Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Compositional, organoleptic, metabolic enzyme activity and fibre characteristics of muscle from bulls with different growth paths to a common carcass weight

G. B. Mezgebo A B , F. J. Monahan A , M. McGee B , E. G. O’ Riordan B , B. Picard C , R. I. Richardson D and A. P. Moloney B E
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A University College Dublin, School of Agriculture and Food Science, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

B Teagasc, Animal & Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Grange, Dunsany, County Meath, Ireland.

C UMR1213 Herbivores, INRA, VetAgro Sup, Clermont université, Université de Lyon, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.

D University of Bristol, Division of Farm Animal Science, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, England, United Kingdom.

E Corresponding author. Email: aidan.moloney@teagasc.ie

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16830
Submitted: 23 December 2016  Accepted: 7 April 2017   Published online: 29 May 2017

Abstract

The proximate composition, organoleptic quality, metabolic enzyme activity and fibre characteristics of longissimus thoracis muscle from suckler bulls assigned to three target indoor winter (from 9 to 13 months of age approximately) growth rates (average daily gain of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 kg; n = 14/group) were investigated. The feeding regimes to achieve the target average daily gains were 2, 4 and 6 kg of concentrate respectively, plus grass silage ad libitum. The duration of the winter feeding period was 123 days, after which bulls were turned out to pasture and grazed for 99 days before re-housing and finishing on concentrates ad libitum plus grass silage until they reached a liveweight to yield a target carcass weight of 380 kg. The average daily gain during the grazing period was higher (P < 0.001) for the 0.6 than for the 1.0 and 1.5 average daily-gain groups, which did not differ. Proximate composition, collagen content, metabolic enzyme activity and fibre-type distribution of the longissimus thoracis muscle were similar (P > 0.05) between the 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 average daily-gain groups. Apart from tenderness, which was rated higher (P < 0.05) for the 0.6 group than for the 1.0 average daily-gain group, the sensory characteristics of the beef were not influenced by the different winter growth rates applied. Overall, restricting the growth rate during winter had little effect on subsequent beef appearance or eating quality.

Additional keywords: beef quality, compensatory growth, winter growth rate.


References

Anon. (2004) ‘Community scale for the classification of carcasses of adult bovine animals. EC no. 1208/81 and 2930/81.’ (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities: Luxembourg)

AOAC (1990) ‘Moisture and fat in meat and poultry products. Official Methods 985.14 and 985.26.’ (AOAC International: Arlington, VA)

Bord Bia (2011) Bord Bia: Irish Food Board report 2011, Dublin, Ireland.

Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248–254.
A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE28XksVehtrY%3D&md5=ee7d147a8c272aab8e6895a1f0c98da0CAS |

BSI (1993) ‘BSI assessors for sensory analysis. BS7667, part 1. Guide to the selection, training and monitoring of selected assessors. 1993/ISO 8586–1:1993.’ (BSI: London)

Cassar-Malek I, Hocquette JF, Jurie C, Listrat A, Jailler R, Bauchart D, Briand Y, Picard B (2004) Muscle-specific metabolic, histochemical and biochemical responses to a nutritionally induced discontinuous growth path. Journal of Animal Science 79, 49–59.

Chikuni K, Muroya S, Nakajima I (2004) Myosin heavy chain isoforms expressed in bovine skeletal muscles. Meat Science 67, 87–94.
Myosin heavy chain isoforms expressed in bovine skeletal muscles.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpvFyksLo%3D&md5=171a4d67b84d3924c23d571e0eb459a7CAS |

Fang SH, Nishimura T, Takahashi K (1999) Relationship between development of intramuscular connective tissue and toughness of pork during growth of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 77, 120–130.
Relationship between development of intramuscular connective tissue and toughness of pork during growth of pigs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhtFyhtL0%3D&md5=6ce113405ad6a9660741e499cce18d89CAS |

Finneran E, Crosson P, O’Kiely P, Shalloo L, Forristal D, Wallace M (2012) Stochastic simulation of the cost of home-produced feeds for ruminant livestock systems. The Journal of Agricultural Science 150, 123–139.
Stochastic simulation of the cost of home-produced feeds for ruminant livestock systems.CrossRef |

