. (Pergamon Press: Oxford, UK)

Rerat A (1972) Protein nutrition and metabolism in the growing pig. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 42, 13–39.

Rivest J, Bernier JF, Pomar C (2000) A dynamic model of protein digestion in the small intestine of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 78, 328–340.

Rutherfurd SM, Moughan PJ (2012) Available versus digestible dietary amino acids. British Journal of Nutrition 108, S298–S305.
Available versus digestible dietary amino acids.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xhs1arsbjL&md5=ee38a1bb5e58beacc2e3ddb9f54d7855CAS | 23107541PubMed |

Sandberg FB, Emmans GC, Kyriazakis I (2005) Partitioning of limiting protein and energy in the growing pig: testing quantitative rules against experimental data. British Journal of Nutrition 93, 213–224.
Partitioning of limiting protein and energy in the growing pig: testing quantitative rules against experimental data.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXivVCksbk%3D&md5=89d21bd8784c7a42511f8839ce3dd03bCAS | 15788115PubMed |

Stein HH, Sève B, Fuller MF, Moughan PJ, de Lange CFM (2007) Invited review: amino acid availability and digestibility in pig feed ingredients: terminology and application. Journal of Animal Science 85, 172–180.
Invited review: amino acid availability and digestibility in pig feed ingredients: terminology and application.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjsFaqsQ%3D%3D&md5=172e2450056abeab167fb05395eed55aCAS | 17179553PubMed |

Stoll B, Burrin DG, Henry J, Yu H, Jahoor F, Reeds PJ (1999) Substrate oxidation by the portal drained viscera of fed piglets. The American Journal of Physiology 277, 168–175.

Tess MW, Bennett GL, Dickerson GE (1983) Simulation of genetic changes in life cycle efficiency of pork production. 1. A bioeconomic model. Journal of Animal Science 56, 336–353.

Thorbek G (1975) ‘Studies on energy metabolism in growing pigs.’ (Beretning fra Statens Husdyrbrugs Forsog: Copenhagen)

Tullis JB (1981) Protein growth in pigs. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

van Milgen J (2002) Modeling biochemical aspects of energy metabolism in mammals. The Journal of Nutrition 132, 3195–3202.

van Milgen J, Noblet J (2003) Partitioning of energy intake to heat, protein and fat in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 81, E86–E93.

van Milgen J, Noblet J, Dubois P (2001) Energetic efficiency of starch, protein and lipid utilization in growing pigs. The Journal of Nutrition 131, 1309–1318.

Whittemore CT (1983) Development of recommended energy and protein allowances for growing pigs. Agricultural Systems 2, 218–223.

Whittemore CT (1993) ‘The science and practice of pig production.’ (Longman: Harlow, UK)

Whittemore CT, Fawcett RH (1974) Model responses of the growing pig to the dietary intake of energy and protein. Animal Production 19, 221–231.
Model responses of the growing pig to the dietary intake of energy and protein.CrossRef |

Whittemore CT, Fawcett RH (1976) Theoretical aspects of a flexible model to simulate protein and lipid growth in pigs. Animal Production 22, 87–96.
Theoretical aspects of a flexible model to simulate protein and lipid growth in pigs.CrossRef |

Zhang B, Dhital S, Gidley MJ (2015) Densely packed matrices as rate determining features in starch hydrolysis. Trends in Food Science & Technology 43, 18–31.
Densely packed matrices as rate determining features in starch hydrolysis.CrossRef |



Export Citation