Australian Journal of Botany Australian Journal of Botany Society
Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
RESEARCH ARTICLE

New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide

N. Pérez-Harguindeguy A Y , S. Díaz A , E. Garnier B , S. Lavorel C , H. Poorter D , P. Jaureguiberry A , M. S. Bret-Harte E , W. K. Cornwell F , J. M. Craine G , D. E. Gurvich A , C. Urcelay A , E. J. Veneklaas H , P. B. Reich I , L. Poorter J , I. J. Wright K , P. Ray L , L. Enrico A , J. G. Pausas M , A. C. de Vos F , N. Buchmann N , G. Funes A , F. Quétier A C , J. G. Hodgson O , K. Thompson P , H. D. Morgan Q , H. ter Steege R , M. G. A. van der Heijden S , L. Sack T , B. Blonder U , P. Poschlod V , M. V. Vaieretti A , G. Conti A , A. C. Staver W , S. Aquino X and J. H. C. Cornelissen F
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET-UNC) and FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, CC 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina.

B CNRS, Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (UMR 5175), 1919, Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

C Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR 5553 du CNRS, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

D Plant Sciences (IBG2), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich, Germany.

E Institute of Arctic Biology, 311 Irving I, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7000, USA.

F Systems Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Department of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

G Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhtattan, KS 66506, USA.

H Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

I Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, 1530 N Cleveland Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA and Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.

J Centre for Ecosystems, Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

K Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

L Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

M Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación (CIDE-CSIC), IVIA Campus, Carretera Nàquera km 4.5, 46113 Montcada, Valencia, Spain.

N Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 2, LFW C56, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

O Peak Science and Environment, Station House, Leadmill, Hathersage, Hope Valley S32 1BA, UK.

P Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

Q NSW Department of Primary Industries, Forest Resources Research Beecroft, NSW 2119, Australia.

R Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, and Institute of Environmental Biology, Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

S Ecological Farming Systems, Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon, Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich, Switzerland and Plant-Microbe Interactions, Institute of Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

T Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, 621 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA.

U Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

V Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology and Preclinical Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93040, Regensburg, Germany.

W Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

X Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, CATIE 7170, Cartago, Turrialba 30501, Costa Rica.

Y Corresponding author. Email: nperez@com.uncor.edu

Australian Journal of Botany 61(3) 167-234 https://doi.org/10.1071/BT12225
Submitted: 23 November 2011  Accepted: 29 January 2013   Published: 26 April 2013

Abstract

Plant functional traits are the features (morphological, physiological, phenological) that represent ecological strategies and determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels and influence ecosystem properties. Variation in plant functional traits, and trait syndromes, has proven useful for tackling many important ecological questions at a range of scales, giving rise to a demand for standardised ways to measure ecologically meaningful plant traits. This line of research has been among the most fruitful avenues for understanding ecological and evolutionary patterns and processes. It also has the potential both to build a predictive set of local, regional and global relationships between plants and environment and to quantify a wide range of natural and human-driven processes, including changes in biodiversity, the impacts of species invasions, alterations in biogeochemical processes and vegetation–atmosphere interactions. The importance of these topics dictates the urgent need for more and better data, and increases the value of standardised protocols for quantifying trait variation of different species, in particular for traits with power to predict plant- and ecosystem-level processes, and for traits that can be measured relatively easily. Updated and expanded from the widely used previous version, this handbook retains the focus on clearly presented, widely applicable, step-by-step recipes, with a minimum of text on theory, and not only includes updated methods for the traits previously covered, but also introduces many new protocols for further traits. This new handbook has a better balance between whole-plant traits, leaf traits, root and stem traits and regenerative traits, and puts particular emphasis on traits important for predicting species’ effects on key ecosystem properties. We hope this new handbook becomes a standard companion in local and global efforts to learn about the responses and impacts of different plant species with respect to environmental changes in the present, past and future.

Additional keywords: biodiversity, ecophysiology, ecosystem dynamics, ecosystem functions, environmental change, plant morphology.


References

Ackerly DD (2004) Functional strategies of chaparral shrubs in relation to seasonal water deficit. Ecological Monographs 74, 25–44.
Functional strategies of chaparral shrubs in relation to seasonal water deficit.CrossRef |

Ackerly DD, Knight CA, Weiss SB, Barton K, Starmer KP (2002) Leaf size, specific leaf area and microhabitat distribution of chaparral woody plants: contrasting patterns in species level and community level analyses. Oecologia 130, 449–457.
Leaf size, specific leaf area and microhabitat distribution of chaparral woody plants: contrasting patterns in species level and community level analyses.CrossRef |

Adair EC, Parton WJ, Del Grosso SJ, Silver WL, Harmon ME, Hall SA, Burke IC, Hart SC (2008) Simple three-pool model accurately describes patterns of long-term litter decomposition in diverse climates. Global Change Biology 14, 2636–2660.

Addington RN, Donovan LA, Mitchell RJ, Vose JM, Pecot SD, Jack SB, Hacke UG, Sperry JS, Oren R (2006) Adjustments in hydraulic architecture of Pinus palustris maintain similar stomatal conductance in xeric and mesic habitats. Plant, Cell & Environment 29, 535–545.
Adjustments in hydraulic architecture of Pinus palustris maintain similar stomatal conductance in xeric and mesic habitats.CrossRef |

Adiku SGK, Rose CW, Braddock RD, Ozier-Lafontaine H (2000) On the simulation of root water extraction: examination of a minimum energy hypothesis. Soil Science 165, 226–236.
On the simulation of root water extraction: examination of a minimum energy hypothesis.CrossRef |

Aerts R (1995) The advantages of being evergreen. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 10, 402–407.
The advantages of being evergreen.CrossRef |

Aerts R (1996) Nutrient resorption from senescing leaves of perennials are there general patterns? Journal of Ecology 84, 597–608.
Nutrient resorption from senescing leaves of perennials are there general patterns?CrossRef |

Aerts R, Chapin S (1999) The mineral nitrition of wild plants revisited: a re-evaluation of processes and patterns. Advances in Ecological Research 30, 1–67.
The mineral nitrition of wild plants revisited: a re-evaluation of processes and patterns.CrossRef |

Aerts R, Boot RGA, Van der Aart PJM (1991) The relation between above- and belowground biomass allocation patterns and competitive ability. Oecologia 87, 551–559.
The relation between above- and belowground biomass allocation patterns and competitive ability.CrossRef |

Agrawal AA, Fishbein M (2006) Plant defense syndromes. Ecology 87, S132–S149.
Plant defense syndromes.CrossRef | 16922309PubMed |

Albert CH, Thuiller W, Yoccoz NG, Douzet R, Aubert S, Lavorel S (2010) A multi-trait approach reveals the structure and the relative importance of intra- vs. interspecific variability in plant traits. Functional Ecology 24, 1192–1201.
A multi-trait approach reveals the structure and the relative importance of intra- vs. interspecific variability in plant traits.CrossRef |

Albert CH, De Bello F, Boulangeat I, Pellet G, Lavorel S, Thuiller W (2012) On the importance of intraspecific variability for the quantification of functional diversity. Oikos 121, 116–126.
On the importance of intraspecific variability for the quantification of functional diversity.CrossRef |

Alder NN, Sperry JS, Pockman WT (1996) Root and stem xylem embolism, stomatal conductance, and leaf turgor in Acer grandidentatum populations along a soil moisture gradient Oecologia 105, 293–301.
Root and stem xylem embolism, stomatal conductance, and leaf turgor in Acer grandidentatum populations along a soil moisture gradientCrossRef |

Alder NN, Pockman WT, Nuismer S (1997) Use of centrifugal force in the study of xylem cavitation. Journal of Experimental Botany 48, 665–674.
Use of centrifugal force in the study of xylem cavitation.CrossRef |

Allen SE (1989) ‘Chemical analysis of ecological material.’ 2nd edn. (Blackwell: Oxford, UK)

Anderson JM, Ingram JSI (1993) ‘Tropical soil biology and fertility: a handbook of methods.’ 2nd edn. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

Ansquer P, Duru M, Theau J-P, Cruz P (2009) Convergence in plant traits between species within grassland communities simplifies their monitoring. Ecological Indicators 9, 1020–1029.
Convergence in plant traits between species within grassland communities simplifies their monitoring.CrossRef |

Anten NPR, Schieving F (2010) The role of wood mass density and mechanical constraints in the economy of tree architecture. American Naturalist 175, 250–260.
The role of wood mass density and mechanical constraints in the economy of tree architecture.CrossRef |

Aranwela N, Sanson G, Read J (1999) Methods of assessing leaf-fracture properties. New Phytologist 144, 369–383.
Methods of assessing leaf-fracture properties.CrossRef |

Archibald S, Bond WJ (2003) Growing tall vs growing wide: tree architecture and allometry of Acacia karroo in forest, savanna, and arid environments. Oikos 102, 3–14.
Growing tall vs growing wide: tree architecture and allometry of Acacia karroo in forest, savanna, and arid environments.CrossRef |

Arneth A, Harrison SP, Zaehle S, Tsigaridis K, Menon S, Bartlein PJ, Feichter J, Korhola A, Kulmala M, O’Donnell D, Schurgers G, Sorvari S, Vesala T (2010) Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system. Nature Geoscience 3, 525–532.
Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system.CrossRef |

Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Science 166, 3–16.
Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants.CrossRef |

Aston AR (1979) Rainfall interception by eight small trees. Journal of Hydrology 42, 383–396.
Rainfall interception by eight small trees.CrossRef |

Atkin OK, Bruhn D, Hurry VM, Tjoelker MG (2005) The hot and the cold: unravelling the variable response of plant respiration to temperature. Functional Plant Biology 32, 87–105.
The hot and the cold: unravelling the variable response of plant respiration to temperature.CrossRef |

Austin AT, Vivanco L (2006) Plant litter decomposition in a semi-arid ecosystem controlled by photodegradation. Nature 442, 555–558.
Plant litter decomposition in a semi-arid ecosystem controlled by photodegradation.CrossRef | 16885982PubMed |

Bakker JP, Poschlod P, Strykstra RJ, Bekker RM, Thompson K (1996) Seed banks and seed dispersal: important topics in restoration ecology. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 45, 461–490.

Baraloto C, Paine CET, Poorter L, Beauchene J, Bonal D, Domenach A-M, Hérault B, Patiño S, Roggy J-C, Chave J (2010a) Decoupled leaf and stem economics in rain forest trees. Ecology Letters 13, 1338–1347.
Decoupled leaf and stem economics in rain forest trees.CrossRef | 20807232PubMed |

Baraloto C, Paine CET, Patiño S, Bonal D, Hérault B, Chave J (2010b) Functional trait variation and sampling strategies in species-rich plant communities. Functional Ecology 24, 208–216.
Functional trait variation and sampling strategies in species-rich plant communities.CrossRef |

Barkman J (1988) New systems of plant growth forms and phenological plant types. In ‘Plant form and vegetation structure’. (Eds MJA Werger, PJM Van der Aart, HJ During, JTA Verhoeven) pp. 9–44 (SPB Academic Publishers: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Bartlett M, Scoffoni C, Sack L (2012) The determinants of leaf turgor loss point and prediction of drought tolerance of species and biomes: a global meta-analysis. Ecology Letters 15, 393–405.
The determinants of leaf turgor loss point and prediction of drought tolerance of species and biomes: a global meta-analysis.CrossRef | 22435987PubMed |

Belea A, Kiss AS, Galbacs Z (1998) New methods for determination of C-3, C-4 and CAM-type plants. Cereal Research Communications 26, 413–418.

