Quality of meat from three muscles of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama)Marta Bykowska A B , Marek Stanisz A , Agnieszka Ludwiczak A , Joanna Składanowska A and Piotr Ślósarz A
A Department of Animal Breeding and Product Quality Assessment, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Złotniki, Słoneczna 1, 62-002 Suchy Las, Poland.
B Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Animal Production Science 58(2) 376-384 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16084
Submitted: 10 February 2016 Accepted: 31 August 2016 Published: 4 October 2016
The quality of three muscles (supraspinatus, longissimus, semimembranosus) were studied in a group of 12 farmed fallow deer bucks (Dama dama) aged 28 months. The aim was to compare the selected quality traits of these muscles and to assess the extent to which these traits change after 14 days of being stored in vacuum packaging. Both the pH and the temperature were significantly affected by the muscle (P < 0.0001) and the time of storage (P < 0.0001). The supraspinatus muscle had the highest initial and final pH (pH0.5 h = 6.95; pH15d = 5.93), while m. semimembranosus showed the greatest drop in temperature (by 37.5°C) 24 h postmortem. The colour parameters differed among muscles. Only lightness (L*) was not influenced by the duration of storage (P = 0.081). The 14-day storage in a vacuum bag caused a decrease in the drip loss (P = 0.002), free water (%; P = 0.001), free water (cm2; P < 0.0001) and a cooking loss (P = 0.050). The duration of time in storage caused an increase in the dry-matter (P = 0.049) and crude-protein (P = 0.044) contents and a decrease of the water to protein ratio (W : CP; P = 0.014). There was a significant effect of muscle on the dry-matter (P < 0.0001) and crude-protein (P < 0.001) contents and W : CP (P < 0.0001). The highest contents of dry matter (P ≤ 0.01) and crude protein (P ≤ 0.01) were found in m. longissimus. The highest W : CP was observed in m. supraspinatus (W : CP24 h = 4.02; W/CP15d = 3.92). The results indicated a different technological quality of the analysed muscles, and, thus, a need to further explore the background of these differences in the early postmortem period and after meat maturation.
Additional keywords: chilled storage, venison quality.
ReferencesBorys B, Bogdaszewska Z, Bogdaszewski M (2012) A rapid increase in fallow deer farming in Poland. Wiadomości Zootechniczne R.L. 1, 33–44. [in Polish].
CIE (1978) ‘Recommendations on uniform color spaces-color difference equations. Psychometric color terms. Supplement no. 2 to CIE publication no. 15 (E-1.3.1.) 1978, 1971/(TC-1–3).’ (Commission Internationale de l’E Â Clairage: Paris)
Daszkiewicz T, Hnatyk M, Dąbrowski D, Janiszewski P, Gugołek A, Kubiak D, Śmiecińska K, Winiarski R, Koba-Kowalczyk M (2015) A comparison of the quality of the Longissimus lumborum muscle from wild and farmer-raised fallow deer (Damadama L.). Small Ruminant Research 129, 77–83.
| A comparison of the quality of the Longissimus lumborum muscle from wild and farmer-raised fallow deer (Damadama L.).CrossRef |
Dmuchowski B (2009) ‘Keeping and breeding cervids: an alternative for the rural areas development [in Polish].’ Available at http://www.podrb.pl/produkcja-rolnicza/54-produkcja-zwierzca/509-chow-i-hodowla-fermowa-jeleniowatych-alternatywa-rozwoju-obszarow-wiejskich.html [Verified 20 September 2016]
Drew KR, Baskin LM (1989) Wildlife production systems: economic utilisation of wild ungulates. In ‘Deer farming in Oceania’. (Ed. RJ Hudson) pp. 300–316. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)
Font-i-Furnols M, Guerrero L (2014) Consumer preferences, behaviour and perception about meat and meat products. An overview. Meat Science 98, 361–371.
| Consumer preferences, behaviour and perception about meat and meat products. An overview.CrossRef | 25017317PubMed |
Gill CO, Newton KG (1977) The development of aerobic spoilage flora on meat stored at chill temperatures. The Journal of Applied Bacteriology 43, 189–195.
| The development of aerobic spoilage flora on meat stored at chill temperatures.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE1c%2Fms1KlsA%3D%3D&md5=78b136aad0350b31be6c7fa3450564d2CAS |
Grau R, Hamm G (1953) Eineeinfachemetode zur bestimmung di wasserbindung in muskel. Naturwissenschaften 40, 29–30.
