Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effects of drinking saline water on food and water intake, blood and urine electrolytes and biochemical and haematological parameters in goats: a preliminary study

Evangelos Zoidis A and Ioannis Hadjigeorgiou A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855, Athens, Greece.

B Corresponding author. Email: ihadjig@aua.gr

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16539
Submitted: 6 August 2016  Accepted: 7 April 2017   Published online: 26 May 2017

Abstract

Drinking-water availability, both of quantity and quality, critically limits animal farming in semiarid and arid areas, but differences among species exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate goat saline-water tolerance. A group of four castrated adult males were used in a 4-week experimental period, which followed a 2-week pre-trial period and preceded a 1-week post-trial period. Animals were offered alfalfa hay and concentrates at about maintenance level and were allowed consecutively the following five levels of water salinity: 0‰, 0.5‰, 5‰, 10‰ and 20‰ NaCl. Feed and water consumption were recorded daily during trial, while blood- and urine-sample collections were performed weekly. Plasma concentrations of aldosterone, sodium (Na), potassium (K), glucose, creatinine, urea and proteins, and haematological parameters were analysed. Furthermore, urine pH, specific weight and concentrations of Na, K and creatinine were measured, as well as plasma and urine osmolality. Water intake increased until 10‰ NaCl (from 2.0 to 3.2 L/day, P < 0.001) and decreased thereafter to reach 2.5 L/day. Feed intake decreased (from 1.4 to 1.1 kg/day, P < 0.001) and urine excretion increased with an increasing salinity (from 1.12 to 1.47 L/day, P < 0.001). Increasing salinity elevated plasma concentrations of Na (from 143 to 150 mmol/L, P < 0.05), glucose (from 67.50 to 80.75 mg/dL, P < 0.05), urea (from 26.5 to 47 mg/dL, P < 0.01), proteins (from 6.3 to 8.3 g/dL, P < 0.001), osmolality (from 284 to 299 mosm/kg, P < 0.01) and creatinine (from 0.8 to 1.0 mg/dL, P < 0.01) whereas, K, aldosterone and bodyweight remained unaffected. Moreover, urine osmolality (from 317 to 1217 mosm/kg, P < 0.001), specific weight (from 1018 to 1040, P < 0.01), Na (from 55 to 377 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and K (from 144 to 329 mmol/L, P < 0.001) increased, whereas, pH and creatinine were unaffected. Observed changes in other haematological parameters are considered of minor physiological importance. The results indicated that goats can subsist on drinking saline water (up to 20‰ NaCl), for at least 2 weeks without harmful effects.

Additional keywords: blood parameters, goat physiology, osmolality, urine parameters.


References

Abou Hussien ERM, Gihad EA, El-Dedawyl TM, Abdel Gawad MH (1994) Response of camels, sheep and goats to saline water. 2. Water and mineral metabolism. Egyptian Journal of Animal Production 31, 387–401.

Araújo GGL, Voltolini TV, Mario Luiz Chizzotti ML, Turco SHN, Carvalho FFR (2010) Water and small ruminant production. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 39, 326–336.
Water and small ruminant production.CrossRef |

Assad F, El-Sherif MMA (2002) Effect of drinking saline water and feed shortage on adaptive responses of sheep and camels. Small Ruminant Research 45, 279–290.
Effect of drinking saline water and feed shortage on adaptive responses of sheep and camels.CrossRef |

Azab ME, Abdel-Massouda HA (1999) Changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters during prepartum and postpartum periods in female Baladi goats. Small Ruminant Research 34, 77–85.
Changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters during prepartum and postpartum periods in female Baladi goats.CrossRef |

Battini M, Vieira A, Barbieri S, Ajuda I, Stilwell G, Mattiello S (2014) Invited review: animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment for dairy goats. Journal of Dairy Science 97, 6625–6648.
Invited review: animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment for dairy goats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsFylur%2FL&md5=73da995428edf51cdd2dc0c7a47073e5CAS |

