Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Influence of zeolite (clinoptilolite) supplementation on characteristics of digestion and ruminal fermentation of steers fed a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet

J. D. Urías-Estrada A , M. A. López-Soto A , A. Barreras A , J. A. Aguilar-Hernández A , V. M. González-Vizcarra A , A. Estrada-Angulo B , R. A. Zinn C , G. D. Mendoza D and A. Plascencia A E
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Km 4.5 carretera Mexicali-San Felipe, CP 21386, Mexicali, Baja California, México.

B Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd San Ángel s/n; Fraccionamiento San Benito 80246, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México.

C Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

D Departamento de Producción Agrícola y Animal, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100 Colonia Villa Quietud Delegación Coyoacán 04960, DF, México.

E Corresponding author. Email: alejandro.plascencia@uabc.edu.mx; aplas_99@yahoo.com

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16128
Submitted: 1 March 2016  Accepted: 3 December 2016   Published online: 22 February 2017

Abstract

Four Holstein steers (328 ± 14 kg) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to examine the effect of level of zeolite supplementation (0, 10, 20 or 30 g clinoptilolite-Ca/kg of diet) in a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet on the characteristics of ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion. Zeolite was top-dressed with the basal diet at time of feeding; therefore, intake of organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), starch and N was equal in all treatments. Zeolite supplementation did not affect site and extent of digestion of N or NDF. Zeolite linearly decreased (P < 0.01) NH3-N flow to duodenum, but did not affect duodenal flow of microbial N, feed N, or microbial efficiency. Inclusion of zeolite linearly increased (P = 0.02) ruminal OM digestion and tended (linear, P = 0.08) to increase ruminal digestion of starch. Zeolite supplementation increased (linear effect, P < 0.01) faecal excretion of ash, resulting in decreased total tract DM digestion (linear effect, P = 0.04). However, total tract digestion of OM tended to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing zeolite supplementation. Thus, dilution of the diet with zeolite did not depress dietary digestible energy. There were no treatment effects on ruminal pH. Total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration tended (P = 0.08) to increase as zeolite increased. Zeolite supplementation decreased ruminal molar proportion of acetate and increased molar proportion of propionate (linear effect, P < 0.01), resulting in decreased (linear effect, P < 0.01) of acetate: propionate ratio. Supplementation with zeolite at levels of up to 30 g of zeolite/kg of diet may enhance ruminal OM digestion, largely due to the tendency of increased ruminal starch digestion. Zeolite supplementation altered ruminal volatile fatty acid molar proportions (decreased acetate : propionate ratio), and therefore may have an positive impact on energy efficiency.

Additional keywords: cattle, feedlot ration.


References

Aguilar-Hernández JA, Urías-Estrada JD, López-Soto MA, Barreras A, Plascencia A, Montaño M, González-Vizcarra VM, Estrada-Angulo A, Castro-Pérez BI, Barajas R, Rogge HI, Zinn RA (2016) Evaluation of isoquinoline alkaloids supplementation levels on ruminal fermentation, characteristics of digestion and microbial protein synthesis in steers fed a high-energy diet. Journal of Animal Science 94, 267–274.
Evaluation of isoquinoline alkaloids supplementation levels on ruminal fermentation, characteristics of digestion and microbial protein synthesis in steers fed a high-energy diet.CrossRef |

AOAC (2000) ‘Official methods of analysis.’17th edn. (Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Gaithersburg, MD)

Bach A, Calsamiglia S, Stern MD (2005) Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. Journal of Dairy Science 88, E9–E21.
Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen.CrossRef |

Bergen WG, Purser DB, Cline JH (1968) Effect of ration on the nutritive quality of microbial protein. Journal of Animal Science 27, 1497–1501.
Effect of ration on the nutritive quality of microbial protein.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF1MXjsFGksg%3D%3D&md5=9729a3249b84ac2f331c41c6f60efbf7CAS |

Câmara LRA, Valadares SC, Leão MI, Valadares RFD, Dias M, Gomide APC, Barros ACW, Nascimento VA, Ferreira DJ, Faé JT, Carneiro C, Cardoso LL (2012) Zeolite in the diet of beef cattle. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 64, 631–639. [in Portuguese]

Carrasco R, Arrizon AA, Plascencia A, Torrentera NG, Zinn RA (2013) Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth-performance, and dietary energetic. Journal of Animal Science 91, 1801–1810.
Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth-performance, and dietary energetic.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXntFWrurc%3D&md5=e44a9f9322e1124ea83068675ae00769CAS |

Cole NA, Todd RW, Parker DB (2007) Use of fat and zeolite to reduce ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards. In ‘Proceeding international symposium on air quality waste management for agriculture conference’, 16–19 September 2007, Broomfield, CO. Available at http://elibrary.asabe.org/abstract.asp?aid=23917&t=1&redir=aid=23917&redir=[confid=aqwm2007]&redirType=conference.asp&redirType=conference.asp [Verified 19 October 2015]

Corona L, Plascencia A, Ware RA, Zinn RA (2005) Comparative feeding value of palmitate as a substitute for conventional feed fat in cattle. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4, 247–253.