Bellingham PJ, Sparrow AD (2000) Resprouting as a life history strategy in woody plant communities. Oikos 89, 409–416.
Resprouting as a life history strategy in woody plant communities.CrossRef |

Berg B, Laskowski R (2005) Litter decomposition: a guide to carbon and nutrient turnover. Advances in Ecological Research 38, 1–17.
Litter decomposition: a guide to carbon and nutrient turnover.CrossRef |

Bhaskar R, Ackerly DD (2006) Ecological relevance of minimum seasonal water potentials. Physiologia Plantarum 127, 353–359.
Ecological relevance of minimum seasonal water potentials.CrossRef |

Blonder B, Buzzard V, Simova I, Sloat L, Boyle B, Lipson R, Aguilar-Beaucage B, Andrade A, Barber B, Barnes C, Bushey D, Cartagena P, Chaney M, Contreras K, Cox M, Cueto M, Curtis C, Fisher M, Furst L, Gellagos J, Hall R, Hauschild A, Jerez A, Jones N, Klucas A, Kono A, Lamb M, Ruiz Matthai JD, McIntyre C, McKenna J, Mosier N, Navabi M, Ochoa A, Pace L, Plassmann R, Richter R, Russakoff B, Aubyn HS, Stagg R, Sterner M, Stewart E, Thompson TT, Thornton J, Trujillo PJ, Volpe TJ, Enquist BJ (2012) The leaf area shrinkage effect can bias paleoclimate and ecology research. American Journal of Botany 99, 1756–1763.
The leaf area shrinkage effect can bias paleoclimate and ecology research.CrossRef | 23132615PubMed |

Blum A (1988) ‘Plant breeding for stress environments.’ (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Böhm W (1979) ‘Methods of studying root systems. Ecological studies 33.’ (Springer: Berlin)

Bond WJ, Midgley JJ (1995) Kill thy neighbour: an individualistic argument for the evolution of flammability. Oikos 73, 79–85.
Kill thy neighbour: an individualistic argument for the evolution of flammability.CrossRef |

Bond WJ, Midgley JJ (2001) Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16, 45–51.
Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche.CrossRef |

Bond WJ, Van Wilgen BW (1996) ‘Fire and plants.’ (Chapman and Hall: London)

Bouma TJ, Nielsen KL, Koutstaal B (2000) Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter. Plant and Soil 218, 185–196.
Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter.CrossRef |

Box EO (1996) Plant functional types and climate at the global scale. Journal of Vegetation Science 7, 309–320.
Plant functional types and climate at the global scale.CrossRef |

Boyce CK, Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Zwieniecki MA (2009) Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 276, 1771–1776.
Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative.CrossRef |

Brando PM, Nepstad DC, Balch JK, Bolker B, Christman MC, Coe M, Putz FE (2012) Fire-induced tree mortality in a neotropical forest: the roles of bark traits, tree size, wood density and fire behavior. Global Change Biology 18, 630–641.
Fire-induced tree mortality in a neotropical forest: the roles of bark traits, tree size, wood density and fire behavior.CrossRef |

Breckle SW (2002) Salinity, halophytes and salt affected natural ecosystems. In ‘Salinity: environment–plants–molecules’. (Eds A Läuchli, U Lüttge) pp. 53–77 (Kluwer Academic Publishers: London)

Brewer CA, Núñez CI (2007) Patterns of leaf wettability along extreme moisture gradient in western Patagonia, Argentina. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168, 555–562.
Patterns of leaf wettability along extreme moisture gradient in western Patagonia, Argentina.CrossRef |

Brewer CA, Smith WK, Vogelmann TC (1991) Functional interaction between leaf trichomes, leaf wettability and the optical properties of water droplets. Plant, Cell & Environment 14, 955–962.
Functional interaction between leaf trichomes, leaf wettability and the optical properties of water droplets.CrossRef |

Brodribb TJ, Feild TS (2010) Leaf hydraulic evolution led a surge in leaf photosynthetic capacity during early angiosperm diversification. Ecology Letters 13, 175–183.
Leaf hydraulic evolution led a surge in leaf photosynthetic capacity during early angiosperm diversification.CrossRef | 19968696PubMed |

Brodribb TJ, Hill RS (2000) Increases in water potential gradient reduce xylem conductivity in whole plants. Evidence from a low-pressure conductivity method. Plant Physiology 123, 1021–1028.
Increases in water potential gradient reduce xylem conductivity in whole plants. Evidence from a low-pressure conductivity method.CrossRef | 10889251PubMed |

Brodribb TJ, Holbrook NM, Edwards EJ, Gutiérrez MV (2003) Relations between stomatal closure, leaf turgor and xylem vulnerability in eight tropical dry forest trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 26, 443–450.
Relations between stomatal closure, leaf turgor and xylem vulnerability in eight tropical dry forest trees.CrossRef |

Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Jordan GJ (2007) Leaf maximum photosynthetic rate and venation are linked by hydraulics. Plant Physiology 144, 1890–1898.
Leaf maximum photosynthetic rate and venation are linked by hydraulics.CrossRef | 17556506PubMed |

Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Sack L (2010) Viewing leaf structure and evolution from a hydraulic perspective. Functional Plant Biology 37, 488–498.
Viewing leaf structure and evolution from a hydraulic perspective.CrossRef |

Brown S (1997) ‘Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests. A primer.’ FAO Forestry Paper 134 (FAO: Rome)

Brussaard L, Caron P, Campbell B, Lipper L, Mainka S, Rabbinge R, Babin D, Pulleman M (2010) Reconciling biodiversity conservation and food security: scientific challenges for a new agriculture. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2, 34–42.
Reconciling biodiversity conservation and food security: scientific challenges for a new agriculture.CrossRef |

Bruun HH, Poschlod P (2006) Why are small seeds dispersed through animal guts: large numbers or seed size per se? Oikos 113, 402–411.
Why are small seeds dispersed through animal guts: large numbers or seed size per se?CrossRef |

Bucci SJ, Goldstein G, Meinzer FC, Scholz FG, Franco AC, Bustamante M (2004) Functional convergence in hydraulic architecture and water relations of tropical savanna trees: from leaf to whole plant. Tree Physiology 24, 891–899.
Functional convergence in hydraulic architecture and water relations of tropical savanna trees: from leaf to whole plant.CrossRef | 15172839PubMed |

Buckley TN, Roberts DW (2006) How should leaf area, sapwood area and stomatal conductance vary with tree height to maximize growth? Tree Physiology 26, 145–157.
How should leaf area, sapwood area and stomatal conductance vary with tree height to maximize growth?CrossRef | 16356911PubMed |

Burd M (2007) Adaptive function of drip tips: a test of the epiphyll hypothesis in Psychotria marginata and Faramea occidentalis (Rubiaceae). Journal of Tropical Ecology 23, 449–455.
Adaptive function of drip tips: a test of the epiphyll hypothesis in Psychotria marginata and Faramea occidentalis (Rubiaceae).CrossRef |

Burrows GE (2002) Epicormic strand structure in Angophora, Eucalyptus and Lophostemon (Myrtaceae) – implications for fire resistance and recovery. New Phytologist 153, 111–131.
Epicormic strand structure in Angophora, Eucalyptus and Lophostemon (Myrtaceae) – implications for fire resistance and recovery.CrossRef |

Cadisch G, Giller KE (1997) ‘Driven by Nature. Plant litter quality and decomposition.’ (CAB International: London)

Cain SA (1950) Life-forms and phytoclimate. Botanical Review 16, 1–32.
Life-forms and phytoclimate.CrossRef |

Caldwell MM, Virginia RA (1989) Root systems. In ‘Plant physiogical ecology: field methods and instrumentation’. (Ed. RW Pearcy) pp. 367–398 (Chapman and Hall: London)

Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Gonzalez A, Hooper DU, Perrings C, Venail P, Narwani A, Mace GM, Tilman D, Wardle DA, Kinzig AP, Daily GC, Loreau M, Grace JB, Larigauderie A, Srivastava DS, Naeem S (2012) Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486, 59–67.
Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity.CrossRef | 22678280PubMed |

Casanoves F, Pla L, Di Rienzo JA, Díaz S (2011) FDiversity: a software package for the integrated analysis of functional diversity. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2, 233–237.
FDiversity: a software package for the integrated analysis of functional diversity.CrossRef |

Castro-Díez P, Puyravaud JP, Cornelissen JHC (2000) Leaf structure and anatomy as related to leaf mass per area variation in seedlings of a wide range of woody plant species and types. Oecologia 124, 476–486.
Leaf structure and anatomy as related to leaf mass per area variation in seedlings of a wide range of woody plant species and types.CrossRef |

Causton DR, Venus JC (1981) ‘The biometry of plant growth.’ (Edward Arnold: London)

Cavender-Bares J, Kitajima K, Bazzaz FA (2004) Multiple trait associations in relation to habitat differentiation among 17 floridian oak species. Ecological Monographs 74, 635–662.
Multiple trait associations in relation to habitat differentiation among 17 floridian oak species.CrossRef |

Cavender-Bares J, Kozak KH, Fine PVA, Kembel SW (2009) The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology. Ecology Letters 12, 693–715.
The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology.CrossRef | 19473217PubMed |

Cernusak LA, Tcherkez G, Keitel C, Cornwell WK, Santiago LS, Knohl A, Barbour MM, Williams DG, Reich PB, Ellsworth DS, Dawson TE, Griffiths HG, Farquhar GD, Wright IJ (2009) Why are non-photosynthetic tissues generally 13C enriched compared with leaves in C3 plants? Review and synthesis of current hypotheses. Functional Plant Biology 36, 199–213.
Why are non-photosynthetic tissues generally 13C enriched compared with leaves in C3 plants? Review and synthesis of current hypotheses.CrossRef |

Chabot BF, Hicks DJ (1982) The ecology of leaf life span. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13, 229–259.
The ecology of leaf life span.CrossRef |

Chapin FS (1980) The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, 233–260.
The mineral nutrition of wild plants.CrossRef |

Chapin FS, Autumn K, Pugnaire F (1993) Evolution of suites of traits in response to environmental stress. American Naturalist 142, S78–S92.
Evolution of suites of traits in response to environmental stress.CrossRef |

Chapin FS, Zaveleta ES, Eviner VT, Naylor RL, Vitousek PM, Lavorel S, Reynolds HL, Hooper DU, Sala OE, Hobbie SE, Mack MC, Diaz S (2000) Consequences of changing biotic diversity. Nature 405, 234–242.
Consequences of changing biotic diversity.CrossRef | 10821284PubMed |

Chapin FS, Trainor SF, Huntington O, Lovecraft AL, Zavaleta E, Natcher DC, McGuire D, Nelson JL, Ray L, Calef M, Fresco N, Huntington H, Rupp TS, DeWilde L, Naylor RL (2008) Increasing wildfire in Alaska’s boreal forest: pathways to potential solutions of a wicked problem. Bioscience 58, 531–540.
Increasing wildfire in Alaska’s boreal forest: pathways to potential solutions of a wicked problem.CrossRef |

Chave J, Andalo C, Brown S, Cairns MA, Chambers JQ, Eamus D, Fölster H, Fromard F, Higuchi N, Kira T, Lescure J-P, Nelson BW, Ogawa H, Puig H, Riéra B, Yamakura T (2005) Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia 145, 87–99.
Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests.CrossRef | 15971085PubMed |

Chave J, Coomes DA, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12, 351–366.
Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum.CrossRef | 19243406PubMed |

Chen N, Black TA (1992) Defining leaf area index for non-flat leaves. Plant, Cell & Environment 15, 421–429.
Defining leaf area index for non-flat leaves.CrossRef |

Cherubini P, Gartner BL, Tognetti R, Bräker OU, Schoch W, Innes JL (2003) Identification, measurement and interpretation of tree rings in woody species from mediterranean climates. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 78, 119–148.
Identification, measurement and interpretation of tree rings in woody species from mediterranean climates.CrossRef | 12620063PubMed |

Chiba Y (1991) Plant form based on the pipe model theory II. Quantitative analysis of ramification in morphology. Ecological Research 6, 21–28.
Plant form based on the pipe model theory II. Quantitative analysis of ramification in morphology.CrossRef |

Choat B, Sack L, Holbrook NM (2007) Diversity of hydraulic traits in nine Cordia species growing in tropical forests with contrasting precipitation. New Phytologist 175, 686–698.
Diversity of hydraulic traits in nine Cordia species growing in tropical forests with contrasting precipitation.CrossRef | 17688584PubMed |

Choong MF, Lucas PW, Ong JSY, Pereira B, Tan HTW, Turner IM (1992) Leaf fracture toughness and sclerophylly: their correlations and ecological implications. New Phytologist 121, 597–610.
Leaf fracture toughness and sclerophylly: their correlations and ecological implications.CrossRef |

Clements ES (1905) The relation of leaf structure to physical factors. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 26, 19–102.
The relation of leaf structure to physical factors.CrossRef |

Cochard H, Cruizat P, Tyree MT (1992) Use of positive pressures to establish vulnerability curves. Plant Physiology 100, 205–209.
Use of positive pressures to establish vulnerability curves.CrossRef | 16652947PubMed |

Coley PD (1987) Patrones en las defensas de las plantas: ¿por qué los herbívoros prefieren ciertas especies? Revista de Biologia Tropical 35, 151–164.

Coley PD (1988) Effects of plant growth rate and leaf lifetime on the amount and type of anti-herbivore defense. Oecologia 74, 531–536.
Effects of plant growth rate and leaf lifetime on the amount and type of anti-herbivore defense.CrossRef |

Cooper SM, Ginnett TF (1998) Spines protect plants against browsing by small climbing mammals. Oecologia 113, 219–221.
Spines protect plants against browsing by small climbing mammals.CrossRef |

Cooper DJ, D’Amico DR, Scott ML (2003) Physiological and morphological response patterns of Populus deltoides to alluvial groundwater pumping. Environmental Management 31, 215–226.
Physiological and morphological response patterns of Populus deltoides to alluvial groundwater pumping.CrossRef | 12520377PubMed |

Cornelissen JHC (1996) An experimental comparison of leaf decomposition rates in a wide range of temperate plant species and types. Journal of Ecology 84, 573–582.
An experimental comparison of leaf decomposition rates in a wide range of temperate plant species and types.CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC (1999) A triangular relationship between leaf size and seed size among woody species: allometry, ontogeny, ecology and taxonomy. Oecologia 118, 248–255.
A triangular relationship between leaf size and seed size among woody species: allometry, ontogeny, ecology and taxonomy.CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC, Castro-Díez P, Hunt R (1996) Seedling growth, allocation and leaf attributes in a wide range of woody plant species and types. Journal of Ecology 84, 755–765.
Seedling growth, allocation and leaf attributes in a wide range of woody plant species and types.CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC, Werger MJA, Castro-Díez P, Van Rheenen JWA, Rowland AP (1997) Foliar nutrients in relation to growth, allocation and leaf traits in seedlings of a wide range of woody plant species and types. Oecologia 111, 460–469.
Foliar nutrients in relation to growth, allocation and leaf traits in seedlings of a wide range of woody plant species and types.CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC, Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Díaz S, Grime JP, Marzano B, Cabido M, Vendramini F, Cerabolini B (1999) Leaf structure and defence control litter decomposition rate across species and life forms in regional floras on two continents. New Phytologist 143, 191–200.
Leaf structure and defence control litter decomposition rate across species and life forms in regional floras on two continents.CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Díaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE, Reich PB, ter Steege H, Morgan HD, van der Heijden MGA, Pausas JG, Poorter H (2003) A handbook of protocols for standarised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51, 335–380.
A handbook of protocols for standarised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide.CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC, Quested H, Van Logtestijn RSP, Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Gwynn-Jones D, Díaz S, Callaghan TV, Press MC, Aerts R (2006) Foliar pH as a new plant trait: can it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among Subarctic plant species and types? Oecologia 147, 315–326.
Foliar pH as a new plant trait: can it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among Subarctic plant species and types?CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC, Van Bodegom PM, Aerts R, Callaghan TV, Van Logtestijn RSP, Alatalo J, Stuart Chapin F, Gerdol R, Gudmundsson J, Gwynn-Jones D, Hartley AE, Hik DS, Hofgaard A, Jónsdóttir IS, Karlsson S, Klein JA, Laundre J, Magnusson B, Michelsen A, Molau U, Onipchenko VG, Quested HM, Sandvik SM, Schmidt IK, Shaver GR, Solheim B, Soudzilovskaia NA, Stenström A, Tolvanen A, Totland Ø, Wada N, Welker JM, Zhao X, MOL Team (2007) Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes. Ecology Letters 10, 619–627.
Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes.CrossRef |