Geay Y, Bauchart D, Hocquette JF, Culioli J (2001) Effect of nutritional factors on biochemical, structural and metabolic characteristics of muscles in ruminants, consequences on dietetic value and sensorial qualities of meat. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 41, 1–26.
Effect of nutritional factors on biochemical, structural and metabolic characteristics of muscles in ruminants, consequences on dietetic value and sensorial qualities of meat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXktVOkt7g%3D&md5=a31bbc64e025aae93fe858f3174f32a3CAS |

Goll DE, Bray RW, Hoekstra WG (1963) Age-associated changes in muscle composition. The isolation and properties of a collagenous residue from bovine muscle. Journal of Food Science 28, 503–509.
Age-associated changes in muscle composition. The isolation and properties of a collagenous residue from bovine muscle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF2cXktFegtL4%3D&md5=9a7114ca3ec75486f712b5d8dc9ecb81CAS |

Greenwood P, Café L, Hearnshaw H, Hennessy D (2005) Consequences of nutrition and growth retardation early in life for growth and composition of cattle and eating quality of beef. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 15, 183–195.

Greenwood P, Tomkins N, Hunter R, Allingham P, Harde S, Harper G (2009) Bovine myofiber characteristics are influenced by postweaning nutrition. Journal of Animal Science 87, 3114–3123.
Bovine myofiber characteristics are influenced by postweaning nutrition.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXht1WksL7K&md5=3c50dc86e2d78507c56ec693f8b6937fCAS |

Harper G (1999) Trends in skeletal muscle biology and the understanding of toughness in beef. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 1105–1129.
Trends in skeletal muscle biology and the understanding of toughness in beef.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXnsVGqu7o%3D&md5=35a7e74d2375bab618481dc172242886CAS |

Hill F (1966) The solubility of intramuscular collagen in meat animals of various ages. Journal of Food Science 31, 161–166.
The solubility of intramuscular collagen in meat animals of various ages.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF28XpslSrsA%3D%3D&md5=229e826db800195dd9b2703b8eea49faCAS |

Hornick JL, Van Eenaeme C, Gérard O, Dufrasne I, Istasse L (2000) Mechanisms of reduced and compensatory growth. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 19, 121–132.
Mechanisms of reduced and compensatory growth.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXntF2gurs%3D&md5=1e015a769f0a91491613e716d40b887fCAS |

Jurie C, Ortigues-Marty I, Picard B, Micol D, Hocquette JF (2006) The separate effects of the nature of diet and grazing mobility on metabolic potential of muscles from Charolais steers. Livestock Science 104, 182–192.
The separate effects of the nature of diet and grazing mobility on metabolic potential of muscles from Charolais steers.CrossRef |

Keady SM, Waters SM, Hamill RM, Dunne PG, Keane MG, Richardson RI, Kenny DA, Moloney AP (2017) Compensatory growth in crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue steers: effects on the colour, shear force and sensory characteristics of longissimus muscle. Meat Science 125, 128–136.
Compensatory growth in crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue steers: effects on the colour, shear force and sensory characteristics of longissimus muscle.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC1c%2FjtVeltQ%3D%3D&md5=912a0ba7c42e1f85adf96b417788cbf4CAS |

Kolar K (1990) Colorimetric determination of hydroxyproline as a measure of collagen content in meat and meat products: NMKL collaborative study. Journal – Association of Official Analytical Chemists 73, 54–57.

Koohmaraie M, Kent MP, Shackelford SD, Veiseth E, Wheeler TL (2002) Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship? Meat Science 62, 345–352.
Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship?CrossRef |

Lancaster PA, Krebhiel CR, Horn GW (2014) A meta-analysis of effects of nutrition and management during the stocker and backgrounding phase on subsequent finishing performance and carcass characteristics. The Professional Animal Scientist 30, 602–612.
A meta-analysis of effects of nutrition and management during the stocker and backgrounding phase on subsequent finishing performance and carcass characteristics.CrossRef |

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 193, 265–275.