Corona L, Owens FN, Zinn RA (2006) Impact of corn vitreousness and processing on site and extent of digestion by feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 84, 3020–3031.
Impact of corn vitreousness and processing on site and extent of digestion by feedlot cattle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFartrzO&md5=760bdb36b62b2e2d7648c9db76a4d989CAS |

Dschaak CM, Eun JS, Young AJ, Stott RD, Peterson S (2010) Effects of supplementation of natural zeolite on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance of dairy cows. The Professional Animal Scientist 26, 647–654.
Effects of supplementation of natural zeolite on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance of dairy cows.CrossRef |

EFSA (2013) Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of clinoptilolite of sedimentary origin for all animal species. European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal 11, 3039–3052.
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of clinoptilolite of sedimentary origin for all animal species. European Food Safety Authority.CrossRef |

Erwanto IR, Zakaria WA, Prayuwidayati M (2012) The use of ammoniated zeolite to improve rumen metabolism in ruminant. Animal Production 13, 138–142.

Galyean ML, Chabot RC (1981) Effect of sodium bentonite, buffer salts, cement kiln dust and clinoptilolite and rumen characteristics in beef steers fed a high roughage diet. Journal of Animal Science 52, 1197–1204.
Effect of sodium bentonite, buffer salts, cement kiln dust and clinoptilolite and rumen characteristics in beef steers fed a high roughage diet.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXktVGntbk%3D&md5=fbcfe679343e74fa33c3022340a23a5bCAS |

Ghaemnia L, Bojarpour M, Mirzadeh KH, Chaji M, Eslami M (2010) Effect of different levels of zeolite on digestibility and some blood parameters in Arabic lambs. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9, 779–781.
Effect of different levels of zeolite on digestibility and some blood parameters in Arabic lambs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XjvVamtLw%3D&md5=45e9f1b9e45abe7c1138ed38e302168fCAS |

Goodarzi M, Nanekarani S (2012) The effects of calcic and potassic clinoptilolite on ruminal parameters in Lori breed sheep. APCBEE Procedia 4, 140–145.
The effects of calcic and potassic clinoptilolite on ruminal parameters in Lori breed sheep.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXisFSqsrY%3D&md5=139791fadc27a5e385abb88b75cfa349CAS |

Hemken FW, Harmon RJ, Mann LM (1984) Effect of clinoptilolite on lactating dairy cows fed a diet containing urea as a source of protein. In ‘Zeo-agriculture: use of natural zeolite in agriculture and aquaculture’. (Eds WG Pond, FA Mumpton) pp. 171–176. (Westview Press: Boulder, CO)

Hill FN, Anderson DL (1958) Comparison of metabolizable energy and productive determinations with growing chicks. The Journal of Nutrition 64, 587–603.

Inglezakis VJ, Zorpas A (2012) Natural zeolites structure and porosity. In ‘Handbook of natural zeolites’. (Eds VJ Inglezakis, A Zorpas) pp. 133–146. (Bentham Science Publisher: Sharjah, UAE)

Johnson MA, Sweeney TF, Muller LD (1988) Effects of feeding synthetic zeolite A and sodium bicarbonate on milk production, nutrient digestion, and rate of digesta passage in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 71, 946–953.
Effects of feeding synthetic zeolite A and sodium bicarbonate on milk production, nutrient digestion, and rate of digesta passage in dairy cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXktlOitr4%3D&md5=b319ca878c2c1704c6ce9ba8b1ba582fCAS |

Krehbiel CR (2014) Invited Review: Applied nutrition of ruminants: Fermentation and digestive physiology. The Professional Animal Scientist 30, 129–139.
Invited Review: Applied nutrition of ruminants: Fermentation and digestive physiology.CrossRef |

López-Soto MA, Valdés-García YS, Plascencia A, Barreras A, Castro-Pérez BI, Estrada-Angulo A, Ríos FG, Gómez-Vázquez A, Corona L, Zinn RA (2013) Influence of feeding live yeast on microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in steers fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A-. Animal Science 63, 39–46.

