Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
REVIEW

Guaranteeing consistently high quality Australian pork: are we any closer?

H. A. Channon A B D , D. N. D’Souza C and F. R. Dunshea B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Australian Pork Limited, Barton, ACT 2600, Australia.

B Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.

C SunPork Solutions, Loganholme, Qld 4129, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: heather.channon@australianpork.com.au

Animal Production Science 57(12) 2386-2397 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN17266
Submitted: 28 April 2017  Accepted: 16 August 2017   Published: 20 November 2017

Abstract

Considerable investment has been made by the Australian pork industry over several decades, to address key factors that affect pork quality, so as to improve consumer acceptability of pork and pork products. These outcomes have been utilised to inform on-farm quality assurance programs, develop effective solutions to negate boar taint issues associated with the production of entire males, drive continuous improvement in animal management and encourage new technologies to be implemented in both the production and processing sectors of the Australian pork supply chain. Australian Pork Limited’s Strategic Plan 2015–20 is focused on maintaining profitable and sustainable growth in existing markets and developing strong foundations to support new opportunities, both in Australia and internationally. Guaranteeing that pork available for purchase is always consistently high in eating quality will support ongoing consumer demand for pork through increased consumption frequency. However, achieving this on an everyday basis presents industry with significant challenges due to the many complex interactions among the production, processing and post-slaughter factors experienced by pigs, carcasses and pork that can influence final product quality, either singularly or in combination. The present paper describes recent quantitative studies to determine the size and effect of pathway parameters on eating quality attributes of fresh pork and knowledge gaps identified. Outcomes of consumer sensory studies to inform the development of a non-prescriptive cuts-based eating quality system for pork and commercially validate particular pathway interventions are detailed. Through the implementation of validated pathway interventions to optimise pork eating quality, the overall industry objective is to reduce eating quality fail rates of different pork cuts to less than 10%.

Additional keywords: cuts, eating quality, interventions, pigs, system.


References

ABARES (2017) Agricultural commodities: March quarter 2017. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Canberra.

Akit H, Collins CL, Fahri FT, Hung AT, D’Souza DN, Leury BJ, Dunshea FR (2014a) Dietary lecithin improves dressing percentage and decreases chewiness in the longissimus muscle in finisher gilts. Meat Science 96, 1147–1151.
Dietary lecithin improves dressing percentage and decreases chewiness in the longissimus muscle in finisher gilts.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtFOhtro%3D&md5=1f373b81a610cc4e25626894830026fbCAS |

Akit H, Frobose H, Channon HA, D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR (2014b) Effect of sex and dietary lecithin on eating quality of pork. In ‘Proceedings of the 60th international congress of meat science and technology’, 17–23 August 2014, Punte del Este, Uruguay.

Allison J, McKeith F, Souza C, Boler D, Killefer J, Hennessy D (2009) Impact of using vaccination with Improvac on the sensory perception of meat from finishing male pigs. In ‘Proceedings of the 55th international congress of meat science and technology’, 16–21 August 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Batorek N, Candek-Potokar M, Bonneau M, Van Milgen J (2012) Meta-analysis of the effect of immunocastration on production performance, reproductive organs and boar taint compounds in pigs. Animal 6, 1330–1338.
Meta-analysis of the effect of immunocastration on production performance, reproductive organs and boar taint compounds in pigs.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3s3gs1yisw%3D%3D&md5=d6870d33a5bf18ac7f2a7376b647ec17CAS |

Bee G, Chevillon P, Bonneau M (2015) Entire male pig production in Europe. Animal Production Science 55, 1347–1359.

Bejerholm C, Aaslyng MD (2004) The influence of cooking technique and core temperature on results of a sensory analysis of pork: depending on the raw meat quality. Food Quality and Preference 15, 19–30.
The influence of cooking technique and core temperature on results of a sensory analysis of pork: depending on the raw meat quality.CrossRef |

Bennett J (1997) Eating quality assurance for pig meat. Final report for the Pig Research and Development Corporation. Canberra.

