Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Improving ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers by banana flower powder-pellet supplementation

Sungchhang Kang A B and Metha Wanapat A C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

B National Institute of Education, Phnom Penh, 12401, Cambodia.

C Corresponding author. Email: metha@kku.ac.th

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16350
Submitted: 16 July 2016  Accepted: 3 December 2016   Published online: 23 February 2017

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of banana flower powder pellet (BAFLOP pellet) on nutrient digestibility, rumen ecology and microorganism population. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers of 200 ± 20 kg bodyweight were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The treatments were as follows: control (T1), NaHCO3 supplementation at 20 g/kg of total dry-matter feed intake (DMI; T2), BAFLOP-pellet supplementation at 20 g/kg of DMI (T3) and BAFLOP-pellet supplementation at 40 g/kg of DMI (T4). All cattle were fed roughage–concentrate mix (30 : 70 ratio) at 25 g/kg bodyweight. Standard management protocols were employed during the experimental periods. The results showed that nutrient digestibility was increased in steers supplemented with NaHCO3 and BAFLOP pellets at 40 g/kg DMI (P < 0.05). Although ruminal temperature and blood urea nitrogen were not influenced by dietary supplementation, ruminal pH was increased (P < 0.05) in steers supplemented with NaHCO3 and BAFLOP pellets at 40 g/kg DMI. In addition, NaHCO3 supplementation increased bacterial and protozoal populations, whereas populations of fungal zoospores were similar among treatments. Supplementation with BAFLOP pellets at 40 g/kg DMI increased the bacterial count, whereas protozoal numbers were similar to those in the control group (P < 0.05). On the basis of the present findings, BAFLOP-pellet supplementation improved nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and microbial population, without having any adverse effects on voluntary feed intake. The present study showed promising results for BAFLOP pellets (40 g/kg DMI) as a rumen dietary buffering agent, suggesting that these pellets could be used a replacement for sodium bicarbonate in ruminants fed high-concentrate diets.

Additional keywords: buffering, microbial population, rumen ecology, ruminal pH, sodium bicarbonate.


References

Aikman PC, Henning PH, Humphries DJ, Horn CH (2011) Rumen pH and fermentation characteristics in dairy cows supplemented with Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 2840–2849.
Rumen pH and fermentation characteristics in dairy cows supplemented with Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 in early lactation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXnvFCgtbk%3D&md5=0d5ae2279a850c3102935a7519eae7faCAS |

AOAC (2012) ‘Official methods of analysis.’ 19th edn. (Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Gaithersburg, MD)

Aschenbach JR, Bilk S, Tadesse G, Stumpff F, Gabel G (2009) Bicarbonate-dependent and bicarbonate-independent mechanisms contribute to non-diffusive apical uptake of acetate in the ruminal epithelium of sheep. American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 296, G1098–G1107.
Bicarbonate-dependent and bicarbonate-independent mechanisms contribute to non-diffusive apical uptake of acetate in the ruminal epithelium of sheep.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXlvFagtrY%3D&md5=1e68e6d9a340d84db2c86386a108a858CAS |

Aschenbach JR, Penner GB, Stumpff F, Gäbel G (2011) Ruminant nutrition symposium: role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH. Journal of Animal Science 89, 1092–1107.
Ruminant nutrition symposium: role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXntFKltbo%3D&md5=aef87b057cb2a52d823f4447cf57d1abCAS |

Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM, Martinez TF, McAllister TA (2007) Use of condensed tannin extract from quebracho trees to reduce methane emissions from cattle. Journal of Animal Science 85, 1990–1996.
Use of condensed tannin extract from quebracho trees to reduce methane emissions from cattle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXot1Ohtbo%3D&md5=e39a3b7654411ad3e37b6e5e250018a1CAS |

Broudiscou LP, Papon Y, Broudiscou AF (1999) Optimal mineral composition of artificial saliva for fermentation and methanogenesis in continuous culture of rumen microorganisms. Animal Feed Science and Technology 79, 43–55.
Optimal mineral composition of artificial saliva for fermentation and methanogenesis in continuous culture of rumen microorganisms.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjsFGjs70%3D&md5=3cd004843152ccd215def50ea738f836CAS |

Burns R (1971) Method for estimation of tannin in grain sorghum. Agronomy Journal 63, 511–512.
Method for estimation of tannin in grain sorghum.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3MXktlWisrs%3D&md5=c1a8babc68be0b7c4ab1686cb5044e60CAS |