May D, Calderon JF, Gonzalez VM, Montano M, Plascencia A, Salinas-Chavira JA, Torrentera N, Zinn RA (2014) Influence of ruminal degradable intake protein restriction on characteristics of digestion and growth performance of feedlot cattle during the late finishing phase. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 56, 14
Influence of ruminal degradable intake protein restriction on characteristics of digestion and growth performance of feedlot cattle during the late finishing phase.CrossRef |

McCollum FT, Galyean ML (1983) Effects of clinoptilolite on rumen fermentation, digestion and feedlot performance in beef steers fed high concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Science 56, 517–524.
Effects of clinoptilolite on rumen fermentation, digestion and feedlot performance in beef steers fed high concentrate diets.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3sXhsVags7Y%3D&md5=0d889112dc16d0384bec67e926aaf251CAS |

Morales MS, Dehority BA (2014) Magnesium requirement of some of the principal rumen cellulolytic bacteria. Animal 8, 1427–1432.
Magnesium requirement of some of the principal rumen cellulolytic bacteria.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtlOjsrjI&md5=959bafa7f6bf3f57cf2fa8e7838f0f26CAS |

Mumpton FA (1999) La roca magica: uses of natural zeolite in agriculture and industry. In ‘ Proceedings of geology, minerology, and human welfare’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, 3463–3370.
La roca magica: uses of natural zeolite in agriculture and industry. In ‘ Proceedings of geology, minerology, and human welfare’.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjslCitrk%3D&md5=05f8da1ad3c5909b4dc11ca07e3247c5CAS |

Mumpton FA, Fishman PH (1977) The application of natural zeolites in animal science and aquaculture. Journal of Animal Science 45, 1188–1202.
The application of natural zeolites in animal science and aquaculture.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE1cXitVyrsQ%3D%3D&md5=ad4cd7111005836445a1a16c112fb5b0CAS |

NRC (2000) ‘Nutrient requirements of beef cattle.’ 7th rev. edn. (National Academy of Sciences Press: Washington, DC)

Ouhida I, Perez JF, Gasa J, Puchal F (2000) Enzymes (β-glucanase and arabinoxylanase) and/or sepiolite supplementation and the nutritive value of maize-barley-wheat based diets for broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 41, 617–624.
Enzymes (β-glucanase and arabinoxylanase) and/or sepiolite supplementation and the nutritive value of maize-barley-wheat based diets for broiler chickens.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhtFKns7o%3D&md5=e4b38a1e8198a85051c74f38a2700a71CAS |

Plascencia A, Zinn RA (1996) Influence of flake density on the feeding value of stem-processed corn in diets for lactating cows. Journal of Animal Science 74, 310–316.
Influence of flake density on the feeding value of stem-processed corn in diets for lactating cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XhslCntb0%3D&md5=45dc069c9cbf34b5e77472c284e91dafCAS |

Plascencia A, Bermúdez R, Cervantes M, Corona L, Dávila-Ramos H, López-Soto MA, May D, Torrentera N, Zinn RA (2011) Influence of processing method on comparative digestion of white corn vs. conventional steam-flaked yellow dent corn in finishing diets for feedlot steers. Journal of Animal Science 89, 136–141.
Influence of processing method on comparative digestion of white corn vs. conventional steam-flaked yellow dent corn in finishing diets for feedlot steers.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXotl2ksw%3D%3D&md5=d8f7ea72e6ae6d8c1b27684474e7bf74CAS |

Pond WG (1984) Response of growing lambs to clinoptilolite or zeolite NAA added to corn, corn-fish meal and corn-soybean meal diets. Journal of Animal Science 59, 1320–1328.
Response of growing lambs to clinoptilolite or zeolite NAA added to corn, corn-fish meal and corn-soybean meal diets.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2MXksVyqsw%3D%3D&md5=2c06a57a205941ded7c5c43c493b0c2dCAS |

Pond WG (1989) Effects of dietary protein level and clinoptilolite on the weight gain and liver mineral response of growing lambs to copper supplementation. Journal of Animal Science 67, 2772–2781.
Effects of dietary protein level and clinoptilolite on the weight gain and liver mineral response of growing lambs to copper supplementation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXmtlWis7w%3D&md5=d079dbc95da1e515d1cfcf647c4ef836CAS |

Querol X, Moreno N, Umaña JC, Alastuey A, Hernández E, López-Soler A, Plana F (2002) Synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash: an overview. International Journal of Coal Geology 50, 413–423.
Synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash: an overview.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xns1Wrtbo%3D&md5=f9a69559b6bba1bb5a3b1560c12ee76eCAS |

SAS Institute (2007) ‘SAS/STAT: user’s guide: statistics. Release 9.3.’ (SAS Institute Inc.: Cary, NC)

Shadrikov AS, Petukhov AD (2014) Natural zeolite-clinoptilolite characteristics determination and modification. National Tech University Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine. Technical report. pp. 162–167 (UDC 544.02+546.05).