Blache D, Grandison MJ, Masters DG, Dynes RA, Blackberry MA, Martin GA (2007) Relationships between metabolic endocrine systems and voluntary feed intake in Merino sheep fed a high salt diet. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47, 544–550.
Relationships between metabolic endocrine systems and voluntary feed intake in Merino sheep fed a high salt diet.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXmt1Cqsro%3D&md5=a285537b1824c95fffd587600b9430b1CAS |

Burke MG (1990) Seawater consumption and water economy of tropical feral goats. Biotropica 22, 416–419.
Seawater consumption and water economy of tropical feral goats.CrossRef |

Dahlborn K (1987) Fluid balance in food-deprived lactating goats drinking saline. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 72, 593–600.
Fluid balance in food-deprived lactating goats drinking saline.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL1c%2Fpsl2qsw%3D%3D&md5=d44d829b2f4e44a74d3d47de3f709640CAS |

Dahlborn K, Karlberg BE (1986) Fluid balance during food deprivation and after intraruminal loads of water or isotonic saline in lactating and anoestral goats. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 71, 223–233.
Fluid balance during food deprivation and after intraruminal loads of water or isotonic saline in lactating and anoestral goats.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL283jtl2msg%3D%3D&md5=bc2152fd9cf460201961f5b105f2f350CAS |

Digby SN, Blache D, Masters DG, Revell DK (2010) Responses to saline drinking water in offspring born to ewes fed high salt during pregnancy. Small Ruminant Research 91, 87–92.
Responses to saline drinking water in offspring born to ewes fed high salt during pregnancy.CrossRef |

Dunson WA (1974) Some aspects of salt and water balance of feral goats from arid islands. The American Journal of Physiology 226, 662–669.

El-Sherif MMA, El-Hassanein EE (1996) Influence of drinking saline water on growth and distribution of body fluids in sheep. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research 41, 1–9.

Etzion Z, Yagil R (1987) Metabolic effects in rats drinking increasing concentrations of sea-water. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 86, 49–55.
Metabolic effects in rats drinking increasing concentrations of sea-water.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL2s7mtVKgsw%3D%3D&md5=ce0570e23904e8e295ed453c7d021687CAS |

Goatcher WD, Church DC (1970) Taste responses in ruminants. IV. Reactions of pygmy goats, normal goats, sheep and cattle to acetic acid and quinine hydrochloride. Journal of Animal Science 31, 373–382.
Taste responses in ruminants. IV. Reactions of pygmy goats, normal goats, sheep and cattle to acetic acid and quinine hydrochloride.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3cXkslCmu7g%3D&md5=71fbf4e0c1dec15e440cf49d77dcacafCAS |

Gowda S, Desai PB, Kulkarni SS, Hull VV, Math AAK, Vernekar SN (2010) Markers of renal function tests. North American Journal of Medical Sciences 2, 170–173.

Hadjigeorgiou I, Dardamani K, Goulas C, Zervas G (2000) The effect of water availability on feed intake and digestion in sheep. Small Ruminant Research 37, 147–150.
The effect of water availability on feed intake and digestion in sheep.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2sbitFKmug%3D%3D&md5=38544e2edd8fd31a1cfdad98bad5e2e1CAS |

Hadjigeorgiou IE, Gordon IJ, Milne JA (2003) Intake, digestion and selection of roughage with different staple lengths by sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 47, 117–132.
Intake, digestion and selection of roughage with different staple lengths by sheep and goats.CrossRef |

Hodgson J, Illius AW (1996) ‘The ecology and management of grazing systems.’ (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) (2001) International council for standardization in hematology expert panel on cytometry and international society of laboratory hematology task force on platelet counting. Platelet counting by the RBC/platelet ratio method: a reference method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 115, 460–464.