Maccatrozzo L, Patruno M, Toniolo L, Reggiani C, Mascarell F (2009) Myosin heavy chain 2B isoform is expressed in specialized eye muscles but not in trunk and limb muscles of cattle. European Journal of Histochemistry 48, 357–366.

MacFie HJ, Bratchell N, Greenhoff K, Vallis LV (1989) Designs to balance the effect of order of presentation and first-order carry-over effects in hall tests. Journal of Sensory Studies 4, 129–148.
Designs to balance the effect of order of presentation and first-order carry-over effects in hall tests.CrossRef |

Maltin CA, Lobley GE, Grant CM, Miller LA, Kyle DJ, Horgan GW, Matthews KR, Sinclair KD (2001) Factors influencing beef eating quality: effects of nutritional regimen and genotype on muscle fibre characteristics. Animal Science 72, 279–287.

Marren D, McGee M, Moloney AP, Kelly A, O’Riordan EG (2013) Effect of growth rate during the first indoor winter on performance to slaughter of late-maturing weaned suckler bred bulls. In ‘Proceedings of Agricultural Research Forum’. p. 34. (Agricultural Research Forum: Tullamore, Ireland)

McCormick RJ (1994) The flexibility of the collagen compartment of muscle. Meat Science 36, 79–91.
The flexibility of the collagen compartment of muscle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXis1ygurw%3D&md5=050e98a358f0ec4c3fcb6b0fa3f7afd2CAS |

Mezgebo GB, Moloney AP, O’Riordan EG, McGee M, Richardson RI, Monahan FJ (2017) Comparison of organoleptic quality and composition of beef from suckler bulls from different production systems. Animal 11, 538–546.
Comparison of organoleptic quality and composition of beef from suckler bulls from different production systems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2sXislKktLY%3D&md5=1a708b99c5d3208be526df8ab2e0a92aCAS |

Moloney A, Keane M, Mooney M, Rezek K, Smulders F, Troy D (2008) Energy supply patterns for finishing steers: feed conversion efficiency, components of bodyweight gain and meat quality. Meat Science 79, 86–97.
Energy supply patterns for finishing steers: feed conversion efficiency, components of bodyweight gain and meat quality.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MbnsFSksQ%3D%3D&md5=13af1980e93f2c503f034f21a86c77a5CAS |

O’Riordan EG, Crosson P, McGee M (2011) Finishing male cattle from the beef suckler herd. Irish Grassland Association Journal 45, 131–146.

O’Riordan EG, McGee M, Moloney AP, Crosson P (2012) Bulls from the beef cow herd: effect of system of production on growth and carcass characteristics. In ‘Proceedings of Agricultural Research Forum’. p. 53. (Agricultural Research Forum: Tullamore, Ireland)

Oddy VH, Harper GS, Greenwood PL, McDonagh MB (2001) Nutritional and developmental effects on the intrinsic properties of muscles as they relate to the eating quality of beef. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 921–942.
Nutritional and developmental effects on the intrinsic properties of muscles as they relate to the eating quality of beef.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXotlGhtbc%3D&md5=0fa68e919edb5962c38d3d5fe7e8bc3eCAS |

Page J, Wulf D, Schwotzer T (2001) A survey of beef muscle color and pH. Journal of Animal Science 79, 678–687.
A survey of beef muscle color and pH.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjsVygtb4%3D&md5=744f4951f9e5a4b3a524d9be969efad0CAS |

Perry D, Thompson JM (2005) The effect of growth rate during backgrounding and finishing on meat quality traits in beef cattle. Meat Science 69, 691–702.
The effect of growth rate during backgrounding and finishing on meat quality traits in beef cattle.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MbnsFGjuw%3D%3D&md5=08b525e11b7fcdeba7164b629b1691c1CAS |

Pethick DW, Rowe JB, McIntyre B (1994) Effect of diet and exercise on glycogen levels in the muscle of cattle. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 20, 403