Bonneau M, Lebret B (2010) Production systems and influence on eating quality of pork. Meat Science 84, 293–300.
Production systems and influence on eating quality of pork.CrossRef |

Bonny SP, Gardner GE, Pethick DW, Allen P, Legrand I, Wierzbicki J, Farmer LJ, Polkinghorne RJ, Hocquette JF (2017) Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of European beef: 2. Demographic factors have only minor effects on consumer scores and willingness to pay. Animal 13, 1–13.

Cameron ND, Warriss PD, Porter SJ, Enser MB (1990) Comparison of Duroc and British Landrace pigs for meat and eating quality. Meat Science 27, 227–247.
Comparison of Duroc and British Landrace pigs for meat and eating quality.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MbmvFSisg%3D%3D&md5=dd3b27926ca36a7b659a7c282242f5dbCAS |

Cameron ND, Penman JC, Fisken AC, Nute GR, Perry AM, Wood JD (1999) Genotype with nutrition interactions for carcass composition and meat quality in pig genotypes selected for components of efficient lean growth rate. Animal Science 69, 69–80.
Genotype with nutrition interactions for carcass composition and meat quality in pig genotypes selected for components of efficient lean growth rate.CrossRef |

Campbell RG (1998) Optimising the production, processing, manufacturing and eating quality of manufactured products using castrated male pigs. Part 1. The performance capabilities of castrated male pigs (Auspig characterisation). Final report to the Pig Research and Development Corporation (BMI 19/1387).

Channon HA (2001) Managing the eating quality of pork: what the processor can do. In ‘Manipulating pig production. VIII’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) pp. 97–106. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Werribee, Vic.)

Channon HA, Warner RD (2011) Delivering consistent quality Australian pork to consumers: a systems approach. In ‘Manipulating pig production. XIII.’ (Ed. RJ van Barneveld) pp. 262–293. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Channon HA, Payne AM, Warner RD (2000) Halothane genotype, pre-slaughter handling and stunning method all influence pork quality. Meat Science 56, 291–299.
Halothane genotype, pre-slaughter handling and stunning method all influence pork quality.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MbnsVKntg%3D%3D&md5=8f699e9eed065e2f7de9618d013ced48CAS |

Channon HA, Baud SR, Reynolds J (2001) Identifying pathways to ensure acceptable eating quality of pork (DV 163/1385). Final report to Australian Pork Limited, Canberra.

Channon HA, Baud SR, Kerr MG, Walker PJ (2003a) Effect of low voltage electrical stimulation of pig carcasses and ageing on sensory attributes of fresh pork. Meat Science 65, 1315–1324.
Effect of low voltage electrical stimulation of pig carcasses and ageing on sensory attributes of fresh pork.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3Mbns1SgsQ%3D%3D&md5=5ac17a9393cefe51cf5c36013bedf27fCAS |

Channon HA, Walker PJ, Kerr MG, Baud SR (2003b) Application of constant current, low voltage electrical stimulation systems to pig carcasses and its effects on pork quality. Meat Science 65, 1309–1313.
Application of constant current, low voltage electrical stimulation systems to pig carcasses and its effects on pork quality.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3Mbns1SgsA%3D%3D&md5=399421544047e6853aebf5bc055fb703CAS |

Channon HA, Kerr MG, Walker PJ (2004) Effect of Duroc content, sex and ageing period on meat and eating quality attributes of pork loin. Meat Science 66, 881–888.
Effect of Duroc content, sex and ageing period on meat and eating quality attributes of pork loin.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpt1emsLg%3D&md5=b217b04729f2a51afa3b85a91db53c77CAS |

Channon HA, D’Souza DN, Hamilton AJ, Dunshea FR (2013a) Eating quality of pork shoulder roast and stir fry outperforms cuts from the loin and silverside in male pigs. In ‘Manipulating pig production. XIV’. (Eds JR Pluske, J Pluske) p. 227. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Channon HA, D’Souza DN, van Barneveld RJ, Hewitt RJE, Hamilton AJ, Dunshea FR (2013b) Diet and slaughter age have minimal impact on pork eating quality. In ‘Manipulating pig production. XIV’. (Eds JR Pluske, J Pluske) p. 228. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Channon HA, D’Souza DN, Hamilton AJ, Dunshea FR (2014a) Validation of pork eating quality pathways in three commercial supply chains 3A-109 1314. Final report to the Pork CRC.