Cornelissen JHC, Sibma F, Van Logtestijn RSP, Broekman R, Thompson K (2011) Leaf pH as a plant trait: species-driven rather than soil-driven variation. Functional Ecology 25, 449–455.
Leaf pH as a plant trait: species-driven rather than soil-driven variation.CrossRef |

Cornwell WK, Bhaskar R, Sack L, Cordell S, Lunch CK (2007) Adjustment of structure and function of Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha at high vs. low precipitation. Functional Ecology 21, 1063–1071.
Adjustment of structure and function of Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha at high vs. low precipitation.CrossRef |

Cornwell WK, Cornelissen JHC, Amatangelo K, Dorrepaal E, Eviner VT, Godoy O, Hobbie SE, Hoorens B, Kurokawa H, Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Quested HM, Santiago LS, Wardle DA, Wright IJ, Aerts R, Allison SD, Van Bodegom P, Brovkin V, Chatain A, Callaghan TV, Díaz S, Garnier E, Gurvich DE, Kazakou E, Klein JA, Read J, Reich PB, Soudzilovskaia NA, Vaieretti MV, Westoby M (2008) Plant species traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide. Ecology Letters 11, 1065–1071.
Plant species traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide.CrossRef | 18627410PubMed |

Cornwell WK, Cornelissen JHC, Allison SD, Bauhus J, Eggleton P, Preston CM, Scarff F, Weedon JT, Wirth C, Zanne AE (2009) Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed? Global Change Biology 15, 2431–2449.
Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed?CrossRef |

Cousens RD, Hill J, French K, Bishop ID (2010) Towards better prediction of seed dispersal by animals: conceptual frameworks and process-based models. Functional Ecology 24, 1163–1170.
Towards better prediction of seed dispersal by animals: conceptual frameworks and process-based models.CrossRef |

Craine JM (2009) ‘Resource strategies of wild plants.’ (Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ)

Craine JM, Berin DM, Reich PB, Tilman D, Knops J (1999) Measurement of leaf longevity of 14 species of grasses and forbs using a novel approach. New Phytologist 142, 475–481.
Measurement of leaf longevity of 14 species of grasses and forbs using a novel approach.CrossRef |

Craine JM, Tilman DG, Wedin DA, Chapin S (2001) The relationships among root and leaf traits of 76 grassland species and relative abundance along fertility and disturbance gradients. Oikos 93, 274–285.
The relationships among root and leaf traits of 76 grassland species and relative abundance along fertility and disturbance gradients.CrossRef |

Cramer W (1997) Using plant functional types in a global vegetation model. In ‘Plant functional types’. (Eds TM Smith, HH. Shugart, FI Woodward) pp. 271–288 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Cramer W, Bondeau A, Woodward FI, Prentice IC, Betts RA, Brovkin V, Cox PM, Fisher V, Foley JA, Friend AD, Kucharik C, Lomas MR, Ramankutty N, Sitch S, Smith B, White A, Young-Molling C (2001) Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology 7, 357–373.
Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models.CrossRef |

Darvell BW, Lee PKD, Yuen TDB, Lucas PW (1996) A portable fracture toughness tester for biological materials. Measurement Science & Technology 7, 954–962.
A portable fracture toughness tester for biological materials.CrossRef |

David JS, Valente F, Gash JHC (2005) Evaporation of intercepted rainfall. In ‘Encyclopedia of hydrological sciences’. (Ed. MG Anderson) pp. 627–634 (John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, UK)

Davis SD, Ewers FW, Sperry JS, Portwood KA, Crocker MC, Adams GC (2002) Shoot dieback during prolonged drought in Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae) chaparal of California: a possible case of hydraulic failure. American Journal of Botany 89, 820–828.
Shoot dieback during prolonged drought in Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae) chaparal of California: a possible case of hydraulic failure.CrossRef | 21665682PubMed |

De Bello F, Lavorel S, Gerhold P, Reier Ü, Pärtel M (2010) A biodiversity monitoring framework for practical conservation of grasslands and shrublands. Biological Conservation 143, 9–17.
A biodiversity monitoring framework for practical conservation of grasslands and shrublands.CrossRef |

De Bello F, Lavorel S, Albert CH, Thuiller W, Grigulis K, Dolezal J, Janecek S, Lêps J (2011) Quantifying the relevance of intraspecific trait variability for functional diversity. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2, 163–174.
Quantifying the relevance of intraspecific trait variability for functional diversity.CrossRef |

De Kroon H, Van Groenendael JM (1997) ‘The ecology and evolution of clonal plants.’ (Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands)

De Vogel EF (1980) ‘Seedlings of dicotyledons.’ (Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation: Wageningen, The Netherlands)

De Witte LC, Stöcklin J (2010) Longevity of clonal plants: why it matters and how to measure it. Annals of Botany 106, 859–870.
Longevity of clonal plants: why it matters and how to measure it.CrossRef | 20880935PubMed |

Del Tredici P (2001) Sprouting in temperate trees: a morphological and ecological review Botanical Review 67, 121–140.
Sprouting in temperate trees: a morphological and ecological reviewCrossRef |

Díaz S, Hodgson JG, Thompson K, Cabido M, Cornelissen JHC, Jalili A, Montserrat-Martí G, Grime JP, Zarrinkamar F, Asri Y, Band SR, Basconcelo S, Castro-Díez P, Funes G, Hamzehee B, Khoshnevi M, Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Pérez-Rontomé MC, Shirvany FA, Vendramini F, Yazdani S, Abbas-Azimi R, Bogaard A, Boustani S, Charles M, Dehghan M, de Torres-Espuny L, Falczuk V, Guerrero-Campo J, Hynd A, Jones G, Kowsary E, Kazemi-Saeed F, Maestro-Martínez M, Romo-Díez A, Shaw S, Siavash B, Villar-Salvador P, Zak MR (2004) The plant traits that drive ecosystems: evidence from three continents. Journal of Vegetation Science 15, 295–304.

Díaz S, Lavorel S, De Bello F, Quétier F, Grigulis K, Robson MT (2007) Incorporating plant functional diversity effects in ecosystem service assessments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104, 20684–20689.
Incorporating plant functional diversity effects in ecosystem service assessments.CrossRef |

Diefendorf AF, Mueller KE, Wing SL, Koch PL, Freeman KH (2010) Global patterns in leaf 13C discrimination and implications for studies of past and future climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107, 5738–5743.
Global patterns in leaf 13C discrimination and implications for studies of past and future climate.CrossRef |

Diemer M (1998) Life span and dynamics of leaves of herbaceous perennials in high-elevation environments: ‘news from the elephant’s leg’. Functional Ecology 12, 413–425.
Life span and dynamics of leaves of herbaceous perennials in high-elevation environments: ‘news from the elephant’s leg’.CrossRef |

Dilcher DL (1974) Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains. Botanical Review 40, 1–157.
Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains.CrossRef |

Dimitrakopoulos AP, Panov PI (2001) Pyric properties of some dominant Mediterranean vegetation species. International Journal of Wildland Fire 10, 23–27.
Pyric properties of some dominant Mediterranean vegetation species.CrossRef |

Doherty RM, Sitch S, Smith B, Lewis SL, Thornton PK Doherty RM, Sitch S, Smith B, Lewis SL, Thornton PK (2010) Implications of future climate and atmospheric CO2 content for regional biogeochemistry, biogeography and ecosystem services across East Africa. Global Change Biology 16, 617–640.
Implications of future climate and atmospheric CO2 content for regional biogeochemistry, biogeography and ecosystem services across East Africa.CrossRef |

Domingo F, Sánchez G, Moro MJ, Brenner AJ, Puigdefábregas J (1998) Measurement and modelling of rainfall interception by three semi-arid canopies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 91, 275–292.
Measurement and modelling of rainfall interception by three semi-arid canopies.CrossRef |

Dunbabin V, Rengel Z, Diggle AJ (2004) Simulating form and function of root systems: efficiency of nitrate uptake is dependent on root system architecture and the spatial and temporal variability of nitrate supply. Functional Ecology 18, 204–211.
Simulating form and function of root systems: efficiency of nitrate uptake is dependent on root system architecture and the spatial and temporal variability of nitrate supply.CrossRef |

Eamus D, Prior L (2001) Ecophysiology of trees of seasonally dry tropics: comparisons among phenologies. Advances in Ecological Research 32, 113–197.
Ecophysiology of trees of seasonally dry tropics: comparisons among phenologies.CrossRef |

Earnshaw MJ, Carver KA, Gunn TC, Kerenga K, Harvey V, Griffiths H, Broadmeadow MSJ (1990) Photosynthetic pathway, chilling tolerance and cell sap osmotic potential values of grasses along an altitudinal gradient in Papua New Guinea. Oecologia 84, 280–288.

Edwards EJ, Still CJ, Donoghue MJ (2007) The relevance of phylogeny to studies of global change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22, 243–249.
The relevance of phylogeny to studies of global change.CrossRef |

Ehleringer JR (1991) 13C/12C fractionation and its utility in terrestrial plant studies. In ‘Carbon isotopes techniques’. (Eds DC Coleman, B Fry) pp. 187–200 (Academic Press: London)

Ehleringer JR, Osmond CB (2000) Stable isotopes. In ‘Plant physiological ecology: field methods and instrumentation’. (Eds RW Pearcy, J Ehleringer, HA Mooney, PW Rundel) pp. 281–300 (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Ehleringer JR, Cerling TE, Helliker BR (1997) C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Oecologia 112, 285–299.
C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate.CrossRef |

Eissenstat DM, Yanai RD (1997) The ecology of root lifespan. Advances in Ecological Research 27, 1–60.
The ecology of root lifespan.CrossRef |

Elberse WTH, Berendse F (1993) A comparative study of the growth and morphology of eight grass species from habitats with different nutrient availabilities. Functional Ecology 7, 223–229.
A comparative study of the growth and morphology of eight grass species from habitats with different nutrient availabilities.CrossRef |

Eliáš P (1985) Leaf indices of woodland herbs as indicators of habitat conditions. Ekologia 4, 289–295.

Ellenberg H, Müller-Dombois D (1967) A key to Raunkiaer plant life forms with revised subdivisions. Berichte des geobotanischen Institutes der ETH. Stiftung Rübel 37, 56–73.

Ellsworth DS, Reich PB (1992) Water relations and gas exchange of Acer saccharum seedlings in contrasting natural light and water regimes. Tree Physiology 10, 1–20.
Water relations and gas exchange of Acer saccharum seedlings in contrasting natural light and water regimes.CrossRef |

Enquist BJ (2002) Universal scaling in tree and vascular plant allometry: toward a general quantitative theory linking plant form and function from cells to ecosystems. Tree Physiology 22, 1045–1064.
Universal scaling in tree and vascular plant allometry: toward a general quantitative theory linking plant form and function from cells to ecosystems.CrossRef |

Enríquez S, Duarte CM, Sand-Jensen K, Nielsen SL (1996) Broad-scale comparison of photosynthetic rates across phototrophic organisms. Oecologia 108, 197–206.

Etlinger MG, Beall FC (2004) Development of a laboratory protocol for fire performance of landscape plants. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13, 479–488.
Development of a laboratory protocol for fire performance of landscape plants.CrossRef |

Evans GC (1972) ‘The quantitative analysis of plant growth.’ (Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford, UK)

Everham EM, Brokaw NVL (1996) Forest damage and recovery from catastrophic wind. Botanical Review 62, 113–185.
Forest damage and recovery from catastrophic wind.CrossRef |

Ewel JJ, Bigelow SW (1996) Plant life forms and ecosystem functioning. In ‘Biodiversity and ecosystem processes in tropical forests’. (Eds GH Orians, R Dirzo, JH Cushman) pp. 101–126 (Springer: Berlin)

Faith DP, Magallón S, Hendry AP, Conti E, Yahara T, Donoghue MJ (2010) Evosystem services: an evolutionary perspective on the links between biodiversity and human well-being. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2, 66–74.
Evosystem services: an evolutionary perspective on the links between biodiversity and human well-being.CrossRef |

FAO (1999) ‘Soil salinity assessment. Methods and interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements.’ FAO irrigation and drainage paper 57 (FAO: Rome)

Farquhar GD, Ehleringer JR, Hubick KT (1989) Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 40, 503–537.
Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis.CrossRef |

Feild TS, Balun L (2008) Xylem hydraulic and photosynthetic function of Gnetum (Gnetales) species from Papua New Guinea. New Phytologist 177, 665–675.
Xylem hydraulic and photosynthetic function of Gnetum (Gnetales) species from Papua New Guinea.CrossRef |

Field C, Mooney HA (1986) The photosynthesis–nitrogen relationship in wild plants. In ‘On the economy of plant form and function’. (Ed. TJ Givnish) pp. 25–55 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Finzi AC, Van Breemen N, Canham CD (1998) Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on soil carbon and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8, 440–446.