Jouven M, Lapeyronie P, Moulin C-H, Bocquier F (2010) Rangeland utilization in Mediterranean farming systems. Animal 4, 1746–1757.
Rangeland utilization in Mediterranean farming systems.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC38vpt1equw%3D%3D&md5=a283c2dc1b17ffb415d24fba32582782CAS |

Kaliber M, Koluman N, Silanikove N (2016) Physiological and behavioral basis for the successful adaptation of goats to severe water restriction under hot environment. Animal 10, 82–88.
Physiological and behavioral basis for the successful adaptation of goats to severe water restriction under hot environment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXitVKjsbzF&md5=0f187ddbf75faef6d34da92061cc71f8CAS |

Luke GJ (2003) Consumption of water by livestock. Resource Management technical report no. 60. Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Perth.

Macfarlane WV (1982) Concepts in animal adaptation. In ‘Procceedings of the 3rd international conference on goat production and disease’. pp. 375–385. (Dairy Goat Publishing Co.: Scottsdale).

Masters DG, Rintoul AJ, Dynes RA, Norman HC (2005) Feed intake and production in sheep fed diets high in sodium and potassium. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56, 427–434.
Feed intake and production in sheep fed diets high in sodium and potassium.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXks1ert7Y%3D&md5=38a037b45e9891e016f9eb4f962f4ba2CAS |

McGregor BA (2004a) The use and macro-mineral content of saline water for goat production. South African Journal of Animal Science 34, 215–218.

McGregor BA (2004b) Water quality and provision for goats. Research report no. 04/036. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Barton, ACT.

Michałek K, Jankowiak D, Małgorzata Ożgo M, Skrzypczak WF (2010) Renal regulation of sodium, potassium and chloride balance in single- and twin-pregnant goats. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 58, 199–209.
Renal regulation of sodium, potassium and chloride balance in single- and twin-pregnant goats.CrossRef |

Ray DE (1989) Interrelation among water quality, climate and diet on feedlot performance of steer calves. Journal of Animal Science 67, 357–361.
Interrelation among water quality, climate and diet on feedlot performance of steer calves.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL1M7pslKltw%3D%3D&md5=371d953423640afd521d0f744e405ef9CAS |

Ridgway S, Venn-Watson S (2010) Effects of fresh and seawater ingestion on osmoregulation in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Comparative Biochemistry 180, 563–576.

Rugangazi BM, Maloiy GMO (1987) Salt excretion and saline drinking in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirkii). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 88, 331–336.
Salt excretion and saline drinking in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirkii).CrossRef |

Silanikove N (1992) Effects of water scarcity and hot environment on appetite and digestion in ruminants: a review. Livestock Production Science 30, 175–194.
Effects of water scarcity and hot environment on appetite and digestion in ruminants: a review.CrossRef |

Silanikove N (2000) The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments. Small Ruminant Research 35, 181–193.
The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments.CrossRef |

SPSS (2008) ‘SPSS v17.0 for Windows.’ (SPSS Inc.: Chicago, IL)

Squires VR (1993) Towards rational use of high salinity tolerant plants. In ‘Australian experiences with high salinity diets for sheep’. (Eds H Lieth, A Al Massoum) pp. 449–457. (Kluwer Academic Publications: Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Troumbis AY (2001) The ecological role of cattle, sheep and goats. In ‘The encyclopedia of biodiversity’. (Ed. SA Levin) pp. 651–663. (Academic Press: NY)

Wilson RT (1989) ‘Ecophysiology of the Camelidae and desert ruminants.’ (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)

Wittenberg C, Choshniak I, Shkolnik A, Thurau K, Rosenfeld J (1986) Effect of dehydration and rapid rehydration on renal function and on plasma renin and aldosterone levels in the black Bedouin goat. Pflügers Archiv 406, 405–408.
Effect of dehydration and rapid rehydration on renal function and on plasma renin and aldosterone levels in the black Bedouin goat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL28XitVCls7s%3D&md5=1bf99c87ed0cdbcdfdfa1446012b6d1aCAS |



Export Citation