Channon HA, Taverner MR, D’Souza DN, Warner RD (2014b) Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality. Meat Science 96, 581–590.
Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3sbmtFajsQ%3D%3D&md5=daa3ab19b0b780c8592bb4df4048b6afCAS |

Channon HA, D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR (2015a) Aitchbone hanging or moisture infusion, but not ageing, influenced eating quality of pork cuts. Animal Production Science 55, 1474

Channon HA, D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR (2015b) Pork eating quality was not improved by extended ageing for 14 days. Animal Production Science 55, 1468

Channon HA, D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR (2015c) Response to different pathway interventions to improve pork eating quality consistency. Animal Production Science 55, 1473

Channon HA, D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR (2016a) Developing a cuts-based system to improve consumer acceptability of pork: impact of gender, ageing period, endpoint temperature and cooking method. Meat Science 121, 216–227.
Developing a cuts-based system to improve consumer acceptability of pork: impact of gender, ageing period, endpoint temperature and cooking method.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2s7ktVehsA%3D%3D&md5=f205862400db9e925534465074429145CAS |

Channon HA, Hamilton AJ, D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR (2016b) Estimating the impact of various pathway parameters on tenderness, flavour and juiciness of pork using Monte Carlo simulation methods. Meat Science 116, 58–66.
Estimating the impact of various pathway parameters on tenderness, flavour and juiciness of pork using Monte Carlo simulation methods.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XitlCksLg%3D&md5=4939bf9cb7976ce42267e087a8be11c9CAS |

Channon HA, D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR (2017) Quantifying production, processing and post-slaughter effects on pork eating quality using random effects meta-regression. Translational Animal Science 1, 1–14.

Christensen M, Purslow PP, Larsen LM (2000) The effect of cooking temperature on mechanical properties of whole meat, single muscle fibres and perimysial connective tissue. Meat Science 55, 301–307.
The effect of cooking temperature on mechanical properties of whole meat, single muscle fibres and perimysial connective tissue.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3Mbntl2qsw%3D%3D&md5=61a0c00cd24908ec2ab9de5bfeee290dCAS |

Cronin GM, Dunshea FR, Butler KL, McCauley I, Barnett JL, Hemsworth PH (2003) The effects of immuno- and surgical-castration on the behaviour and consequently growth of group-housed, male finisher pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81, 111–126.
The effects of immuno- and surgical-castration on the behaviour and consequently growth of group-housed, male finisher pigs.CrossRef |

D’Souza DN, Hofmeyr CD (2001) The effect of using electric prodders on pork quality. In ‘Manipulating pig production. VIII’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) p. 84. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

D’Souza, DN, Moore, KL (2005) Benchmarking the quality of branded pork based upon eating quality pathways: WA. APL 1828. Final report to Australian Pork Ltd, Canberra.

D’Souza DN, Mullan BP (2001) Managing the eating quality of pork: what the producer can do. In ‘Manipulating pig production. VIII’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) pp. 88–96. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

D’Souza DN, Mullan BP (2002) The effect of genotype, sex and management strategy on the eating quality of pork. Meat Science 60, 95–101.
The effect of genotype, sex and management strategy on the eating quality of pork.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MbnsFCktQ%3D%3D&md5=8c4696ccb46a0e09c10d354618e19a21CAS |

D’Souza DN, Mullan BP (2003) The effect of genotype and castration method on the eating quality characteristics of pork from male pigs. Animal Science 77, 67–72.

D’Souza DN, Eldridge GA, Warner RD, Leury BJ, Dunshea FR, Knowles HM (1995) The effects of adverse handling on pigs on farm and at the abattoir on meat quality. In ‘Proceedings of the 41st international congress of meat science and technology, 20–25 August 1995, San Antonio, TX, USA.