Fischer M, Stöcklin J (1997) Local extinctions of plants in remnants of extensively used calcareous grasslands 1950–85 Conservation Biology 11, 727–737.
Local extinctions of plants in remnants of extensively used calcareous grasslands 1950–85CrossRef |

Fischer S, Poschlod P, Beinlich B (1996) Experimental studies on the dispersal of plants and animals on sheep in calcareous grasslands. Journal of Applied Ecology 33, 1206–1221.
Experimental studies on the dispersal of plants and animals on sheep in calcareous grasslands.CrossRef |

Fisher JB (1986) Branching patterns and angles in trees. In ‘On the economy of plant form and function’. (Ed. TJ Givnish) pp. 493–523 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Fitter A (1996) Characteristics and functions of root systems. In ‘Plant roots: the hidden half’. 2nd edn. (Eds Y Waisel, A Eshel, U Kafkafi) pp. 1–20 (Marcel Dekker: New York)

Flowers TJ, Colmer TD (2008) Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytologist 179, 945–963.
Salinity tolerance in halophytes.CrossRef |

Flowers TJ, Troke PF, Yeo AR (1977) The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 28, 89–121.
The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes.CrossRef |

Flowers TJ, Hajibagheri MA, Clipson NJW (1986) Halophytes. The Quarterly Review of Biology 61, 313–337.
Halophytes.CrossRef |

Forget P, Wenny D (2005) How to elucidate seed fate? A review of methods used to study seed removal and secondary seed dispersal. In ‘Seed fate: predation, dispersal and seedling establishment’. (Eds P Forget, J Lambert, P Hulme, S Vander Wal) pp. 379–394 (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

Fortunel C, Garnier E, Joffre J, Kazakou E, Quested H, Grigulis K, Lavorel S, Ansquer P, Castro H, Cruz P, Doležal J, Eriksson O, Freitas H, Golodets C, Jouany C, Kigel J, Kleyer M, Lehsten V, Lepš J, Meier T, Pakeman R, Papadimitriou M, Papanastasis VP, Quétier F, Robson M, Sternberg M, Theau J-P, Thébault A, Zarovali M (2009) Leaf traits capture the effects of land use changes and climate on litter decomposability of grasslands across Europe. Ecology 90, 598–611.
Leaf traits capture the effects of land use changes and climate on litter decomposability of grasslands across Europe.CrossRef |

Fortunel C, Fine PVA, Baraloto C (2012) Leaf, stem and root tissue strategies across 758 Neotropical tree species. Functional Ecology 26, 1153–1161.
Leaf, stem and root tissue strategies across 758 Neotropical tree species.CrossRef |

Freschet GT, Cornelissen JHC, Van Logtestijn RSP, Aerts R (2010) Evidence of the ‘plant economics spectrum’ in a Subarctic flora. Journal of Ecology 98, 362–373.
Evidence of the ‘plant economics spectrum’ in a Subarctic flora.CrossRef |

Freschet GT, Aerts R, Cornelissen JHC (2012) A plant economics spectrum of litter decomposability. Functional Ecology 26, 56–65.
A plant economics spectrum of litter decomposability.CrossRef |

Funes G, Basconcelo S, Díaz S, Cabido M (1999) Seed bank dynamics of Lachemilla pinnata (Rosaceae) in different plant communities of mountain grassland in central Argentina. Annales Botanici Fennici 36, 109–114.

Gardner RO (1975) Overview of botanical clearing technique. Stain Technology 50, 99–105.

Garnier E, Laurent G (1994) Leaf anatomy, specific mass and water content in congeneric annual and perennial grass species. New Phytologist 128, 725–736.
Leaf anatomy, specific mass and water content in congeneric annual and perennial grass species.CrossRef |

Garnier E, Navas M-L (2012) A trait-based approach to comparative functional plant ecology: concepts, methods and applications for agroecology. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 32, 365–399.
A trait-based approach to comparative functional plant ecology: concepts, methods and applications for agroecology.CrossRef |

Garnier E, Shipley B, Roumet C, Laurent G (2001a) A standardized protocol for the determination of specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content. Functional Ecology 15, 688–695.
A standardized protocol for the determination of specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content.CrossRef |

Garnier E, Laurent G, Debain S, Berthelier P, Ducout B, Roumet C, Navas M-L (2001b) Consistency of species ranking based on functional leaf traits. New Phytologist 152, 69–83.
Consistency of species ranking based on functional leaf traits.CrossRef |

Garnier E, Cortez J, Billès G, Navas M-L, Roumet C, Debussche M, Laurent G, Blanchard A, Aubry D, Bellmann A, Neill C, Toussaint J-P (2004) Plant functional markers capture ecosystem properties during secondary succession. Ecology 85, 2630–2637.
Plant functional markers capture ecosystem properties during secondary succession.CrossRef |

Garnier E, Lavorel S, Ansquer P, Castro H, Cruz P, Dolezal J, Eriksson O, Fortunel C, Freitas H, Golodets C, Grigulis K, Jouany C, Kazakou E, Kigel J, Kleyer M, Lehsten V, Lepš J, Meier T, Pakeman R, Papadimitriou M, Papanastasis VP, Quested H, Quétier F, Robson M, Roumet C, Rusch G, Skarpe C, Sternberg M, Theau J-P, Vile D, Zarovali MP (2007) Assessing the effects of land-use change on plant traits, communities and ecosystem functioning in grasslands: a standardized methodology and lessons from an application to 11 European sites. Annals of Botany 99, 967–985.
Assessing the effects of land-use change on plant traits, communities and ecosystem functioning in grasslands: a standardized methodology and lessons from an application to 11 European sites.CrossRef |

Gartner BL (1995) ‘Plant stems: physiology and functional morphology.’ (Academic Press: San Diego, CA)

Gartner BL, Moore JC, Gardiner BA (2004) Gas in stems: abundance and potential consequences for tree biomechanics. Tree Physiology 24, 1239–1250.
Gas in stems: abundance and potential consequences for tree biomechanics.CrossRef |

Garwood NC (1996) Functional morphology of tropical tree seedlings. In ‘The ecology of tropical forest tree seedlings’. (Ed. MD Swaine) pp. 59–129 (Parthenon: New York)

Gatsuk LE, Smirnova OV, Vorontzova LI, Zaugolnova LB, Zhukova LA (1980) Age states of plants of various growth forms: a review. Journal of Ecology 68, 675–696.
Age states of plants of various growth forms: a review.CrossRef |

Gaucherand S, Lavorel S (2007) New method for rapid assessment of the functional composition of herbaceous plant communities. Austral Ecology 32, 927–936.
New method for rapid assessment of the functional composition of herbaceous plant communities.CrossRef |

Gaudet CL, Keddy PA (1988) A comparative approach to predicting competitive ability from plant traits. Nature 334, 242–243.
A comparative approach to predicting competitive ability from plant traits.CrossRef |

Gill AM, Zylstra P (2005) Flammability of Australian forests. Australian Forestry 68, 88–94.

Givnish TJ (1979) On the adaptive significance of leaf form. In ‘Topics in plant population biology’. (Ed. OT Solbrig, S Jain, GB Johnson, PH Raven) pp. 375–407 (Macmillan: London)

Givnish TJ (1987) Comparative studies of leaf form: assessing the relative roles of selective pressures and phylogenetic constarints. New Phytologist 106, 131–160.
Comparative studies of leaf form: assessing the relative roles of selective pressures and phylogenetic constarints.CrossRef |

Gowda JH, Palo RT (2003) Age-related changes in defensive traits of Acacia tortilis Hayne. African Journal of Ecology 41, 218–223.
Age-related changes in defensive traits of Acacia tortilis Hayne.CrossRef |

Gowda J, Raffaele E (2004) Spine production is induced by fire: a natural experiment with three Berberis species. Acta Oecologica 26, 239–245.
Spine production is induced by fire: a natural experiment with three Berberis species.CrossRef |

Graça MAS, Bärlocher F, Gessner MO (2005) ‘Methods to study litter decomposition.’ (Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Green DS, Kruger EL (2001) Light-mediated constraints on leaf function correlate with leaf structure among deciduous and evergreen tree species. Tree Physiology 21, 1341–1346.
Light-mediated constraints on leaf function correlate with leaf structure among deciduous and evergreen tree species.CrossRef |

Grime JP (1979) Competition and the struggle for existence. In ‘Population dynamics’. (Eds RM Anderson, BD Turner, LR Taylor) pp. 123–139 (Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford, UK)

Grime JP, Hunt R (1975) Relative growth-rate: its range and adaptive significance in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 63, 393–422.
Relative growth-rate: its range and adaptive significance in a local flora.CrossRef |

Grime JP, Blythe GM, Thornton JD (1970) Food selection by the snail Cepaea nemoralis L. In ‘Animal populations in relation to their food resources’. (Ed. A Watson) pp. 73–99 (Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford, UK)

Grime JP, Cornelissen JHC, Thompson K, Hodgson JG (1996) Evidence of a causal connection between anti-herbivore defense and the decomposition rate of leaves. Oikos 77, 489–494.
Evidence of a causal connection between anti-herbivore defense and the decomposition rate of leaves.CrossRef |

Grime JP, Thompson K, Hunt R, Hodgson JG, Cornelissen JHC, Rorison IH, Hendry GAF, Ashenden TW, Askew AP, Band SR, Booth RE, Bossard CC, Campbell BD, Cooper JEL, Davison AW, Gupta PL, Hall W, Hand DW, Hannah MA, Hillier SH, Hodkinson DJ, Jalili A, Liu Z, Mackey JML, Matthews N, Mowforth MA, Neal AM, Reader RJ, Reiling K, Ross-Fraser W, Spencer RE, Sutton F, Tasker DE, Thorpe PC, Whitehouse J (1997) Integrated screening validates primary axes of specialisation in plants. Oikos 79, 259–281.
Integrated screening validates primary axes of specialisation in plants.CrossRef |

Grubb PJ (1992) A positive distrust in simplicity – lessons from plant defences and from competition among plants and among animal. Journal of Ecology 80, 585–610.
A positive distrust in simplicity – lessons from plant defences and from competition among plants and among animal.CrossRef |

Gubsch M, Buchmann N, Schmid B, Schulze ED, Lipowsky A, Roscher C (2011) Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species. Annals of Botany 107, 157–169.
Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species.CrossRef |

Gurvich DE, Díaz S, Falczuk V, Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Cabido M, Thorpe C (2002) Foliar resistence to simulated extreme temperature events in contrasting plant functional and chorological types. Global Change Biology 8, 1139–1145.
Foliar resistence to simulated extreme temperature events in contrasting plant functional and chorological types.CrossRef |

Hanley ME, Lamont BB (2002) Relationships between physical and chemical attributes of congeneric seedlings: how important is seedling defence? Functional Ecology 16, 216–222.
Relationships between physical and chemical attributes of congeneric seedlings: how important is seedling defence?CrossRef |

Harrison SP, Marlon JR, Bartlein PJ (2010) Fire in the Earth system. In ‘Changing climates, earth systems and society’. (Ed. J Dodson) pp. 21–48 (Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Hartley SE, Jones CG (1997) Plant chemistry and herbivory, or why the world is green. In ‘Plant ecology’. (Ed. MJ Crawley) pp. 284–324 (Blackwell Science: Oxford, UK)

Hattersley PW, Watson L (1992) Diversification of photosynthesis. In ‘Grass evolution and domestication’. (Ed. GP Chapman) pp. 38–116 (Cambridge University Press: London)

Hendry GAF, Grime JP (1993) ‘Methods in comparative plant ecology. A laboratory manual.’ (Chapman and Hall: London)

Herwitz SR (1985) Interception storage capacities of tropical rainforest canopy trees. Journal of Hydrology 77, 237–252.
Interception storage capacities of tropical rainforest canopy trees.CrossRef |

Hibberd JM, Quick WP (2002) Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants. Nature 415, 451–454.
Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants.CrossRef |

Higgins SI, Bond WJ, Trolliope WSW (2000) Fire, resprouting and variability: a recipe for grass-tree coexistence in savanna. Journal of Ecology 88, 213–229.
Fire, resprouting and variability: a recipe for grass-tree coexistence in savanna.CrossRef |

Hinckley TM, Lassoie JP, Running SW (1978) Temporal and spatial variations in the water status of forest trees. Forest Science 20, a0001–z0001.