Calsamiglia S, Cardozo PW, Ferret A, Bach A (2008) Changes in rumen microbial fermentation are due to a combined effect of type of diet and pH. Journal of Animal Science 86, 702–711.
Changes in rumen microbial fermentation are due to a combined effect of type of diet and pH.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXisFyrsLk%3D&md5=e80c67c38a126fb2b0b85dada3a21d24CAS |

Çetinkaya N, Ünal S (1992) Effects of bicarbonate on rumen degradability of concentrate and grass hay in Angora goats. Small Ruminant Research 9, 117–123.
Effects of bicarbonate on rumen degradability of concentrate and grass hay in Angora goats.CrossRef |

Crocker CL (1967) Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum or plasma without deproteinization. The American Journal of Medical Technology 33, 361–365.

Dijkstra J, Ellis JL, Kebreab E, Strathe AB, Lopez S, France J, Bannink A (2012) Ruminal pH regulation and nutritional consequences of low pH. Animal Feed Science and Technology 172, 22–33.
Ruminal pH regulation and nutritional consequences of low pH.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XitVCgt7s%3D&md5=54643e1fa884256a204670605a30cdcfCAS |

Enemark JMD (2008) The monitoring, prevention and treatment of sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA): a review. Veterinary Journal 176, 32–43.
The monitoring, prevention and treatment of sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA): a review.CrossRef |

Fernando SC, Purvis HT, Najar FZ, Sukharnikov LO, Krehbiel CR, Nagaraja TG, Roe BA, DeSilva U (2010) Rumen microbial population dynamics during adaptation to a high-grain diet. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76, 7482–7490.
Rumen microbial population dynamics during adaptation to a high-grain diet.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhs1elsb3N&md5=157012dd51b3fdddad78ebbd314c21fdCAS |

Frutos P, Hervás G, Giráldez FJ, Mantecón AR (2004) Review. Tannins and ruminant nutrition. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2, 191–202.
Review. Tannins and ruminant nutrition.CrossRef |

Galyean M (1989) ‘Laboratory procedures in animal nutrition research.’ (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA)

Hale WH, Theurer CB (1972) Feed preparation and processing. In ‘Digestive physiology and nutrition of ruminants. Vol. 3’. (Ed. DC Church) pp. 49–76. (Department Animal Science, Oregon State University: Corvallis, OR)

Kang S, Wanapat M (2013) Using plant source as a buffering agent to manipulating rumen fermentation in an in vitro gas production system. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 26, 1424–1436.
Using plant source as a buffering agent to manipulating rumen fermentation in an in vitro gas production system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhslarsr3F&md5=1b2e9d2d7141ff53b87190b812b2b572CAS |

Kang S, Wanapat M, Cherdthong A (2014) Effect of banana flower powder supplementation as a rumen buffer on rumen fermentation efficiency and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers fed on high concentrate diet. Animal Feed Science and Technology 196, 32–41.
Effect of banana flower powder supplementation as a rumen buffer on rumen fermentation efficiency and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers fed on high concentrate diet.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtlaiur%2FK&md5=d576b36e693cf2fa452b535525912c3dCAS |

Kang S, Wanapat M, Cherdthong A, Phesatcha K (2015) Comparison of banana flower powder and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk production in dairy cows. Animal Production Science 56, 1650–1661.

Kawas JR, García-Castillo R, Fimbres-Durazo H, Garza-Cazares F, Hernández-Vidal JFG, Olivares-Sáenz E, Lu CD (2007) Effects of sodium bicarbonate and yeast on nutrient intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation of lightweight lambs fed finishing diets. Small Ruminant Research 67, 149–156.
Effects of sodium bicarbonate and yeast on nutrient intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation of lightweight lambs fed finishing diets.CrossRef |

Kleen JL, Hooijer GA, Rehage J, Noordhuizen JPTM (2009) Sub-acute ruminal acidosis in Dutch dairy herds. Veterinary Research 164, 681–684.

Koul V, Kumar U, Sareen VK, Singh S (1998) Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on ruminal microbial populations and metabolism in buffalo calves. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68, 629–631.