D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR, Warner RD, Leury BJ (1998a) The effect of handling pre-slaughter and carcass processing rate post-slaughter on pork quality. Meat Science 50, 429–437.
The effect of handling pre-slaughter and carcass processing rate post-slaughter on pork quality.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MbnsVSguw%3D%3D&md5=2945672b47cdf951cc0ba2d8f7e98ce6CAS |

D’Souza DN, Warner RD, Leury BJ, Dunshea FR (1998b) The effect of dietary magnesium aspartate supplementation on pork quality. Journal of Animal Science 76, 104–109.
The effect of dietary magnesium aspartate supplementation on pork quality.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXlsVKjug%3D%3D&md5=eba5dc2cade136d19a4d4b013db37258CAS |

D’Souza DN, Dunshea FR, Leury BJ, Warner RD (1999a) Effect of mixing boars during lairage and pre-slaughter handling on pork quality. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 109–113.
Effect of mixing boars during lairage and pre-slaughter handling on pork quality.CrossRef |

D’Souza DN, Warner RD, Dunshea FR, Leury BJ (1999b) Comparison of different dietary magnesium supplements on pork quality. Meat Science 51, 221–225.
Comparison of different dietary magnesium supplements on pork quality.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXms1Gqtw%3D%3D&md5=c846f371da9eeca3c928b5a3e5dda603CAS |

D’Souza DN, Pethick DW, Dunshea FR, Suster D, Pluske JR, Mullan BP (2004) The pattern of fat and lean muscle tissue deposition differs in the different pork primal cuts of female pigs during the finisher growth phase. Livestock Production Science 91, 1–8.
The pattern of fat and lean muscle tissue deposition differs in the different pork primal cuts of female pigs during the finisher growth phase.CrossRef |

D’Souza DN, Pethick DW, Dunshea FR, Pluske JR, Mullan BP (2008) Reducing the lysine to energy content in the grower growth phase diet increases intramuscular fat and improves the eating quality of the longissimus thoracis muscle of gilts. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1105–1109.
Reducing the lysine to energy content in the grower growth phase diet increases intramuscular fat and improves the eating quality of the longissimus thoracis muscle of gilts.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXosVyhtbo%3D&md5=72cf0ac804e0fe389858bb021cbdd80aCAS |

D’Souza DN, Trezona Murray M, Dunshea FR, Mullan BP (2012) Enhancing pork product quality and consistency: a pathway approach. In ‘Proceedings of 58th international congress of meat science and technology’, 12–17 August 2012, Montreal, Canada.

Demori AB, Lovatto PA, Andretta I, Kipper M, Lehnen CR, Remus A (2012) Intensive pig production in confinement or outdoor systems: a meta-analytical study of the production performance in the growing and finishing phases and carcass and meat evaluation from the Longissimus dorsi. Ciência Rural 42, 1294–1299.
Intensive pig production in confinement or outdoor systems: a meta-analytical study of the production performance in the growing and finishing phases and carcass and meat evaluation from the Longissimus dorsi.CrossRef |

Dunshea FR, Colantoni C, Howard K, McCauley I, Jackson P, Long KA, Lopaticki S, Nugent EA, Simons JA, Walker J, Hennessy DP (2001) Vaccination of boars with a GnRH vaccine (Improvac) eliminates boar taint and increases growth performance. Journal of Animal Science 79, 2524–2535.
Vaccination of boars with a GnRH vaccine (Improvac) eliminates boar taint and increases growth performance.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXosVKis7k%3D&md5=249c7651dac86191f6eff04270325ee9CAS |

Dunshea FR, D’Souza DN, Pethick DW, Harper GS, Warner RD (2005) Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat. Meat Science 71, 8–38.
Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmt1Wiu7g%3D&md5=8a9690bf1f5c7fd8f862916dc95d0fc3CAS |

Eldridge GA, Maynard P, Warner RD, Pengelly A, Knowles HM (1995) Evaluation of pork quality defects. In ‘Manipulating pig production’. (Eds DP Hennessy, PD Cranwell) p. 256. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Font i Furnols M, Gispert M, Guerrero L, Velarde A, Tibau J, Soler J, Hortós M, García-Regueiro JA, Pérez J, Suárez P, Oliver MA (2008) Consumers’ sensory acceptability of pork from immunocastrated male pigs. Meat Science 80, 1013–1018.
Consumers’ sensory acceptability of pork from immunocastrated male pigs.CrossRef |