Hirose T, Werger MJA (1995) Canopy structure and shoton slux sartitioning smong species in a herbaceous plant community. Ecology 76, 466–474.
Canopy structure and shoton slux sartitioning smong species in a herbaceous plant community.CrossRef |

Hladik A, Miquel S (1990) Seedling types and plant establishment in an African rain forest. In ‘Reproductive ecology of tropical plants’. (Eds KS Bawa, M Hadley) pp. 261–282 (UNESCO/Parthenon: Carnforth, UK)

Hodge A (2004) The plastic plant: root responses to heterogeneous supplies of nutrients. New Phytologist 162, 9–24.
The plastic plant: root responses to heterogeneous supplies of nutrients.CrossRef |

Hodgson JG, Wilson PJ, Hunt R, Grime JP, Thompson K (1999) Allocating C-S-R plant functional types: a soft approach to a hard problem. Oikos 85, 282–294.
Allocating C-S-R plant functional types: a soft approach to a hard problem.CrossRef |

Hodgson JG, Montserrat-Martí G, Charles M, Jones G, Wilson P, Shipley B, Sharafi M, Cerabolini BEL, Cornelissen JHC, Band SR, Bogard A, Castro-Díez P, Guerrero-Campo J, Palmer C, Pérez-Rontomé MC, Carter G, Hynd A, Romo-Díez A, de Torres Espuny L, Royo Pla F (2011) Is leaf dry matter content a better predictor of soil fertility than specific leaf area? Annals of Botany 108, 1337–1345.
Is leaf dry matter content a better predictor of soil fertility than specific leaf area?CrossRef |

Holbrook NM, Zwieniecki MA (2005) ‘Vascular transport in plants.’ (Elsevier Academic Press: London)

Horn HS (1971) ‘The adaptive geometry of trees.’ (Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ)

Horneck DA, Miller RO (1998) Determination of total nitrogen in plant tissue. In ‘Handbook and reference methods for plant analysis’. (Ed. YP Kalra) pp. 75–84 (CRC Press: New York)

Howe HF, Smallwood J (1982) Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13, 201–228.
Ecology of seed dispersal.CrossRef |

Howe HF, Westley LC (1997) Ecology of pollination and seed dispersal. In ‘Plant ecology’. (Ed. MJ Crawley) pp. 262–283 (Blackwell: Oxford, UK)

Hulme PE (1998) Post-dispersal seed predation: consequences for plant demography and evolution. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 1, 32–46.
Post-dispersal seed predation: consequences for plant demography and evolution.CrossRef |

Hulshof CM, Swenson NG (2010) Variation in leaf functional trait values within and across individuals and species: an example from a Costa Rican dry forest. Functional Ecology 24, 217–223.
Variation in leaf functional trait values within and across individuals and species: an example from a Costa Rican dry forest.CrossRef |

Hunt R (1982) ‘Plant growth curves. The functional approach to plant growth analysis.’ (Edward Arnold: London)

Ibarra-Manriquez G, Martínez Ramos M, Oyama K (2001) Seedling functional types in a lowland rain forest in México. American Journal of Botany 88, 1801–1812.
Seedling functional types in a lowland rain forest in México.CrossRef |

Jackson RB (1999) The importance of root distributions for hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecosystem function. In ‘Integrating hydrology, ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemistry in complex landscapes’. (Eds JD Tenhunen, P Kabat) pp. 219–240 (Wiley: Chichester, UK)

Jackson JF, Adams DC, Jackson UB (1999) Allometry of constitutive defense: a model and a comparative test with tree bark and fire regime. American Naturalist 153, 614–632.
Allometry of constitutive defense: a model and a comparative test with tree bark and fire regime.CrossRef |

Jacobsen AL, Pratt RB, Davis SD, Ewers FW (2008) Comparative community physiology: nonconvergence in water relations among three semi-arid shrub communities. New Phytologist 180, 100–113.
Comparative community physiology: nonconvergence in water relations among three semi-arid shrub communities.CrossRef |

Jaureguiberry P, Bertone GA, Díaz S (2011) Device for the standard measurement of shoot flammability in the field. Austral Ecology 36, 821–829.
Device for the standard measurement of shoot flammability in the field.CrossRef |

Jennings DH (1976) The effects of sodium chloride on higher plants. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 51, 453–486.
The effects of sodium chloride on higher plants.CrossRef |

Jones G, Charles M, Bogaard A, Hodgson J (2010) Crops and weeds: the role of weed functional ecology in the identification of crop husbandry methods. Journal of Archaeological Science 37, 70–77.
Crops and weeds: the role of weed functional ecology in the identification of crop husbandry methods.CrossRef |

Jow WM, Bullock SH, Kummerow J (1980) Leaf turnover rates of Adenostoma fasciculatum (Rosaceae). American Journal of Botany 67, 256–261.
Leaf turnover rates of Adenostoma fasciculatum (Rosaceae).CrossRef |

Juneau KJ, Tarasoff CS (2012) Leaf area and water content changes after permanent and temporary storage. PLoS ONE 7, e42604
Leaf area and water content changes after permanent and temporary storage.CrossRef |

Kammesheidt L (1999) Forest recovery by root suckers and aboveground sprouts after slash-and-burn agriculture, fire and logging in Paraguay and Venezuela. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15, 143–157.
Forest recovery by root suckers and aboveground sprouts after slash-and-burn agriculture, fire and logging in Paraguay and Venezuela.CrossRef |

Kattge J, Díaz S, Lavorel S, Prentice IC, Leadley P, Bönisch G, Garnier E, Westoby M, Reich PB, Wright IJ, Cornelissen JHC, Violle C, Harrison SP, Van Bodegom PM, Reichstein M, Enquist BJ, Soudzilovskaia NA, Ackerly DD, Anand M, Atkin O, Bahn M, Baker TR, Baldocchi D, Bekker R, Blanco CC, Blonder B, Bond WJ, Bradstock R, Bunker DE, Casanoves F, Cavender-Bares J, Chambers JQ, Chapin III FS, Chave J, Coomes D, Cornwell WK, Craine JM, Dobrin BH, Duarte L, Durka W, Elser J, Esser G, Estiarte M, Fagan WF, Fang J, Fernández-Méndez F, Fidelis A, Finegan B, Flores O, Ford H, Frank D, Freschet GT, Fyllas NM, Gallagher RV, Green WA, Gutierrez AG, Hickler T, Higgins SI, Hodgson JG, Jalili A, Jansen S, Joly CA, Kerkhoff AJ, Kirkup D, Kitajima K, Kleyer M, Klotz S, Knops JMH, Kramer K, Kühn I, Kurokawa H, Laughlin D, Lee TD, Leishman M, Lens F, Lenz T, Lewis SL, Lloyd J, Llusià J, Louault F, Ma S, Mahecha MD, Manning P, Massad T, Medlyn BE, Messie J, Moles AT, Müller SC, Nadrowski K, Naeem S, Niinemets Ü, Nöllert S, Nüske A, Ogaya R, Oleksyn J, Onipchenko VG, Onoda Y, Ordoñez J, Overbeck G, Ozinga WA, Patiño S, Paula S, Pausas JG, Peñuelas J, Phillips OL, Pillar V, Poorter H, Poorter L, Poschlod P, Prinzing A, Proulx R, Rammig A, Reinsch S, Reu B, Sack L, Salgado-Negret B, Sardans J, Shiodera S, Shipley B, Siefert A, Sosinski E, Soussana J-F, Swaine E, Swenson N, Thompson K, Thornton P, Waldram M, Weiher E, White M, White S, Wright SJ, Yguel B, Zaehle S, Zanne AE, Wirth C (2011) TRY – a global database of plant traits. Global Change Biology 17, 2905–2935.
TRY – a global database of plant traits.CrossRef |

Kazakou E, Violle C, Roumet C, Pintor C, Gimenez O, Garnier E (2009) Litter quality and decomposability of species from a Mediterranean succession depend on leaf traits but not on nitrogen supply. Annals of Botany 104, 1151–1161.
Litter quality and decomposability of species from a Mediterranean succession depend on leaf traits but not on nitrogen supply.CrossRef |

King DA, Davies SJ, Noor NSM (2006) Growth and mortality are related to adult tree size in a Malaysian mixed dipterocarp forest. Forest Ecology and Management 223, 152–158.
Growth and mortality are related to adult tree size in a Malaysian mixed dipterocarp forest.CrossRef |

Kitajima K (1994) Relative importance of photosynthetic traits and allocation patterns as correlates of seedling shade tolerance of 13 tropical trees. Oecologia 98, 419–428.
Relative importance of photosynthetic traits and allocation patterns as correlates of seedling shade tolerance of 13 tropical trees.CrossRef |

Kitajima K (1996) Cotyledon functional morphology, patterns of seed reserve utilization and regeneration niches of tropical tree seedlings. In ‘The ecology of tropical forest tree seedlings’. (Ed. MD Swaine) pp. 193–210 (UNESCO: Paris)

Kitajima K, Poorter L (2010) Tissue-level leaf toughness, but not lamina thickness, predicts sapling leaf lifespan and shade tolerance of tropical tree species. New Phytologist 186, 708–721.
Tissue-level leaf toughness, but not lamina thickness, predicts sapling leaf lifespan and shade tolerance of tropical tree species.CrossRef |

Kleyer M, Bekker RM, Knevel IC, Bakker JP, Thompson K, Sonnenschein M, Poschlod P, Van Groenendael JM, Klimeš L, Klimešová J, Klotz S, Rusch GM, Hermy M, Adriaens D, Boedeltje G, Bossuyt B, Dannemann A, Endels P, Götzenberger L, Hodgson JG, Jackel A-K, Kühn I, Kunzmann D, Ozinga WA, Römermann C, Stadler M, Schlegelmilch J, Steendam HJ, Tackenberg O, Wilmann B, Cornelissen JHC, Eriksson O, Garnier E, Peco B (2008) The LEDA traitbase: a database of life-history traits of the northwest European flora. Journal of Ecology 96, 1266–1274.
The LEDA traitbase: a database of life-history traits of the northwest European flora.CrossRef |

Klimeš L, Klimešová J (2005) Clonal traits. In ‘The LEDA traitbase. Collecting and measuring standards of life-history traits of the northwest European flora’. (Eds IC Knevel, RM Bekker, D Kunzmann, M Stadler, K Thompson) pp. 66–88 (University of Groningen: Groningen, The Netherlands)

Klimeš L, Klimešová J, Hendriks RJJ, Van Groenendael JM (1997) Clonal plant architecture: a comparative analysis of form and function. In ‘The ecology and evolution of clonal plants’. (Eds H De Kroon, JM Van Groenendael) pp. 1–29 (Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands)

Klimešová J, Klimeš L (2007) Bud banks and their role in vegetative regeneration – A literature review and proposal for simple classification and assessment. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 8, 115–129.
Bud banks and their role in vegetative regeneration – A literature review and proposal for simple classification and assessment.CrossRef |

Knapp AK, Carter GA (1998) Variability in leaf optical properties among 26 species from a broad range of habitats. American Journal of Botany 85, 940–946.
Variability in leaf optical properties among 26 species from a broad range of habitats.CrossRef |

Knevel IC, Bekker RM, Kleyer M (2003) Life-history traits of the northwest European flora: the LEDA database. Journal of Vegetation Science 14, 611–614.
Life-history traits of the northwest European flora: the LEDA database.CrossRef |

Kohyama T, Suzuki E, Partomihardjo T, Yamada T, Kubo T (2003) Tree species differentiation in growth, recruitment and allometry in relation to maximum height in a Bornean mixed dipterocarp forest. Journal of Ecology 91, 797–806.
Tree species differentiation in growth, recruitment and allometry in relation to maximum height in a Bornean mixed dipterocarp forest.CrossRef |

Kocacinar F, Sage RF (2003) Photosynthetic pathway alters xylem structure and hydraulic function in herbaceous plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 26, 2015–2026.
Photosynthetic pathway alters xylem structure and hydraulic function in herbaceous plants.CrossRef |

Korning J, Thomsen K (1994) A new method for measuring tree height in tropical rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 5, 139–140.
A new method for measuring tree height in tropical rain forest.CrossRef |

Lambers H, Poorter H (1992) Inherent variation in growth rate between higher plants: a search for physiological causes and ecological consequences. Advances in Ecological Research 23, 187–261.
Inherent variation in growth rate between higher plants: a search for physiological causes and ecological consequences.CrossRef |

Lambers H, Finnegan PM, Laliberté E, Pearse SJ, Ryan MH, Shane MW, Veneklaas EJ (2011) Phosphorus nutrition of proteaceae in severely phosphorus-impoverished soils: are there lessons to be learned for future crops? Plant Physiology 156, 1058–1066.
Phosphorus nutrition of proteaceae in severely phosphorus-impoverished soils: are there lessons to be learned for future crops?CrossRef |

Larson DW (2001) The paradox of great longevity in a short-lived tree species. Experimental Gerontology 36, 651–673.
The paradox of great longevity in a short-lived tree species.CrossRef |

Lavorel S, Garnier E (2002) Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: revisiting the Holy Grail. Functional Ecology 16, 545–556.
Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: revisiting the Holy Grail.CrossRef |

Lavorel S, Díaz S, Cornelissen JHC, Garnier E, Harrison SP, McIntyre S, Pausas JG, Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Roumet C, Urcelay C (2007) Plant functional types: are we getting any closer to the holy grail? In ‘Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world’. (Ed. PD Canadell JG, Pitelka L) pp. 149–160 (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)

Lavorel S, Grigulis K, McIntyre S, Williams NSG, Garden D, Dorrough SB, Quétier F, Thébault A, Bonis A (2008) Assessing functional diversity in the field – methodology matters! Functional Ecology 22, 134–147.

