The effect of nitrate supplementation on arterial blood gases, haemoglobin fractions and heart rate in Bos indicus cattle after exerciseI. Benu A B , L. A. Fitzpatrick A , M. J. Callaghan C , N. Tomkins D and A. J. Parker A E F
A College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Science, James Cook University, Qld 4811, Australia.
B Faculty of Animal Science, The University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang NTT, Indonesia.
C Ridley AgriProducts Pty Ltd, Toowong, Brisbane, Qld 4066, Australia.
D Meat and Livestock Australia, 527 Gregory Terrace, Fortitude Valley, Qld 4006, Australia.
E Department of Animal Science, The Ohio State University Wooster, OH 44691, USA.
F Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16162
Submitted: 15 March 2016 Accepted: 20 January 2017 Published online: 15 March 2017
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nitrate treatment on the arterial blood gas and haemoglobin fractions from Bos indicus steers after exercise. Bos indicus steers (n = 12; mean bodyweight ± s.e.m., 397 kg ± 10.84 kg) were used in this experiment to investigate the effects of three dose rates of nitrate salts (0, 30 or 50 g of nitrate/day) on arterial blood gases, methaemoglobin concentration, carboxyhaemoglobin concentration, oxyhaemoglobin concentration, total haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, heart rate, and respiratory rate after exercise. Increasing the dose rate of nitrate resulted in a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen (P = 0.004) in blood. Steers treated with 50 g nitrate/day had a decrease in oxyhaemoglobin concentration (P = 0.001) and a concomitant increase in methaemoglobin (P = 0.001) and carboxyhaemoglobin (P = 0.001) compared with steers treated with 0 or 30 g nitrate/day. Steers dosed with 50 g of nitrate had greater heart rates immediately after the exercise regimen compared with the steers dosed with 30 g of nitrate (P = 0.043) or no nitrate (P = 0.018). There was no difference between treatments for respiratory rate (P = 0.673) or rectal temperature (P = 0.207) after the exercise regimen. Feeding nitrate to Bos indicus cattle results in a decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of their blood. It is likely that doses of nitrate greater than 50 g per day for this class of animal could induce hypoxaemic trauma if cattle have exercise imposed after consuming a nitrate supplement.
Additional keywords: carbon, heart, methane, nitrite, ruminant, toxicity.
ReferencesAustralian Government (2014) Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) (Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Feeding Nitrates to Beef Cattle) Methodology Determination 2014 – F2014L01129. Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011. Available at http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2014L01129 [Verified 19 February 2017]
Benu I, Callaghan MJ, Tomkins N, Hepworth G, Fitzpatrick LA, Parker AJ (2016) The effect of feeding frequency and dose rate of nitrate supplements on blood haemoglobin fractions in Bos indicus cattle fed Flinders grass (Iseilemia spp.) hay. Animal Production Science 56, 1605–1611.
| The effect of feeding frequency and dose rate of nitrate supplements on blood haemoglobin fractions in Bos indicus cattle fed Flinders grass (Iseilemia spp.) hay.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XhsVaks7zK&md5=bef0ee6aed3af3c1aafbd9c551167234CAS |
Bowen MK, Poppi DP, McLennan SR (2008) Rumen protein degradability of a range of tropical pastures. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 806–810.
| Rumen protein degradability of a range of tropical pastures.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXnsVGhtLw%3D&md5=48d23e9fa77a994cd8942c33f9f12f74CAS |
Brauner CJ, Val AL, Randall DJ (1993) The effect of graded methaemoglobin levels on the swimming performance of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The Journal of Experimental Biology 185, 121–135.