Picard B, Cassar-Malek I (2009) Evidence for expression of IIb myosin heavy chain isoform in some skeletal muscles of Blonde d’Aquitaine bulls. Meat Science 82, 30–36.
Evidence for expression of IIb myosin heavy chain isoform in some skeletal muscles of Blonde d’Aquitaine bulls.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXitFyksrw%3D&md5=7256545426fd68a832c5cf4d9df7c7d2CAS |

Picard B, Jurie C, Bauchart D, Dransfield E, Ouali A, Martin JF, Jailler R, Lepetit J, Culioli J (2007) Muscle and meat characteristics from the main beef breeds of the Massif Central. Sciences des Aliments 27, 168–180.
Muscle and meat characteristics from the main beef breeds of the Massif Central.CrossRef |

Picard B, Barboiron C, Chadeyron D, Jurie C (2011) Protocol for high-resolution electrophoresis separation of myosin heavy chain isoforms in bovine skeletal muscle. Electrophoresis 32, 1804–1806.
Protocol for high-resolution electrophoresis separation of myosin heavy chain isoforms in bovine skeletal muscle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXns1Oht74%3D&md5=9fcb556f8ed31c5eb6d50eb80eae1f03CAS |

Picard B, Gagaoua M, Micol D, Cassar-Malek I, Hocquette J-F, Terlouw C (2014) Inverse relationships between biomarkers and beef tenderness according to contractile and metabolic properties of the muscle. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62, 9808–9818.
Inverse relationships between biomarkers and beef tenderness according to contractile and metabolic properties of the muscle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsVCmsrnP&md5=7acb70cb3fdfc533c0a6c5eda32c6486CAS |

Silva LHP, Paulino PVR, Assis GJF, Assis DEF, Estrada MM, Silva MC, Silva JC, Martins TS, Valdares Filho SC, Paulino MF, Chizzotti ML (2017) Effect of post-weaning growth on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle. Meat Science 123, 192–197.
Effect of post-weaning growth on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle.CrossRef |

Teagasc (2015) ‘Beef production system guidelines.’ (Teagasc: OakPark, Carlow, Ireland)

Thompson J (2002) Managing meat tenderness. Meat Science 62, 295–308.
Managing meat tenderness.CrossRef |

Tomkins N, Harper G, Bruce H, Hunter R (2006) Effect of different post-weaning growth paths on long-term weight gain, carcass characteristics and eating quality of beef cattle. Animal Production Science 46, 1571–1578.
Effect of different post-weaning growth paths on long-term weight gain, carcass characteristics and eating quality of beef cattle.CrossRef |

Toniolo L, Maccatrozzo L, Patruno M, Caliaro F, Mascarello F, Reggiani C (2005) Expression of eight distinct MHC isoforms in bovine striated muscles: evidence for MHC-2B presence only in extraocular muscles. The Journal of Experimental Biology 208, 4243–4253.
Expression of eight distinct MHC isoforms in bovine striated muscles: evidence for MHC-2B presence only in extraocular muscles.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xjs1Ojug%3D%3D&md5=fc0accef5d8811ed9a2b754b9e6a39b6CAS |

Viljoen H, De Kock H, Webb E (2002) Consumer acceptability of dark, firm and dry (DFD) and normal pH beef steaks. Meat Science 61, 181–185.
Consumer acceptability of dark, firm and dry (DFD) and normal pH beef steaks.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3Mbns1antA%3D%3D&md5=779d7e9b85b508133f289e60d7254075CAS |

Woessner JF (1961) The determination of hydroxyproline in tissue and protein samples containing small proportions of amino acid. Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics 93, 440–447.
The determination of hydroxyproline in tissue and protein samples containing small proportions of amino acid.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF3MXht1Ghu7c%3D&md5=cc86e1d1c63e0ef917a9120a1984c47bCAS |

Yambayamba E, Price MA (1991) Fiber type proportions and diameters in the longissimus muscle of beef heifers undergoing catch-up (compensatory) growth. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 71, 1031–1035.
Fiber type proportions and diameters in the longissimus muscle of beef heifers undergoing catch-up (compensatory) growth.CrossRef |



Export Citation