Leck MA, Parker VT, Simpson RL (2008) ‘Seedling ecology and evolution.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Leishman MR, Westoby M (1998) Seed size and shape are not related to persistence in soil in Australia in the same way as in Britain. Functional Ecology 12, 480–485.
Seed size and shape are not related to persistence in soil in Australia in the same way as in Britain.CrossRef |

Leishman M, Wright I, Moles A, Westoby M (2000) The evolutionary ecology of seed size. In ‘The ecology of regeneration in plant communities’. 2nd edn. (Ed. M Fenner) pp. 31–57 (CAB International: London)

Lenz TI, Wright IJ, Westoby M (2006) Interrelations among pressure-volume curve traits across species and water availability gradients. Physiologia Plantarum 127, 423–433.
Interrelations among pressure-volume curve traits across species and water availability gradients.CrossRef |

Levitt J (1980) ‘Responses of plants to environmental stresses.’ (Academic Press: New York)

Linder CR, Moore LA, Jackson RB (2000) A universal molecular method for identifying underground plant parts to species. Molecular Ecology 9, 1549–1559.
A universal molecular method for identifying underground plant parts to species.CrossRef |

Litton CM, Raich JW, Ryan MG (2007) Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems. Global Change Biology 13, 2089–2109.
Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems.CrossRef |

Loehle C (1988) Tree life histories: the role of defenses. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18, 209–222.
Tree life histories: the role of defenses.CrossRef |

Lucas PW, Choong MF, Tan HTW, Turner IM, Berrick AJ (1991) The fracture toughness of the leaf of the dicotyledon Calophyllum inophyllum L (Guttiferae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 334, 95–106.
The fracture toughness of the leaf of the dicotyledon Calophyllum inophyllum L (Guttiferae).CrossRef |

Lucas PW, Turner IM, Dominy NJ, Yamashita N (2000) Mechanical defences to herbivory. Annals of Botany 86, 913–920.
Mechanical defences to herbivory.CrossRef |

Lüttge (1997) ‘Physiolgical ecology of tropical plants.’ (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)

Ma S, Baldocchi DD, Mambelli S, Dawson TE (2011) Are temporal variations of leaf traits responsible for seasonal and inter-annual variability in ecosystem CO2 exchange? Functional Ecology 25, 258–270.
Are temporal variations of leaf traits responsible for seasonal and inter-annual variability in ecosystem CO2 exchange?CrossRef |

Maas EV, Hoffman GJ (1977) Crop salt tolerance – current assessment. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division 103, 115–134.

Mace GM, Cramer W, Díaz S, Faith DP, Larigauderie A, Le Prestre P, Palmer M, Perrings C, Scholes RJ, Walpole M, Walther BA, Watson JEM, Mooney HA (2010) Biodiversity targets after 2010 Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2, 3–8.
Biodiversity targets after 2010CrossRef |

Maherali H, DeLucia EH (2001) Influence of climate-driven shifts in biomass allocation on water transport and storage in ponderosa pine. Oecologia 129, 481–491.

Maherali H, Pockman WT, Jackson RB (2004) Adaptive variation in the vulnerability of woody plants to xylem cavitation. Ecology 85, 2184–2199.
Adaptive variation in the vulnerability of woody plants to xylem cavitation.CrossRef |

Mäkelä A, Vanninen P (2001) Vertical structure of Scots pine crowns in different age and size classes. Trees 15, 385–392.
Vertical structure of Scots pine crowns in different age and size classes.CrossRef |

Marschner H (2012) ‘Mineral nutrition of higher plants.’ (Academic Press: London)

Martorell C, Ezcurra E (2007) The narrow-leaf syndrome: a functional and evolutionary approach to the form of fog-harvesting rosette plants. Oecologia 151, 561–573.
The narrow-leaf syndrome: a functional and evolutionary approach to the form of fog-harvesting rosette plants.CrossRef |

Maseda PH, Fernández RJ (2006) Stay wet or else: three ways in which plants can adjust hydraulically to their environment. Journal of Experimental Botany 57, 3963–3977.
Stay wet or else: three ways in which plants can adjust hydraulically to their environment.CrossRef |

Mazer J (1989) Ecological, taxonomic, and life history correlates of seed mass among Indiana dune angiosperms. Ecological Monographs 59, 153–175.
Ecological, taxonomic, and life history correlates of seed mass among Indiana dune angiosperms.CrossRef |

McDowell N, Barnard H, Bond B, Hinckley T, Hubbard R, Ishii H, Köstner B, Magnani F, Marshall J, Meinzer F, Phillips N, Ryan M, Whitehead D (2002) The relationship between tree height and leaf area: sapwood area ratio. Oecologia 132, 12–20.
The relationship between tree height and leaf area: sapwood area ratio.CrossRef |

McGill BJ, Enquist BJ, Weiher E, Westoby M (2006) Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21, 178–185.
Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits.CrossRef |

McIntyre S, Lavorel S (2001) Livestock grazing in subtropical pastures: steps in the analysis of attribute response and plant functional types. Journal of Ecology 89, 209–226.
Livestock grazing in subtropical pastures: steps in the analysis of attribute response and plant functional types.CrossRef |

McIntyre S, Lavorel S, Landsberg J, Forbes TDA (1999) Disturbance response in vebetation – towards a global perspective on functional traits. Journal of Vegetation Science 10, 621–630.
Disturbance response in vebetation – towards a global perspective on functional traits.CrossRef |

Medina E (1999) Tropical forests: diversity and function of dominant life-forms. In ‘Handbook of plant functional ecology’. (Eds FI Pugnaire, F Valladares) pp. 407–448 (Marcel Dekker: New York)

Meinzer FC, Clearwater MJ, Goldstein G (2001) Water transport in trees: current perspectives, new insights and some controversies. Environmental and Experimental Botany 45, 239–262.
Water transport in trees: current perspectives, new insights and some controversies.CrossRef |

Mencuccini M (2003) The ecological significance of long-distance water transport: short-term regulation, long-term acclimation and the hydraulic costs of stature across plant life forms. Plant, Cell & Environment 26, 163–182.
The ecological significance of long-distance water transport: short-term regulation, long-term acclimation and the hydraulic costs of stature across plant life forms.CrossRef |

Messier J, McGill BJ, Lechowicz MJ (2010) How do traits vary across ecological scales? A case for trait-based ecology. Ecology Letters 13, 838–848.
How do traits vary across ecological scales? A case for trait-based ecology.CrossRef |

Meyer LD (1994) Rainfall simulators for soil conservation research. In ‘Soil erosion research methods’. (Ed. R Lal) pp. 83–104 (St Lucie Press: Delray Beach, FL)

Milla R, Reich PB (2007) The scaling of leaf area and mass: the cost of light interception increases with leaf size. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 274, 2109–2115.
The scaling of leaf area and mass: the cost of light interception increases with leaf size.CrossRef |

Milton SJ (1991) Plant spinescence in arid southern Africa – does moisture mediate selection by mammals. Oecologia 87, 279–287.
Plant spinescence in arid southern Africa – does moisture mediate selection by mammals.CrossRef |

Mohr H, Schopfer P (1995) ‘Plant physiology.’ 4th edn. (Springer: Berlin)

Moles A, Westoby M (2006) Seed size and plant strategy across the whole life cycle Oikos 113, 91–105.
Seed size and plant strategy across the whole life cycleCrossRef |

Moles A, Ackerly D, Webb C, Tweddle J, Dickie J, Pitman A, Westoby M (2005) Factors that shape seed mass evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102, 10540–10544.
Factors that shape seed mass evolution.CrossRef |

Moles AT, Warton DI, Warman L, Swenson NG, Laffan SW, Zanne AE, Pitman A, Hemmings FA, Leishman MR (2009) Global patterns in plant height. Journal of Ecology 97, 923–932.
Global patterns in plant height.CrossRef |

Moreira B, Tavsanoglu Ç, Pausas JG (2012) Local versus regional intraspecific variability in regeneration traits. Oecologia 168, 671–677.
Local versus regional intraspecific variability in regeneration traits.CrossRef |

Munns R, Husain S, Rivelli AR, James RA, Condon AG, Lindsay MP, Lagudah ES, Schachtman DP, Hare RA (2002) Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits. Plant and Soil 247, 93–105.
Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits.CrossRef |

Mutch RW (1970) Wildland fires and ecosystems – A hypothesis. Ecology 51, 1046–1051.
Wildland fires and ecosystems – A hypothesis.CrossRef |

Myers J, Vellend M, Gardescu S, Marks P (2004) Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139, 35–44.
Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America.CrossRef |

Newman EI (1966) A method of estimating the total root length of a sample. Journal of Applied Ecology 3, 139–145.
A method of estimating the total root length of a sample.CrossRef |

Ng FSP (1978) Strategies of establishment in Malayan forest trees. In ‘Tropical trees as living systems’. (Eds PB Tomlinson, MH Zimmerman) pp. 129–162 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Niinemets Ü (2001) Global-scale climatic controls of leaf dry mass per area,density and thickness in trees and shrubs. Ecology 82, 453–469.
Global-scale climatic controls of leaf dry mass per area,density and thickness in trees and shrubs.CrossRef |

Niinemets Ü, Portsmuth A, Tena D, Tobias M, Matesanz S, Valladares F (2007) Do we underestimate the importance of leaf size in plant economics? Disproportional scaling of support costs within the spectrum of leaf physiognomy. Annals of Botany 100, 283–303.
Do we underestimate the importance of leaf size in plant economics? Disproportional scaling of support costs within the spectrum of leaf physiognomy.CrossRef |

Niklas KJ (1994) ‘Plant allometry: the scaling of form and process.’ (The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL)

Niklas KJ, Cobb ED, Niinemets U, Reich PB, Sellin A, Shipley B, Wright IJ (2007) “Diminishing returns” in the scaling of functional leaf traits across and within species groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104, 8891–8896.
“Diminishing returns” in the scaling of functional leaf traits across and within species groups.CrossRef |

Noble IR, Slatyer RO (1980) The use of vital attributes to predict successional changes in plant communities subject to recurrent disturbances. Vegetatio 43, 5–21.
The use of vital attributes to predict successional changes in plant communities subject to recurrent disturbances.CrossRef |

North GB, Noble PS (1992) Drought-induced changes in hydraulic conductivity and structure in roots of Ferocactus acanthodes and Opuntia ficus-indica. New Phytologist 120, 9–19.
Drought-induced changes in hydraulic conductivity and structure in roots of Ferocactus acanthodes and Opuntia ficus-indica.CrossRef |

O’Leary MH (1981) Carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Phytochemistry 20, 553–567.
Carbon isotope fractionation in plants.CrossRef |

Olff H, Vera FWM, Bokdam J, Bakker ES, Gleichman JM, de Maeyer K, Smit R (1999) Shifting mosaics in grazed woodlands driven by the alternation of plant facilitation and competition. Plant Biology 1, 127–137.
Shifting mosaics in grazed woodlands driven by the alternation of plant facilitation and competition.CrossRef |

Ollinger SV, Richardson AD, Martin ME, Hollinger DY, Frolking SE, Reich PB, Plourde LC, Katul GG, Munger JW, Oren R, Smith M-L, Pau U KT, Bolstad PV, Cook BD, Day MC, Martin TA, Monson RK, Schmid HP (2008) Canopy nitrogen, carbon assimilation, and albedo in temperate and boreal forests: functional relations and potential climate feedbacks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 105, 19 336–19 341.
Canopy nitrogen, carbon assimilation, and albedo in temperate and boreal forests: functional relations and potential climate feedbacks.CrossRef |

Onipchenko VG, Makarov MI, Van Logtestijn RSP, Ivanov VB, Akhmetzanova AA, Teekev DK, Ermak AA, Salpargarova FS, Kozhevnikova AD, Cornelissen JHC (2009) New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots. Ecology Letters 12, 758–764.
New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots.CrossRef |

Onoda Y, Schieving F, Anten NPR (2008) Effects of light and nutrient availability on leaf mechanical properties of Plantago major: a conceptual approach. Annals of Botany 101, 727–736.