Font i Furnols M, González J, Gispert M, Oliver MA, Hortós M, Pérez J, Suárez P, Guerrero L (2009) Sensory characterization of meat from pigs vaccinated against gonadotropin releasing factor compared to meat from surgically castrated, entire male and female pigs. Meat Science 83, 438–442.
Sensory characterization of meat from pigs vaccinated against gonadotropin releasing factor compared to meat from surgically castrated, entire male and female pigs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtV2rt7rF&md5=d76c28508b7301afe44f8756f75e46faCAS |

Gispert M, Àngels Oliver M, Velarde A, Suarez P, Pérez J, Font i Furnols M (2010) Carcass and meat quality characteristics of immunocastrated male, surgically castrated male, entire male and female pigs. Meat Science 85, 664–670.
Carcass and meat quality characteristics of immunocastrated male, surgically castrated male, entire male and female pigs.CrossRef |

Ha M, Dunshea FR, Warner RD (2017) Investigation of tenderness and water holding capacity of aged pork loin in two packaging systems. 3A-118. Final report prepared for the Co-operative Research Centre for High Integrity Australian Pork, Roseworthy, South Australia.

Hemsworth PH, Barnett JL, Hofmeyr CD, Coleman GJ, Dowling S, Boyce J (2002) The effects of fear of humans and pre-slaughter handling on the meat quality of pigs. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53, 493–501.
The effects of fear of humans and pre-slaughter handling on the meat quality of pigs.CrossRef |

Hennessy DP, Wan SS (1993) Boar odour: is it a problem for Australian consumers? In ‘Manipulating pig production, IV’. (Ed. ES Batterham) pp. 155–161. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Hennessy DP, Dunshea FR, Jackson P, Long K, Lopaticki S, McCauley I, Sali L, Simons J, Walker J (1997) Boar taint in Australian and New Zealand pigs. In ‘Manipulating pig production. VI’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) p. 144. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Huff-Lonergan E, Baas TJ, Malek M, Dekkers JC, Prusa K, Rothschild MF (2002) Correlations among selected pork quality traits. Journal of Animal Science 80, 617–627.
Correlations among selected pork quality traits.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XmvV2isr0%3D&md5=e633d9cafa05d88a87e2a792c1198f06CAS |

Jin S, Cottrell JJ, Padayachee A, Channon HA, Warner RD, Dunshea FR (2016) Sous-vide cooking and aging can reduce the shear force and hardness of pork. Abstract 25. In ‘Advances in pork production. Vol. 27’, 12–14 January 2016, Banff, Canada.

Jose CG, Trezona Murray M, Mullan BP, McNaughton K, D’Souza DN (2013) Determining the variability in eating quality of Australian fresh pork. 3B-101. Final report prepared for the Co-operative Research Centre for High Integrity Australian Pork, Roseworthy, South Australia.

Kim YHB, Warner RD, Rosenvold K (2014) Influence of high pre-rigor temperature and fast pH fall on muscle proteins and meat quality: a review. Animal Production Science 54, 375–395.
Influence of high pre-rigor temperature and fast pH fall on muscle proteins and meat quality: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXktlektrw%3D&md5=11d32eeee7ac02a58d0eee769c917a12CAS |

Laing, DG (1996) The impact of pork flavour on the consumption of Australian pigmeat (UWS-006). Final Report to Pig Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.

Laing DG, Oram N, Green I, McBride RL, Hennessy DP (1995) Determination of the impact of pork meat flavour on the consumption of Australian pigmeat. Final report to the Pig Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.

Lund MN, Lametsch R, Hviid M, Jensen ON, Skibsted LH (2007) High-oxygen packaging atmosphere influences protein oxidation and tenderness of porcine longissimus dorsi during chilled storage. Meat Science 77, 295–303.
High-oxygen packaging atmosphere influences protein oxidation and tenderness of porcine longissimus dorsi during chilled storage.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXosFKjuro%3D&md5=a27ac858dfb9c68c82fa9c891057237eCAS |

Lyford C, Thompson J, Polkinghorne R, Miller M, Nishimura T, Neath K, Allen P, Belasco E (2010) Is willingness to pay (WTP) for beef quality grades affected by consumer demographics and meat consumption preferences? Australasian Agribusiness Review 20, 1–17.

