Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Comparisons of meat quality and muscle fibre characteristics on multiple pig breeds and sexes using principal component analysis

Jun-Mo Kim A , Sang-Hoon Lee B and Youn-Chul Ryu C D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Animal Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, 55365, Republic of Korea.

B Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

C Division of Biotechnology, Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju, 690-756, Korea.

D Corresponding author. Email: ycryu@jejunu.ac.kr

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16223
Submitted: 11 April 2016  Accepted: 31 May 2017   Published online: 14 July 2017

Abstract

Comprehensive understanding of the effect of pig breed and sex on meat quality and post-mortem muscle conditions will be necessary to estimate meat quality post mortem. In this study, we applied multiple regression and principal component analysis (PCA) using conventional meat quality traits and muscle fibre characteristics on six pig breeds and different sexes. A total of 1374 pigs from six breeds [Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace, Meishan, Yorkshire, and LYD (Landrace × Yorkshire sows with Duroc as terminal sires) crossbreed] belonging to three sexes (male, castrated male and female) were used in this study. Most of the muscle fibre characteristics showed moderate to high significant correlations with conventional meat quality traits. In particularly, the cross-sectional area (CSAF) of muscle fibres was strongly correlated with muscle pH values, water-holding capacity values and lightness (0.10 < |r| <0.26 and P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis by general linear model revealed that the effects of breed were significant on muscle pH24h, lightness, drip loss, and marbling score (P < 0.01), whereas sex had no significant effect on meat quality. In the muscle fibre characteristics, the effects of breed and sex were significant on composition of area and density of muscle fibres (P < 0.05). We observed that the Meishan breed was clearly inferior to other breeds, whereas the LYD or Berkshire breeds showed better meat quality and muscle fibre properties. Moreover, we observed clear separations between pig breeds based on the PCA, whereas the sexes in each breed presented a continuum cluster. In summary, we suggest that muscle pH24h, lightness, and drip loss are conventional meat quality traits that can be considered as quantitative factors important in estimating ultimate meat quality of pigs along with the CSAF of muscle fibres; we conclude that Meishan pigs have low meat quality, whereas Berkshire and LYD crossbred pigs have higher quality of pork.

Additional keywords: multiple factors, pigs, pork production, post-mortem metabolism.


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