Onoda Y, Westoby M, Adler PB, Choong AMF, Clissold FJ, Cornelissen JHC, Díaz S, Dominy NJ, Elgart A, Enrico L, Fine PVA, Howard JJ, Jalili A, Kitajima K, Kurokawa H, McArthur C, Lucas PW, Markesteijn L, Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Poorter L, Richards L, Santiago LS, Sosinski EE, Van Bael SA, Warton DI, Wright IJ, Joseph Wright S, Yamashita N (2011) Global patterns of leaf mechanical properties. Ecology Letters 14, 301–312.
Global patterns of leaf mechanical properties.CrossRef |

Ordoñez JC, Van Bodegom PM, Witte J-PM, Bartholomeus RP, Van Hal JR, Aerts R (2010) Plant strategies in relation to resource supply in mesic to wet environments: does theory mirror nature? American Naturalist 175, 225–239.
Plant strategies in relation to resource supply in mesic to wet environments: does theory mirror nature?CrossRef |

Pakeman RJ, Quested HM (2007) Sampling plant functional traits: what proportion of the species need to be measured? Applied Vegetation Science 10, 91–96.
Sampling plant functional traits: what proportion of the species need to be measured?CrossRef |

Pammenter NW, Van der Willigen C (1998) A mathematical and statistical analysis of the curves illustrating vulnerability of xylem to cavitation. Tree Physiology 18, 589–593.
A mathematical and statistical analysis of the curves illustrating vulnerability of xylem to cavitation.CrossRef |

Papió C, Trabaud L (1990) Structural characteristics of fuel components of five Mediterraean shrubs. Forest Ecology and Management 35, 249–259.
Structural characteristics of fuel components of five Mediterraean shrubs.CrossRef |

Parkhurst DF (1994) Diffusion of CO2 and other gases inside leaves. New Phytologist 126, 449–479.
Diffusion of CO2 and other gases inside leaves.CrossRef |

Parkhurst DF, Loucks OL (1972) Optimal leaf size in relation to environment. Journal of Ecology 60, 505–537.
Optimal leaf size in relation to environment.CrossRef |

Parton W, Silver WL, Burke IC, Grassens L, Harmon ME, Currie WS, King JY, Adair EC, Brandt LA, Hart SC, Fasth B (2007) Global-scale similarities in nitrogen release patterns during long-term decomposition. Science 315, 361–364.
Global-scale similarities in nitrogen release patterns during long-term decomposition.CrossRef |

Patiño S, Lloyd J, Paiva R, Baker TR, Quesada CA, Mercado LM, Schmerler J, Schwarz M, Santos AJB, Aguilar A, Czimczik CI, Gallo J, Horna V, Hoyos EJ, Jimenez EM, Palomino W, Peacock J, Peña-Cruz A, Sarmiento C, Sota A, Turriago JD, Villanueva B, Vitzthum P, Alvarez E, Arroyo L, Baraloto C, Bonal D, Chave J, Costa ACL, Herrera R, Higuchi N, Killeen T, Leal E, Luizão F, Meir P, Monteagudo A, Neill D, Núñez-Vargas P, Peñuela MC, Pitman N, Priante Filho N, Prieto A, Panfil SN, Rudas A, Salomão R, Silva N, Silveira M, Soares de Almeida S, Torres-Lezama A, Vásquez-Martínez R, Vieira I, Malhi Y, Phillips OL (2009) Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin. Biogeosciences 6, 545–568.
Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin.CrossRef |

Patiño S, Fyllas NM, Baker TR, Paiva R, Quesada CA, Santos AJB, Schwarz M, ter Steege H, Phillips OL, Lloyd J (2012) Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees. Biogeosciences 9, 775–801.
Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees.CrossRef |

Paula S, Pausas JG (2006) Leaf traits and resprouting ability in the Mediterranean basin. Functional Ecology 20, 941–947.
Leaf traits and resprouting ability in the Mediterranean basin.CrossRef |

Paula S, Pausas JG (2011) Root traits explain different foraging strategies between resprouting life histories. Oecologia 165, 321–331.
Root traits explain different foraging strategies between resprouting life histories.CrossRef |

Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis (2009) Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90, 1420
Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin.CrossRef |

Pausas JG (1997) Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE Spain after fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 8, 703–706.
Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE Spain after fire.CrossRef |

Pausas JG, Bradstock RA (2007) Fire persistence traits of plants along a productivity and disturbance gradient in mediterranean shrublands of south-east Australia. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16, 330–340.
Fire persistence traits of plants along a productivity and disturbance gradient in mediterranean shrublands of south-east Australia.CrossRef |

Pausas JG, Alessio GA, Moreira B, Corcobado G (2012) Fires enhance flammability in Ulex parviflorus. New Phytologist 193, 18–23.
Fires enhance flammability in Ulex parviflorus.CrossRef |

Peco B, Traba J, Levassor C, Sánchez AM, Azcárate FM (2003) Seed size, shape and persistence in dry Mediterranean grass and scrublands. Seed Science Research 13, 87–95.
Seed size, shape and persistence in dry Mediterranean grass and scrublands.CrossRef |

Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Díaz S, Vendramini F, Cornelissen JHC, Gurvich DE, Cabido M (2003) Leaf traits and herbivore selection in the field and in cafeteria experiments. Austral Ecology 28, 642–650.
Leaf traits and herbivore selection in the field and in cafeteria experiments.CrossRef |

Pickett STA, Kempf JS (1980) Branching patterns in forest shrubs and understory trees in relation to habitat. New Phytologist 86, 219–228.
Branching patterns in forest shrubs and understory trees in relation to habitat.CrossRef |

Pierce S, Winter K, Griffiths H (2002) Carbon isotope ratio and the extent of daily CAM use by Bromeliaceae. New Phytologist 156, 75–83.
Carbon isotope ratio and the extent of daily CAM use by Bromeliaceae.CrossRef |

Pisani JM, Distel RA (1998) Inter- and intraspecific variations in production of spines and phenols in Prosopis caldenia and Prosopis flexuosa. Journal of Chemical Ecology 24, 23–36.
Inter- and intraspecific variations in production of spines and phenols in Prosopis caldenia and Prosopis flexuosa.CrossRef |

Pons J, Pausas JG (2007) Acorn dispersal estimated by radio-tracking Oecologia 153, 903–911.
Acorn dispersal estimated by radio-trackingCrossRef |

Poorter L, Bongers F (2006) Leaf traits are good predictors of plant performance across 53 rain forest species. Ecology 87, 1733–1743.
Leaf traits are good predictors of plant performance across 53 rain forest species.CrossRef |

Poorter H, Garnier E (1999) Ecological significance of relative growth rate and its components. In ‘Handbook of functional plant ecology’. (Eds FI Pugnaire, F Valladares) pp. 81–120 (Marcel Dekker: New York)

Poorter H, Garnier E (2007) The ecological significance of variation in relative growth rate and its components. In ‘Functional plant ecology’. (Eds FI Pugnaire, F Valladares) pp. 67–100 (CRC press: Boca Raton, FL)

Poorter H, Lewis C (1986) Testing differences in relative growth rate: a method avoiding curve fitting and pairing. Physiologia Plantarum 67, 223–226.
Testing differences in relative growth rate: a method avoiding curve fitting and pairing.CrossRef |

Poorter H, Nagel O (2000) The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review [published erratum appears in Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27, 1191]. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27, 595–607.
The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review [published erratum appears in Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27, 1191].CrossRef |

Poorter H, Rozendaal DMA (2008) Leaf size and leaf display of thirty-eight tropical tree species. Oecologia 158, 35–46.
Leaf size and leaf display of thirty-eight tropical tree species.CrossRef |

Poorter H, Welschen RAM (1993). Analyzing variation in RGR in terms of the underlying carbon economy. In ‘Methods in comparative plant ecology – a laboratory manual’. (Eds GAF Hendry, JP Grime) pp. 107–110 (Chapman and Hall: London)

Poorter L, Bongers L, Bongers F (2006) Architecture of 54 moist-forest tree species: traits, trade-oofs, and functional groups. Ecology 87, 1289–1301.
Architecture of 54 moist-forest tree species: traits, trade-oofs, and functional groups.CrossRef |

Poorter L, Wright SJ, Paz H, Ackerly DD, Condit R, Ibarra-Manríquez G, Harms KE, Licona JC, Martínez-Ramos M, Mazer SJ, Muller-Landau HC, Peña-Claros M, Webb CO, Wright IJ (2008) Are functional traits good predictors of demographics rates? Evidence from five neotropical forests. Ecology 89, 1908–1920.
Are functional traits good predictors of demographics rates? Evidence from five neotropical forests.CrossRef |

Poorter H, Niinemets Ü, Poorter L, Wright IJ, Villar R (2009) Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area (LMA): a meta-analysis. New Phytologist 182, 565–588.
Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area (LMA): a meta-analysis.CrossRef |

Poorter L, Kitajima K, Mercado P, Chubiña J, Melgar I, Prins HHT (2010) Resprouting as a persistence strategy of tropical forest trees: its relation with carbohydrate storage and shade tolerance. Ecology 91, 2613–2627.
Resprouting as a persistence strategy of tropical forest trees: its relation with carbohydrate storage and shade tolerance.CrossRef |

Poorter H, Niklas KJ, Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Poot P, Mommer L (2012) Tansley review. Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytologist 193, 30–50.
Tansley review. Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control.CrossRef |

Poschlod P, Kiefer S, Tränkle U, Bonn S (1998) Plant species richness in calcareous grasslands as affected by dispersability in space and time. Applied Vegetation Science 1, 75–91.
Plant species richness in calcareous grasslands as affected by dispersability in space and time.CrossRef |

Poschlod P, Kleyer M, Tackenberg O (2000) Databases on life history traits as a tool for risk assessment in plant species. Zeitschrift für Ökologie und Naturschutz 9, 3–18.

Poschlod P, Tackenberg O, Bonn S (2005) Plant dispersal potential and its relation to species frequency and coexistence. In ‘Vegetation ecology’. (Ed. E Van der Maarel). pp. 147–171 (Blackwell: Oxford, UK)

Pregitzer KS, DeForest JL, Burton AJ, Allen MF, Ruess RW, Hendrick RL (2002) Fine root architecture of nine North American trees. Ecology 72, 293–309.

Preston KA, Ackerly DD (2003) Hydraulic architecture and the evolution of shoot allometry in contrasting climates. American Journal of Botany 90, 1502–1512.
Hydraulic architecture and the evolution of shoot allometry in contrasting climates.CrossRef |

Price CA, Symonova O, Mileyko Y, Hilley T, Weitz J (2011) Leaf extraction and analysis framework graphical user interface: segmenting and analyzing the structure of leaf veins and areoles. Plant Physiology 155, 236–245.
Leaf extraction and analysis framework graphical user interface: segmenting and analyzing the structure of leaf veins and areoles.CrossRef |

Puigdefábregas J, Pugnaire FI (1999) Plant survival in arid environments. In ‘Handbook of functional plant ecology’. (Eds FI Pugnaire, F Valladares) pp. 381–405 (Marcel Dekker: New York)

Putz FE, Phyllis DC, Lu K, Montalvo A, Aiello A (1983) Uprooting and snapping of trees: structural determinants and ecological consequences. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13, 1011–1020.
Uprooting and snapping of trees: structural determinants and ecological consequences.CrossRef |

Pyankov VI, Gunin PD, Tsoog S, Black CC (2000) C-4 plants in the vegetation of Mongolia: their natural occurrence and geographical distribution in relation to climate. Oecologia 123, 15–31.
C-4 plants in the vegetation of Mongolia: their natural occurrence and geographical distribution in relation to climate.CrossRef |

Rabotnov TA (1950) The life cycle of perennial herbaceous plants in meadow coenoses. Trudy Botanicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriia III 6, 7–204.

Raunkiaer C (1934) ‘The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography.’ (Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK)

Read J, Stokes A (2006) Plant biomechanics in an ecological context. American Journal of Botany 93, 1546–1565.
Plant biomechanics in an ecological context.CrossRef |

Rebollo S, Milchunas DG, Noy-Meir I, Chapman PL (2002) The role of a spiny plant refuge in structuring grazed shortgrass steppe plant communities. Oikos 98, 53–64.
The role of a spiny plant refuge in structuring grazed shortgrass steppe plant communities.CrossRef |

Rees M, Osborne CP, Woodward FI, Hulme SP, Turnbull LA, Taylor SH (2010) Partitioning the components of relative growth rate: how important is plant size variation? American Naturalist 176, E152–E161.
Partitioning the components of relative growth rate: how important is plant size variation?CrossRef |

Reich PB (2002) Root-shoot relations: optimality in acclimation and adaptation or the ‘Emperor’s new clothes? In ‘Plant roots: the hidden half’. (Eds Y Waisel, A Eshel, U Kafkafi) pp. 314–338 (Marcel Dekker: New York)

Reich PB, Uhl C, Walters MB, Ellsworth DS (1991a) Leaf lifespan as a determinant of leaf structure and function among 23 Amazonian tree species. Oecologia 86, 16–24.
Leaf lifespan as a determinant of leaf structure and function among 23 Amazonian tree species.CrossRef |

Reich PB, Walters MB, Ellsworth DS (1991b) Leaf age and season influence the relationships between leaf nitrogen, leaf mass per area and photosynthesis in maple and oak trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 14, 251–259.
Leaf age and season influence the relationships between leaf nitrogen, leaf mass per area and photosynthesis in maple and oak trees.CrossRef |

Reich PB, Walters MB, Ellsworth DS (1992) Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62, 365–392.
Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems.CrossRef |

Reich PB, Walters MB, Ellsworth DS (1997) From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 13730–13734.
From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning.CrossRef |

Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Walters MB, Vanderklein DW, Bushena C (1998) Close association of RGR, leaf and root morphology, seed mass and shade tolerance in seedlings of nine boreal tree species grown in high and low light. Functional Ecology 12, 327–338.
Close association of RGR, leaf and root morphology, seed mass and shade tolerance in seedlings of nine boreal tree species grown in high and low light.CrossRef |

Reich PB, Ellsworth DS, Walters MB, Vose JM, Gresham C, Volin JC, Bowman WD (1999) Generality of leaf trait relationships: a test across six biomes. Ecology 80, 1955–1969.
Generality of leaf trait relationships: a test across six biomes.CrossRef |

Reich PB, Tilman D, Naeem S, Ellsworth DS, Knops J, Craine J, Wedin D, Trost J (2004) Species and functional group diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101, 10 101–10 106.
Species and functional group diversity independently influence biomass accumulation and its response to CO2 and N.CrossRef |

Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Pregitzer KS, Wright IJ, Oleksyn J, Machado JL (2008) Scaling of respiration to nitrogen in leaves, stems and roots of higher land plants. Ecology Letters 11, 793–801.
Scaling of respiration to nitrogen in leaves, stems and roots of higher land plants.CrossRef |

Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Wright IJ, Niklas KJ, Hedin L, Elser J (2010) Evidence of a general 2/3-power law of scaling leaf nitrogen to phosphorus among major plant groups and biomes. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 277, 877–883.
Evidence of a general 2/3-power law of scaling leaf nitrogen to phosphorus among major plant groups and biomes.CrossRef |

Reyes G, Brown S, Chapman J, Lugo AE (1992) Wood densities of tropical tree species. General technical report S0-88 US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.

Richter M (1992) Methods of interpreting climatological conditions based on phytomorphological characteristics in the cordilleras of the Neotropics. Plant Research and Development 36, 89–114.