| Eineeinfachemetode zur bestimmung di wasserbindung in muskel.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaG3sXms1Cksw%3D%3D&md5=b9fd3d7105cc5686e15c14fc0dd0db83CAS |
Hamoen JR, Vollebregt HM, van der Sman RGM (2013) Prediction of the time evolution of pH in meat. Food Chemistry 141, 2363–2372.
| Prediction of the time evolution of pH in meat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhtFWrsL7K&md5=26d61be449f6020f21585d454eeae420CAS | 23870969PubMed |
Honikel KO (1998) Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Science 49, 447–457.
| Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MbntlCntw%3D%3D&md5=e994e86fdec390a4554d7e6029c96b54CAS | 22060626PubMed |
Huff-Lonergan E, Lonergan SM (1999) Postmortem mechanisms of meat tenderization: the roles of the structural proteins and the calpain system. In ‘Quality attributes of muscle foods’. (Eds YL Xiong, C-T Ho, F Shahidi) pp. 229–251. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York)
Huff-Lonergan E, Lonergan SM (2005) Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: the role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Science 71, 194–204.
| Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: the role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmt1Wiurc%3D&md5=43a67e5ed71cce9627435ac5f289e811CAS | 22064064PubMed |
Huff-Lonergan E, Lonergan SM (2007) New frontiers in understanding drip loss in pork: recent insights on the role of postmortem muscle biochemistry. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 124, 19–26.
| New frontiers in understanding drip loss in pork: recent insights on the role of postmortem muscle biochemistry.CrossRef | 17988247PubMed |
Hutchison CL, Mulley RC, Wilkund E, Flesh JS (2012) Effect of concentrate feeding on instrumental meat quality and sensory characteristics of fallow deer venison. Meat Science 90, 801–806.
| Effect of concentrate feeding on instrumental meat quality and sensory characteristics of fallow deer venison.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC38%2FpvVKrug%3D%3D&md5=3fc682a64e99faff46b197c7fa469b7aCAS | 22122988PubMed |
Hutchison CL, Mulley RC, Wiklund E, Flesch JS, Sims K (2014) Effect of pelvic suspension on the instrumental meat quality characteristics of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) venison. Meat Science 98, 104–109.
| Effect of pelvic suspension on the instrumental meat quality characteristics of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) venison.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2cfhsVKkug%3D%3D&md5=eda448cc191b5e8c393bc7a2b9646c64CAS | 24922603PubMed |
Klont RE, Brocks L, Eikelenboom G (1998) Muscle fibre type and meat quality. Meat Science 49, S219–S229.
| Muscle fibre type and meat quality.CrossRef |
Kuba J, Landete-Castillejos T, Udała J (2015) Red deer farming: breeding practice, tends and potential in Poland: a review. Annals of Animal Science 15, 591–599.
| Red deer farming: breeding practice, tends and potential in Poland: a review.CrossRef |
Lachowicz K, Żochowska J, Sobczak M (2004) Comparison of the texture and structure of selected muscles of piglets and wild boar juveniles. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 13/54, 75–79.
Lawson MA (2004) The role of integrin degradation in post-mortem drip loss in pork. Meat Science 68, 559–566.
| The role of integrin degradation in post-mortem drip loss in pork.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmsl2jtbs%3D&md5=89e4bfe195c472cc02700f6539a1391dCAS | 22062532PubMed |
Offer G, Cousins T (1992) The mechanism of drip production. Formation of two compartments of extracellular space in muscle post-mortem. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 58, 107–116.
| The mechanism of drip production. Formation of two compartments of extracellular space in muscle post-mortem.CrossRef |
PN-A-04018 (1975) ‘Produkty rolniczo-żywnościowe. Oznaczanie zawartości azotu metodą Kjeldahl’a i przeliczenie na białko. [Agri-food products. Nitrogen determination according to Kjeldahl method and conversion to protein.]’
PN-ISO 1442 (2000) ‘Mięso i przetwory mięsne. Oznaczanie wody i suchej masy. [Meat and meat preparations. Water and dry matter determination.]’
PN-ISO 1444 (2000) ‘Mięso i przetwory mięsne. Oznaczenie zawartości tłuszczu wolnego. [Meat and mat preparations. Free fat determination.]
Pohja MS, Niinivaara FP (1957) Die Bestimmung der Wasserbindund des Fleishesmittels der Konstantdruckmethode. Fleischwirtschaft 9, 193–195.