Sherwood DM, Erickson GE, Klopfenstein TJ (2005) Effect of clinoptilolite zeolite on cattle performance and nitrogen volatilization loss. Nebraska beef cattle reports. Lincoln, NE. Paper 177.

Spotti M, Fracchiola ML, Arioli F, Canoni F, Pompa G (2005) Aflatoxin B1 binding to sorbents in bovine ruminal fluid. Veterinary Research Communications 29, 507–515.
Aflatoxin B1 binding to sorbents in bovine ruminal fluid.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2Mrjs1ylug%3D%3D&md5=37d1e44942f408a44b5f5afb4a88b7f3CAS |

Sweeney TF, Cervantes A, Bull LS, Hemken RW (1984) Effects of dietary clinotilolite on digestion and rumen fermentation in steers. In ‘Zeo-agriculture use of natural zeolites in agriculture and aguaculture’. (Eds WG Pond, FA Mumpton) pp. 177–187. (Westview Press: Boulder, CO)

Tang Z, Wen C, Li P, Wang T, Zhou Y (2014) Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function of broiler chickens. Biological Trace Element Research 158, 51–57.
Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function of broiler chickens.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXitFOntbg%3D&md5=479f0e87f4b83591fd507887c8b56657CAS |

Trckova M, Matlova L, Dvorska L, Pavlik I (2004) Kaolin, bentonite and zeolites as feed supplements for animals: health advantages and risks. Veterinary Medicine Czech 49, 389–399.

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583–3597.
Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK38%2FnvVCltA%3D%3D&md5=134fffdb99e7905cf25104d139000225CAS |

Zhou P, Tan YQ, Zhang L, Zhou YM, Gao F, Zhou GH (2014) Effects of dietary supplementation with the combination of zeolite and attapulgite on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, secretion of digestive enzymes and intestinal health in broiler chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 27, 1311–1318.
Effects of dietary supplementation with the combination of zeolite and attapulgite on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, secretion of digestive enzymes and intestinal health in broiler chickens.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhslOiurjJ&md5=6bc66be51de99eaf1d85619af89f09cfCAS |

Zinn RA (1988) Comparative feeding value of supplemental fat in finishing diets for feedlot steers supplemented with and without monensin. Journal of Animal Science 66, 213–227.
Comparative feeding value of supplemental fat in finishing diets for feedlot steers supplemented with and without monensin.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXhtFWis70%3D&md5=aad9ad93f1922a26b767ce6ca6b5a362CAS |

Zinn RA (1990) Influence of steaming time on site of digestion of flaked corn in steers. Journal of Animal Science 68, 776–781.
Influence of steaming time on site of digestion of flaked corn in steers.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK3c3gt1GgtQ%3D%3D&md5=afd8bd6a07484e36159dd41784913b2eCAS |

Zinn RA, Owens FN (1986) A rapid procedure for purine measurement and it use for estimating net ruminal protein synthesis. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 66, 157–166.
A rapid procedure for purine measurement and it use for estimating net ruminal protein synthesis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL28Xkt1Whsr4%3D&md5=795529bf2f9f881bd53866fd9f97a3acCAS |

Zinn RA, Shen Y (1998) An evaluation of ruminally degradable intake protein and metabolizable amino acid requirements of feedlot calves. Journal of Animal Science 76, 1280–1289.
An evaluation of ruminally degradable intake protein and metabolizable amino acid requirements of feedlot calves.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjsVCjtLs%3D&md5=787bef1b48086d41c8d8da246cdc4015CAS |

Zinn RA, Borquez JL, Plascencia A (1994) Influence of levels of supplemental urea on characteristics of digestion and growth performance of feedlot steers fed a fat-supplemented high-energy diets. The Professional Animal Scientist 10, 5–10.
Influence of levels of supplemental urea on characteristics of digestion and growth performance of feedlot steers fed a fat-supplemented high-energy diets.CrossRef |



Export Citation