Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
REVIEW

Starch and protein digestive dynamics in low-protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids

S. Y. Liu A B and P. H. Selle A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Poultry Research Foundation, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, 425 Werombi Road, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: sonia.liu@sydney.edu.au

Animal Production Science 57(11) 2250-2256 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN17296
Submitted: 8 May 2017  Accepted: 22 June 2017   Published: 6 July 2017

Abstract

Digestive dynamics of starch and protein is defined as digestion of starch and protein, absorption of glucose and amino acids from the gut lumen and their transition across enterocytes to enter the portal circulation. Digestive dynamics consider the extent, rate and site of nutrient digestion along the small intestine and the bilateral, post-enteral bioavailability of glucose and amino acids. The underlying premise is that glucose and amino acids should be made available in appropriately balanced quantities at the sites of protein synthesis for efficient protein deposition and growth performance. Previous studies have suggested that feed conversion efficiency may be enhanced by rapidly digestible protein and that crystalline amino acids could be considered sources of ‘rapid protein’. At present, crystalline lysine, methionine and threonine are routinely included in broiler diets; moreover, an increasing array of both essential and non-essential crystalline amino acids is becoming commercially available. Despite unrestricted feed access in commercial chicken-meat production systems during the period of illumination, it appears that the intermittent feed consumption patterns of broiler chickens still provide scope for asynchronies in digestion and absorption of nutrients, which affects broiler performance. A better understanding of the post-enteral, bilateral bioavailability of glucose and amino acids in low-protein diets containing high levels of synthetic amino acids is clearly desirable and this applies equally to the relationship between crystalline and protein-bound amino acids.

Additional keywords: availability, balance, broiler chickens, energy, synchrony.


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