Martinez-Macipe M, Rodríguez P, Izquierdo M, Gispert M, Manteca X, Mainau E, Hernández FI, Claret A, Guerrero L, Dalmau A (2016) Comparison of meat quality parameters in surgical castrated versus vaccinated against gonadotrophin-releasing factor male and female Iberian pigs reared in free-ranging conditions. Meat Science 111, 116–121.
Comparison of meat quality parameters in surgical castrated versus vaccinated against gonadotrophin-releasing factor male and female Iberian pigs reared in free-ranging conditions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhs1Cqu7fN&md5=41829e7061f9a5ddc38245e475c602eaCAS |

Meisenger DJ (2001) ‘Managing the eating quality of pork: realising benefits along the value chain. In ‘Manipulating pig production. VIII’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) pp. 107–115. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Moore KL, Mullan BP, Dunshea FR (2017) Boar taint, meat quality and fail rate in entire male pigs and male pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor as related to body weight and feeding regime. Meat Science 125, 95–101.
Boar taint, meat quality and fail rate in entire male pigs and male pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor as related to body weight and feeding regime.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XitVajs7jK&md5=efa25b7d9398cd305b7a468d6d8592eaCAS |

Ngapo TM, Gariepy C (2008) Factors affecting the eating quality of pork. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 48, 599–633.
Factors affecting the eating quality of pork.CrossRef |

O’Halloran JH, Warner RD, Leury BJ, D’Souza DN (1995) pH decline and meat quality in red and white muscles of PSE and normal pork carcases. In ‘Manipulating pig production. V’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) p. 252. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Pauly C, Luginbühl W, Ampuero S, Bee G (2012) Expected effects on carcass and pork quality when surgical castration is omitted: results of a meta-analysis study. Meat Science 92, 858–862.
Expected effects on carcass and pork quality when surgical castration is omitted: results of a meta-analysis study.CrossRef |

Peng YL (2015) The effects of packaging of pork cuts on sensory acceptability. Masters of Food Science Thesis, The University of Melbourne.

Pethick DW, Pleasants AB, Gee AM, Hopkins DL, Ross IR (2006) Eating quality of commercial meat cuts from Australian lambs and sheep Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 66, 363–367.

Polkinghorne R, Philpott J, Gee A, Doljanin A, Innes J (2008) Development of a commercial system to apply the Meat Standards Australia grading model to optimise the return on eating quality in a beef supply chain. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1451–1458.
Development of a commercial system to apply the Meat Standards Australia grading model to optimise the return on eating quality in a beef supply chain.CrossRef |

Rosenvold K, Andersen HJ (2003) Factors of significance for pork quality: a review. Meat Science 64, 219–237.
Factors of significance for pork quality: a review.CrossRef |

Salmi B, Trefan L, Bloom-Hansen J, Bidanel JP, Doeschl-Wilson AB, Larzul C (2010) Meta-analysis of the effect of the halothane gene on 6 variables of pig meat quality and on carcass leanness. Journal of Animal Science 88, 2841–2855.
Meta-analysis of the effect of the halothane gene on 6 variables of pig meat quality and on carcass leanness.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtFSktbzJ&md5=9ca4899892919915f7c6dec2cc4be639CAS |

Salmi B, Trefan L, Bünger L, Doeschl-Wilson A, Bidanel JP, Terlouw C, Larzul C (2012) Bayesian meta-analysis of the effect of fasting, transport and lairage times on four attributes of pork meat quality. Meat Science 90, 584–598.
Bayesian meta-analysis of the effect of fasting, transport and lairage times on four attributes of pork meat quality.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC38%2FpvVWqsw%3D%3D&md5=5e173a04ef4ce587dbed63fa28a7cd05CAS |

Saunders A, Cumarasamy S, Hedderley D (1999) Optimisation of cooking procedures for pork. Milestone report 3a: 1 January – 30 June 1999 to the Pig Research and Development Corporation (UNZ 4/1386). Pig Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.