Krueger WK, Gutierrez-Banuelos H, Carstens GE, Min BR, Pinchak WE, Gomez RR, Anderson RC, Krueger NA, Forbes TDA (2010) Effect of dietary tannin source on performance, feed efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and carcass and non carcass traits in steers fed a high-grain diet. Animal Feed Science and Technology 159, 1–9.
Effect of dietary tannin source on performance, feed efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and carcass and non carcass traits in steers fed a high-grain diet.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXosVGntr8%3D&md5=5a09e100663a422bdd42c97ed8cf6b67CAS |

Manasri N, Wanapat M, Navanukraw C (2012) Improving rumen fermentation and feed digestibility in cattle by mangosteen peel and garlic pellet supplementation. Livestock Science 148, 291–295.
Improving rumen fermentation and feed digestibility in cattle by mangosteen peel and garlic pellet supplementation.CrossRef |

Mould FL, Ørskov ER, Gauld SA (1983) Associative effect of mixed feeds. II. Effect of dietary addition of bicarbonate salts on the voluntary intake and digestibility of diets containing various proportions of hay and barley. Animal Feed Science and Technology 10, 31–47.

Newbold CJ, El Hasan SM, Wang J, Ortega ME, Wallace RJ (1997) Influence of foliage from African multipurpose tress on activity of rumen protozoa and bacteria. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 237–249.
Influence of foliage from African multipurpose tress on activity of rumen protozoa and bacteria.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXlsVSqsbg%3D&md5=49068f4a67e73aae3aa1681f1b19c0bfCAS |

Norrapoke T, Wanapat M, Wanapat S (2012) Effects of protein level and mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel) in concentrate diets on rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 25, 971–979.
Effects of protein level and mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel) in concentrate diets on rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsVarsb7O&md5=8f702fdec7f18687e9660d444e03b902CAS |

Poungchompu O, Wanapat M, Wachirapakorn C, Wanapat S, Cherdthong A (2009) Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by dietary saponins and tannins from mangosteen peel and soapberry fruit. Archives of Animal Nutrition 63, 389–400.
Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by dietary saponins and tannins from mangosteen peel and soapberry fruit.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsVOhurjM&md5=50f762c66177695cc6be8469afd3cbceCAS |

Rogers JA, Davis CL (1982) Effects of intraruminal infusions of mineral salts on volatile fatty acid production in steers fed high-grain and high-roughage diets. Journal of Dairy Science 65, 953–962.
Effects of intraruminal infusions of mineral salts on volatile fatty acid production in steers fed high-grain and high-roughage diets.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL38XktlOrsLc%3D&md5=e8f1639087656f35f00aa287eb41e6beCAS |

Santra A, Chaturvedi OH, Tripathi MK, Kumar R, Karim SA (2003) Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozoal population in rumen of lambs. Small Ruminant Research 47, 203–212.
Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozoal population in rumen of lambs.CrossRef |

SAS (Statistical Analysis System) (2013) ‘User’s guide: statistic. Version 9.4 13th edn. (SAS Institute Inc.: Cary, NC)

Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1980) ‘Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach.’ 2nd edn. (McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY)

Sung HG, Kobayashi Y, Chang J, Ha A, Hwang IH, Ha JK (2007) Low ruminal pH reduces dietary fiber digestion via reduced microbial attachment. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 20, 200–207.
Low ruminal pH reduces dietary fiber digestion via reduced microbial attachment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhsVOksLo%3D&md5=5889e9e3d13dad1b7aaf0b17752dfbddCAS |

Van Keulen J, Young BA (1977) Evaluation of acid insoluble ash as a neutral marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science 44, 282–287.
Evaluation of acid insoluble ash as a neutral marker in ruminant digestibility studies.CrossRef |

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583–3597.
Methods for dietary fiber neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK38%2FnvVCltA%3D%3D&md5=134fffdb99e7905cf25104d139000225CAS |

Wanapat M, Kang S, Polyorach S (2013) Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 4, 32
Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics.CrossRef |

Wanapat M, Poungchompu O (2001) Method for estimation of tannin by Vanillin-HCL method (a modified method of Burns 1971). (Department of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University: Khon Kaen, Thailand)

West JW, Coppock CE, Milam KZ, Nave DH, Labore JM (1987) Potassium carbonate as a potassium source and dietary buffer for lactating Holstein cows during hot weather. Journal of Dairy Science 70, 309–320.
Potassium carbonate as a potassium source and dietary buffer for lactating Holstein cows during hot weather.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXkvFGks74%3D&md5=6a593eaf5033cae0e68414230dffce0eCAS |



Export Citation