Ramanzin M, Amici A, Casoli C, Esposito L, Lupi P, Marsico G, Mattiello S, Olivieri O, Pozetta MP, Russo C, Marinucci MT (2010) Meat from wild ungulates: ensuring quality and hygiene of an increasing resource. Italian Journal of Animal Science 9, e61
Regulations of Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development (2005) ‘Polish law gazette no. 33.298.’ Internet System of Legal Documents [in Polish]. Available at http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20050330298 [Verified 5 January 2016]
Ruda M, Kilar J, Welz M (2011) ‘Determination of good practice, standards and rules in ecological cervid breeding purposed for meat production [in Polish].’ (Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi: Warsaw, Poland)
SAS (2001) ‘User’s guide for SAS software.’ (SAS Institute Inc.: Cary, NC)
Sokół JL (2009) Animals of deer family living in the wild or on a farm as a tourist attraction Economy and Management 1, 107–119. [in Polish]
Stanisz M, Ludwiczak A, Buda P, Pietrzak M, Bykowska M, Kryza A, Ślósarz P (2015) The Effect of sex on the dressing percentage, carcass, and organ quality in the fallow deer (Dama dama). Annals of Animal Science 4, 1055–1067.
Stevenson JM, Seman DL, Littlejohn RR (1992) Seasonal variation in venison quality of mature, farmed red deer stags in New Zealand. Journal of Animal Science 70, 1389–1396.
| Seasonal variation in venison quality of mature, farmed red deer stags in New Zealand.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK38vgs1KhtA%3D%3D&md5=80e9bfd364c2a7aabe429917cdd415abCAS | 1526907PubMed |
Swatland HJ (1995) Optical properties of meat. In ‘On-line evaluation of meat’. pp. 120–128. (Technomic Publishing: Philadelphia, PA)
Swatland HJ (2004) Progress in understanding the paleness of meat with low pH. South African Society for Animal Science 34, 1–7.
Tešanović D, Kalenjuk B, Tešanowić D, Psodorov D, Ristić Z, Markowić V (2011) Changes of biochemical and sensory characteristics in the musculus longissimus dorsi of the fallow deer in the early phase post-mortem and during maturation. African Journal of Biotechnology 10, 11668–11675.
Volpelli LA, Valusso R, Morgante M, Pittia P, Piasentier E (2003) Meat quality in male fallow deer (Dama dama): effects of age and supplementary feeding. Meat Science 65, 555–562.
| Meat quality in male fallow deer (Dama dama): effects of age and supplementary feeding.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MbnsFKjtg%3D%3D&md5=bda1388d97cccb67183d3f0019056d5eCAS | 22063249PubMed |
Węglarz A (2010) Meat quality defined based on pH and colour depending on cattle category and slaughter region. Czech Journal of Animal Science 55, 548–556.
Wiklund E, Anderson A, Malmfors G, Lundström K, Danell Ö (1995) Ultimate pH values in reindeer meat with particular regard to animal sex & age, muscle and transport distance. Rangifer 15, 47–54.
| Ultimate pH values in reindeer meat with particular regard to animal sex & age, muscle and transport distance.CrossRef |
Wiklund E, Sampels S, Manley TR, Duncan SJ, Littlejohn RP (2002) Effects of feeding regimen on colour stability, water holding capacity and pigment content in red deer venison. In ‘Proceedings of the 5th international deer biology congress’, Québec, Canada. pp. 92.
Wiklund E, Manley TR, Littlejohn RP (2004) Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). Rangifer 24, 87–94.
| Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama).CrossRef |
Wiklund E, Hutchison C, Flesch J, Mulley R, Littlejohn RP (2005) Colour stability and water-holding capacity of M. longissimus and carcass characteristics in fallow deer (Dama dama) grazed on natural pasture or fed barley. Rangifer 25, 97–105.
| Colour stability and water-holding capacity of M. longissimus and carcass characteristics in fallow deer (Dama dama) grazed on natural pasture or fed barley.CrossRef |
Wiklund E, Dobbie P, Stuart A, Littlejohn RP (2010) Seasonal variation in red deer (Cervuselaphus) venison (M. longissimus dorsi) drip loss, calpain activity, colour and tenderness. Meat Science 86, 720–727.
| Seasonal variation in red deer (Cervuselaphus) venison (M. longissimus dorsi) drip loss, calpain activity, colour and tenderness.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtFCrurrM&md5=4d9df3b045343d903100dfb5b4bb56efCAS | 20615618PubMed |
Wiklund E, Farouk MM, Finstad G (2014) Venison: meat from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Animal frontiers 4, 55–61.
| Venison: meat from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).CrossRef |
Żochowska-Kujawska J, Lachowicz K, Sobczak M, Grajowiecki L (2007) Effects of carcass weight and muscle, on texture, structure, rheological properties and myofibre characteristics of deer. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities 10, 33