Saunders A, Wilkinson BHP, Hall C (2000) Optimisation of cooking procedures for pork (UNZ 4/1386). Final report to Australian Pork Limited, Canberra.

Taverner MR (2001) Managing the eating quality of pork: conclusions. In ‘Manipulating pig production. VIII’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) p. 116. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Thompson JM, Gee AM, Hopkins DL, Pethick DW, Baud SR, O’Halloran GR (2005) Development of a sensory protocol for testing palatability of sheep meats. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45, 469–476.
Development of a sensory protocol for testing palatability of sheep meats.CrossRef |

Trefan L, Bunger L, Bloom-Hansen J, Rooke JA, Salmi B, Larzul C, Terlouw C, Doeschl-Wilson AB (2011) Meta-analysis of the effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on α-tocopherol concentration and lipid oxidation in pork. Meat Science 87, 305–314.
Meta-analysis of the effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on α-tocopherol concentration and lipid oxidation in pork.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXmsVehsw%3D%3D&md5=756aefcd745abdfc3000ae9d31b12c92CAS |

Trefan L, Doeschl-Wilson A, Rooke JA, Terlouw C, Bünger L (2013) Meta-analysis of effects of gender in combination with carcass weight and breed on pork quality. Journal of Animal Science 91, 1480–1492.
Meta-analysis of effects of gender in combination with carcass weight and breed on pork quality.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXmsFKnu7c%3D&md5=8880fee871eea4a1f736a138492e8e01CAS |

Trezona M, D’Souza DN, Hofmeyr CD (2001) The incidence of pork quality defects in major Western Australian abattoirs. In ‘Manipulating pig production VIII’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) p. 83 (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Verbeke W, De Smet S, Vackier I, Van Oeckel MJ, Warnants N, Van Kenhove P (2005) Role of intrinsic search cues in the formation of consumer preferences and choice for pork chops. Meat Science 69, 343–354.
Role of intrinsic search cues in the formation of consumer preferences and choice for pork chops.CrossRef |

Verbeke W, Perez-Cueto FJA, de Barcellos MD, Krystallis A, Grunert KG (2010) European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork. Meat Science 84, 284–292.
European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork.CrossRef |

Warkup CC (1993) Improving meat quality: the blueprint approach. In ‘Safety and quality of food from animals’. Occasional publication no. 17. (Eds JD Wood, TLJ Lawrence) pp. 63–67. (British Society of Animal Production)

Warner RD (1997a) A symposium: strategies to improve the consistency of pork quality – towards 2010. In ‘Manipulating pig production V’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) p. 81. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Warner RD (1997b) Symposium conclusions. In ‘Manipulating pig production VI’. (Ed. PD Cranwell) pp. 116–117. (Australasian Pig Science Association: Melbourne)

Warner RD, Thompson JM, Polkinghorne R, Gutzke D, Kearney GA (2014) A consumer sensory study of the influence of rigor temperature on eating quality and ageing potential of beef striploin and rump. Animal Production Science 54, 396–406.
A consumer sensory study of the influence of rigor temperature on eating quality and ageing potential of beef striploin and rump.CrossRef |

Watson R, Polkinghorne R, Thompson JM (2008) Development of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) prediction model for beef palatability. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1368–1379.
Development of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) prediction model for beef palatability.CrossRef |

Wilkinson BHP (2002) Optimisation of cooking procedures for enhanced pork. UNZ 4/1386. Final report to Australian Pork Ltd, Canberra.

Wood JD, Jones RCD, Francombe MA, Whelehan OP (1986) The effects of fat thickness and sex on pig meat quality with special reference to the problems associated with overleanness. 2. Laboratory and trained taste panel results. Animal Science 43, 535–544.
The effects of fat thickness and sex on pig meat quality with special reference to the problems associated with overleanness. 2. Laboratory and trained taste panel results.CrossRef |

Wood JD, Enser M, Fisher AV, Nute GR, Sheard PR, Richardson RI, Hughes SI, Whittington FM (2008) Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: a review. Meat Science 78, 343–358.
Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsVCls7s%3D&md5=5087ec4dbce501875a943f79ddaa74f8CAS |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation