Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Antimicrobial drug usage and poultry production: case study in Ghana

Sherry Johnson A E , Kwasi Bugyei B , Priscillia Nortey C and William Tasiame D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Veterinary Medicine, CBAS, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

B Department of Pharmacology, University of Ghana Medical School, Korle Bu, Accra, Ghana.

C Department of Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control, SPH, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

D School of Veterinary Medicine, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana.

E Corresponding author. Email: sajohnson@ug.edu.gh

Animal Production Science - https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16832
Submitted: 22 January 2017  Accepted: 26 August 2017   Published online: 7 December 2017

Abstract

Antimicrobial use in food animal production could lead to the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in the animal products. In Ghana, there is no monitoring program for antimicrobial residue in foods of animal origin. We determined the types of antimicrobial drugs used in poultry production in Dormaa municipality and the levels of residue found in poultry products. Performing a cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire and direct observation methods were used to assess antimicrobial usage, knowledge of and adherence to withdrawal periods in randomly selected poultry farms. Eggs and ready-for-sale broilers were purchased from selected respondents’ farms for detection and quantification of residues using the microbial inhibition plate assay. A total of 132 farmers were interviewed from 115 farms. Farms (86%) administered drugs to birds for prophylactic purposes. A total of 28 (24.3%) farms had tetracycline residue in eggs, 25 (21.7%) in kidney and 14 (12.2%) in liver. Mean (±s.d.) tetracycline concentration (μg/g) found were: eggs 0.02 ± 0.003; kidneys 0.02 ± 0.01; and liver 0.01 ± 0.008. Twenty-six farms (92.9%; ρ > 0.05) that had residues in eggs had sold eggs during treatment of the laying birds. A disinfectant and two antibiotics in human formulations were administered to birds in 44.3%, 17.4% and 2.6% farms respectively on an extra-label basis. Tetracyclines were the main antimicrobial drugs used in poultry farming in the study area with little or no regard to withdrawal periods. Tetracycline residue was found in poultry but below the Maximum Residue Level set by Codex Alimentarius. Extra-label use of disinfectant to water-medicate birds poses a health hazard to farmers and consumers alike.

Additional keywords: extra-label use, residue, resistance, withdrawal period.


References

Beyene T (2016) Veterinary drug residues in food-animal products: its risk factors and potential effects on public health. Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology 7, 285

Bugyei K, Black W, McEwen S, Meek AH (1994) Detecting oxytetracycline residues in chicken tissues using the Delvotest P system. Journal of Food Protection 57, 141–145.
Detecting oxytetracycline residues in chicken tissues using the Delvotest P system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXjt1WlsLY%3D&md5=38a1ab16f1f0d22dc646e750aa10ec8dCAS |

CDC (2010) Glutaraldehyde. pp. 2–5. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/glutaraldehyde/ [Verified 1 March 2010]

Codex Alimentarius Commission (2015) Maximum residue limits (MRLS) and risk management recommendations (RMRS) for residues of veterinary drugs in foods CAC/MRL 2-2015. Available at www.fao.org/input/download/standards/45/MRL2_2015e [Verified 20 July 2017]

Donkor ES, Newman MJ, Tay SCK, Dayie NTKD, Bannerman E, Olu-Taiwo M (2011) Investigation into the risk of exposure to antibiotic residues contaminating meat and egg in Ghana. Food Control 22, 869–873.
Investigation into the risk of exposure to antibiotic residues contaminating meat and egg in Ghana.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtlSqt7g%3D&md5=f95bfee86a2ff4d074e781d00cc1d22dCAS |

Ezenduka EV, Oboegbulem SI, Nwanta JA, Onunkwo JI (2010) Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production 43, 555–557.
Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria.CrossRef |

FDA (1994) Animal Medicinal Drug use Clarification Act. Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21, Volume 6, pp. 370. Available at http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/GuidanceComplianceEnforcement/ActsRulesRegulations/ucm085377.htm [Verified 20 March 2010]

JECFA (1994) Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Forty-second Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Chloramphenicol Monograph, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 41/6, Rome.

Kim DP, Degand G, Douny C, Pierret G, Delahaut P, Ton VD, Granier B, Scippo ML (2013) Preliminary evaluation of antimicrobial residue levels in marketed pork and chicken meat in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam. Food and Public Health 3, 267–276.

Marshall BM, Levy SB (2011) Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 24, 718–733.
Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs1ejsL7L&md5=bf260e7aea4a6dd29bcacf970b359f8fCAS |

Mensah SEP, Koudandé OD, Sanders P, Laurentie M, Mensah GA, Abiola FA (2014) Antimicrobial residues in foods of animal origin in Africa: public health risks. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) 33, 975–986.
Antimicrobial residues in foods of animal origin in Africa: public health risks.CrossRef |

Odeyemi IAO (1997) Understanding privatization of animal health delivery systems in Africa: concepts, impacts and appropriate approaches. FAO Electronic Conference on Principles for Rational Delivery of Public and Private Services, January–April. Available at http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/resources/documents/Vets-l/e95.htm [Verified 17 November 2017]

Perera PMS, Kularathne K, Gawarammana IB (2008) Laryngeal edema and metabolic acidosis after Omnicide® ingestion. Clinical Toxicology 46, 858–860.

Shareef AM, Jamel ZT, Yonis KM (2009) Detection of antibiotic residues in stored poultry products. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences 23, 45–48.

Tollefson L, Miller AM (2000) Antibiotic use in food animals: controlling the human health impact. Journal of AOAC International 83, 245–254.

Turkson PK (2008) Use of drugs and antibiotics in the poultry production in Ghana. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science 41, 23–33.

VSD (Veterinary Services Directorate) (2009) Dormaa Poultry Census. Epidemiology Unit, Accra.



Export Citation