Callaghan MJ, Tomkins NW, Benu I, Parker AJ (2014) How feasible is it to replace urea with nitrates to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from extensively managed beef cattle? Animal Production Science 54, 1300–1304.
| How feasible is it to replace urea with nitrates to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from extensively managed beef cattle?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtlaktLnO&md5=8a07b0e4f7cdb9b75a115cad6eefbdecCAS |
CSIRO (2007) ‘Nutrient requirements of domesticated ruminants.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)
Guyton AC, Hall JE (2011) Chapter 40. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood and tissue fluids In ‘Textbook of medical physiology’. 12th edn. pp. 501–502. (Saunders Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA)
Haymond S, Cariappa R, Eby CS, Scott MG (2005) Laboratory assessment of oxygenation in methaemoglobinemia. Clinical Chemistry 51, 434–444.
| Laboratory assessment of oxygenation in methaemoglobinemia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVGgsrc%3D&md5=8fe9cc2e4e18d05f3d2ca0f965e06b7eCAS |
Kuhlmann WD, Hodgson DS, Fedde MR (1985) Respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic adjustments to exercise in the Hereford calf. Journal of Applied Physiology 58, 1273–1280.
Leng RA (2008) The potential of feeding nitrate to reduce enteric methane production in ruminants. A Report to the Department of Climate Change, Commonwealth Government of Australia, Canberra. Available at http://www.penambulbooks.com/Papers%20&%20Presentations.htm [Verified 19 February 2017]
Martin DG (1993) Work capacity and fatigue in draught ruminant animals. Master of Science Thesis, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.
Nolan JV, Hegarty RS, Hegarty J, Godwin IR, Woodgate R (2010) Effects of dietary nitrate on fermentation, methane production and digesta kinetics in sheep. Animal Production Science 50, 801–806.
| Effects of dietary nitrate on fermentation, methane production and digesta kinetics in sheep.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtVyrtbzP&md5=994d6da1a397e4fe08d9202d1e74798bCAS |
NRC (1996) ‘Nutrient requirement of beef cattle.’ 7th edn. (National Academy Press: Washington, DC)
Panjaitan T, Quigley SP, McLennan SR, Swain AJ, Poppi DP (2014) Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) algae supplementation increases microbial protein production and feed intake and decreases retention time of digesta in the rumen of cattle. Animal Production Science 54,
| Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) algae supplementation increases microbial protein production and feed intake and decreases retention time of digesta in the rumen of cattle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtlaktLvO&md5=c5abf8f0c8634d439edec09155c9aa75CAS |
Parker AJ, Hamlin GP, Coleman CJ, Fitzpatrick LA (2003) Quantitative analysis of acid-base balance in Bos indicus steers subjected to transportation of long duration. Journal of Animal Science 81, 1434–1439.
| Quantitative analysis of acid-base balance in Bos indicus steers subjected to transportation of long duration.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXksFeqt78%3D&md5=dab200ce6c5393256436909e68c0dad5CAS |
Riley JH, Thompson JR (1978) Anaerobic arterial sampling technique in the bovine species. American Journal of Veterinary Research 39, 1229
Sergeant E (2016) Ausvet Epi tools – Epidemiological calculators: sample size calculation [Online]. Available at http://epitools.ausvet.com.au/content.php?page=SampleSize [Verified 8 November 2016]
Valli TEO (2008) Hematopoietic system. In ‘Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s pathology of domestic Animals. Vol. 3’. 5th edn. (Ed. G Maxie) pp. 260–261. (Elsevier Limited: Philadelphia, PA)
Vermunt JJ (1992) Subclinical laminitis in dairy cattle. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 40, 133–138.
| Subclinical laminitis in dairy cattle.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2MzntlGqtA%3D%3D&md5=20a1deabad10a3aa965e139e22b61bebCAS |
Vermunt JJ, Visser R (1987) Nitrate toxicity in cattle. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 35, 136–137.
| Nitrate toxicity in cattle.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2Mzntlehtg%3D%3D&md5=aa06170293373001d3b93735aa3f899dCAS |
Vermunt JJ, Malmo J, Parkinson TJ (2010) Causes of sudden death. In ‘Diseases of cattle in Australasia: a comprehensive textbook’. (Ed. P Jolly) pp. 803–806. (Vetlearn: Wellington, New Zealand)