Robertson GP, Coleman DC, Bledsoe CS, Sollins P (1999) ‘Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research.’ (Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK)

Rodriguez-Calcerrada J, Atkin OK, Robson TM, Zaragoza-Castells J, Gil L, Aranda I (2010) Thermal acclimation of leaf dark respiration of beech seedlings experiencing summer drought in high and low light environments. Tree Physiology 30, 214–224.
Thermal acclimation of leaf dark respiration of beech seedlings experiencing summer drought in high and low light environments.CrossRef |

Römermann C, Tackenberg O, Poschlod P (2005a) How to predict attachment potential of seeds to sheep and cattle coat from simple morphological seed traits. Oikos 110, 219–230.
How to predict attachment potential of seeds to sheep and cattle coat from simple morphological seed traits.CrossRef |

Römermann C, Tackenberg O, Poschlod P (2005b) Buoyancy. In ‘The LEDA traitbase collecting and measuring standards’. (Eds IC Knevel, RM Bekker, D Kunzmann, M Stadler, K Thompson) pp. 124–127 (Groningen University: Groningen, The Netherlands)

Römermann C, Tackenberg O, Poschlod P (2005c) External animal dispersal (epizoochory). In ‘The LEDA traitbase collecting and measuring standards’. (Eds IC Knevel, RM Bekker, D Kunzmann, M Stadler, K Thompson) pp. 127–129 (Groningen University: Groningen, The Netherlands)

Roth-Nebelsick A, Uhl D, Mosbrugger V, Kerp H (2001) Evolution and function of leaf venation architecture: a review. Annals of Botany 87, 553–566.
Evolution and function of leaf venation architecture: a review.CrossRef |

Rothermel RC (1972) A mathematical model for predicting fire spread in wildland fuels. USDA Forest Service Research Paper INT. (USDA Forest Service: Washington, DC)

Roumet C, Urcelay C, Díaz S (2006) Suites of root traits differ between annual and perennial species growing in the field. New Phytologist 170, 357–368.
Suites of root traits differ between annual and perennial species growing in the field.CrossRef |

Royer DL, McElwain JC, Adams JM, Wilf P (2008) Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii. New Phytologist 179, 808–817.
Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii.CrossRef |

Rozema J, Bijwaard P, Prast G, Broekman R (1985) Ecophysiological adaptations of coastal halophytes from foredunes and salt marshes. Vegetatio 62, 499–521.
Ecophysiological adaptations of coastal halophytes from foredunes and salt marshes.CrossRef |

Rozema J, Weijers S, Broekman R, Blokker P, Buizer B, Werleman C, Yaqine HE, Hoogedoorn H, Mayoral Fuertes M, Cooper E (2009) Annual growth of Cassiope tetragona as a proxy for Arctic climate: developing correlative and experimental transfer functions to reconstruct past summer temperature on a millennial time scale. Global Change Biology 15, 1703–1715.
Annual growth of Cassiope tetragona as a proxy for Arctic climate: developing correlative and experimental transfer functions to reconstruct past summer temperature on a millennial time scale.CrossRef |

Rundel PW (1991) Shrub life-forms. In ‘Response of plants to multiple stresses’. (Eds HA Mooney, WE Winner, EJ Pell) pp. 345–370 (Academic Press: San Diego, CA)

Ryser P, Bernardi J, Merla A (2008) Determination of leaf fresh mass after storage between moist paper towels: constraints and reliability of the method. Journal of Experimental Botany 59, 2461–2467.
Determination of leaf fresh mass after storage between moist paper towels: constraints and reliability of the method.CrossRef |

Sack L, Frole K (2006) Leaf structural diversity is related to hydraulic capacity in tropical rain forest trees. Ecology 87, 483–491.
Leaf structural diversity is related to hydraulic capacity in tropical rain forest trees.CrossRef |

Sack L, Holbrook NM (2006) Leaf hydraulics. Annual Review of Plant Biology 57, 361–381.
Leaf hydraulics.CrossRef |

Sack L, Grubb PJ, Marañón T (2003) The functional morphology of juvenile plants tolerant of strong summer drought in shaded forest understories in southern Spain. Plant Ecology 168, 139–163.
The functional morphology of juvenile plants tolerant of strong summer drought in shaded forest understories in southern Spain.CrossRef |

Sack L, Cornwell WK, Santiago LS, Barbour MM, Choat B, Evans JR, Munns R, Nicotra A (2010) A unique web resource for physiology, ecology and the environmental sciences: PrometheusWiki. Functional Plant Biology 37, 687–693.
A unique web resource for physiology, ecology and the environmental sciences: PrometheusWiki.CrossRef |

Sage RF (2001) Environmental and evolutionary preconditions for the origin and diversification of the C4 photosynthetic syndrome. Plant Biology 3, 202–213.
Environmental and evolutionary preconditions for the origin and diversification of the C4 photosynthetic syndrome.CrossRef |

Santiago LS, Goldstein G, Meinzer FC, Fisher JB, Machado K, Woodruff D, Jones T (2004) Leaf photosynthetic traits scale with hydraulic conductivity and wood density in Panamanian forest canopy trees. Oecologia 140, 543–550.
Leaf photosynthetic traits scale with hydraulic conductivity and wood density in Panamanian forest canopy trees.CrossRef |

Scarff FR, Westoby M (2006) Leaf litter flammability in some semi-arid Australian woodlands. Functional Ecology 20, 745–752.
Leaf litter flammability in some semi-arid Australian woodlands.CrossRef |

Schenk HJ, Jackson RB (2002) The global biogeography of roots. Ecological Monographs 72, 311–328.
The global biogeography of roots.CrossRef |

Scholander PF (1966) The role of solvent pressure in osmotic systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 55, 1407–1414.
The role of solvent pressure in osmotic systems.CrossRef |

Schurr FM, Bond WJ, Midgley GF, Higgins SI (2005) A mechanistic model for secondary seed dispersal by wind and its experimental validation. Journal of Ecology 93, 1017–1028.
A mechanistic model for secondary seed dispersal by wind and its experimental validation.CrossRef |

Schweingruber FH (1996) ‘Tree rings and environment. Dendroecology.’ (Haupt-Verlag: Bern, Switzerland)

Schweingruber FH, Poschlod P (2005) Growth rings in herbs and shrubs: life span, age determination and stem anatomy. Forest Snow and Landscape Research 79, 195–415.

Schwilk DW, Ackerly DD (2001) Flammability and serotiny as strategies: correlated evolution in pines. Oikos 94, 326–336.
Flammability and serotiny as strategies: correlated evolution in pines.CrossRef |

Seibt U, Rajabi A, Griffiths H, Berry JA (2008) Carbon isotopes and water use efficiency: sense and sensitivity. Oecologia 155, 441–454.
Carbon isotopes and water use efficiency: sense and sensitivity.CrossRef |

Seiwa K, Kikuzawa K (1996) Importance of seed size for the establishment of seedlings of five deciduous broad-leaved tree species. Vegetatio 123, 51–64.
Importance of seed size for the establishment of seedlings of five deciduous broad-leaved tree species.CrossRef |

Shipley B (1995) Structured interspecific determinants of specific leaf area in 34 species of herbaceous angiosperms. Functional Ecology 9, 312–319.
Structured interspecific determinants of specific leaf area in 34 species of herbaceous angiosperms.CrossRef |

Shipley B, Vu TT (2002) Dry matter content as a measure of dry matter concentration in plants and their parts. New Phytologist 153, 359–364.
Dry matter content as a measure of dry matter concentration in plants and their parts.CrossRef |

Singer MC (2000) Reducing ambiguity in describing plant-insect interactions: ‘preference’, ‘acceptability’ and ‘electivity’. Ecology Letters 3, 159–162.
Reducing ambiguity in describing plant-insect interactions: ‘preference’, ‘acceptability’ and ‘electivity’.CrossRef |

Skinner FK, Rotenberg Y, Neumann AW (1989) Contact angle measurements from the contact diameter of sessile drops by means of a modified axisymmetric drop shape analysis. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 130, 25–34.
Contact angle measurements from the contact diameter of sessile drops by means of a modified axisymmetric drop shape analysis.CrossRef |

Smith WK, Bell DT, Shepherd KA (1998) Associations between leaf structure, orientation, and sunlight exposure in five Western Australian communities. American Journal of Botany 85, 56–63.
Associations between leaf structure, orientation, and sunlight exposure in five Western Australian communities.CrossRef |

Southwood TRE (1977) Habitat, the templet for ecological strategies? Journal of Animal Ecology 43, 337–365.

Southwood TRE, Brown VK, Reader PM (1986) Leaf palatability, life expectancy and herbivore damage. Oecologia 70, 544–548.
Leaf palatability, life expectancy and herbivore damage.CrossRef |

Sperry JS (2003) Evolution of water transport and xylem structure. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164, S115–S127.
Evolution of water transport and xylem structure.CrossRef |

Sperry JS, Donnelly JR, Tyree MT (1988) A method for measuring hydraulic conductivity and embolism in xylem. Plant, Cell & Environment 11, 35–40.
A method for measuring hydraulic conductivity and embolism in xylem.CrossRef |

Sperry JS, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA (2008a) Safety and efficiency conflicts in hydraulic architecture: scaling from tissues to trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 31, 632–645.
Safety and efficiency conflicts in hydraulic architecture: scaling from tissues to trees.CrossRef |

Sperry JS, Taneda H, Bush SE, Hacke UG (2008b) Evaluation of centrifugal methods for measuring xylem cavitation in conifers, diffuse and ring-porous angiosperms. New Phytologist 177, 558–568.

Srivastava DS, Cadotte MW, MacDonald AAM, Marushia RG, Mirotchnick N (2012) Phylogenetic diversity and the functioning of ecosystems. Ecology Letters 15, 637–648.
Phylogenetic diversity and the functioning of ecosystems.CrossRef |

Staver AC, Bond WJ, February EC (2011) History matters: tree establishment variability and species turnover in an African savanna. Ecosphere 2, art49
History matters: tree establishment variability and species turnover in an African savanna.CrossRef |

Stephens SL, Gordon DA, Martin RE (1994) Combustibility of selected domestic vegetation subjected to desiccation. In ‘12th conference on fire and forest meteorology’, Jekyll Island, GA. Available from: http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/stephens-lab/Publications/Stephensetal_93_%20Comb_Veg.pdf [Verified 22 February 2013].

Steudle E (2001) Water uptake by plant roots: an integration of views. In ‘Recent advances of plant root structure and function’. (Eds O Gašparíková, M Ciamporová, I Mistrík, F Baluška) pp. 71–82 (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Stich B, Piepho H-P, Schulz B, Melchinger AE (2008) Multi-trait association mapping in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 117, 947–954.
Multi-trait association mapping in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).CrossRef |

Strauss SY, Agrawal AA (1999) The ecology and evolution of plant tolerance to herbivory. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14, 179–185.
The ecology and evolution of plant tolerance to herbivory.CrossRef |

Swenson NG, Enquist BJ (2008) The relationship between stem and branch specific gravity and the ability of each measure to predict leaf area. American Journal of Botany 95, 516–519.
The relationship between stem and branch specific gravity and the ability of each measure to predict leaf area.CrossRef |

Tackenberg O (2003) Modeling long distance dispersal of plant diaspores by wind. Ecological Monographs 73, 173–189.
Modeling long distance dispersal of plant diaspores by wind.CrossRef |

Tackenberg O, Poschlod P, Bonn S (2003) Assessment of wind dispersal potential in plant species. Ecological Monographs 73, 191–205.
Assessment of wind dispersal potential in plant species.CrossRef |

Taiz L, Zeiger E (2010) ‘Plant physiology.’ (The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing: Redwood City, CA)

Tamm CO (1972) Survival and flowering of some perennial herbs. II. The behaviour of some orchids on permanent plots. Oikos 23, 23–28.
Survival and flowering of some perennial herbs. II. The behaviour of some orchids on permanent plots.CrossRef |

Taylor B, Parkinson D (1988) A new microcosm approach to litter decomposition studies. Canadian Journal of Botany 66, 1933–1939.

Temminghoff EEJM, Houba VJG (2004) ‘Plant analyses procedures.’ (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dodrecht, The Netherlands).

Tennant D (1975) A test of a modified line intersect method of estimating root length. Journal of Ecology 63, 995–1001.
A test of a modified line intersect method of estimating root length.CrossRef |

Thomas SC (1996) Asymptotic height as a predictor of growth and allometric characteristics in Malaysian rain forest trees. American Journal of Botany 83, 556–566.
Asymptotic height as a predictor of growth and allometric characteristics in Malaysian rain forest trees.CrossRef |

Thompson K, Band SR, Hodgson JG (1993) Seed size and shape predict seed persistence in the soil. Functional Ecology 7, 236–241.
Seed size and shape predict seed persistence in the soil.CrossRef |

Thompson K, Bakker JP, Bekker RM (1997) ‘The soil seed bank of North West Europe: methodology, density and longevity.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Tjoelker MG, Oleksyn J, Reich PB (2001) Modelling respiration of vegetation: evidence for a general temperature-dependent Q10 Global Change Biology 7, 223–230.
Modelling respiration of vegetation: evidence for a general temperature-dependent Q10CrossRef |

Turner NC (1988) Measurement of plant water status by the pressure chamber technique. Irrigation Science 9, 289–308.
Measurement of plant water status by the pressure chamber technique.CrossRef |

Turner IM (1994) Sclerophylly: primarily protective? Functional Ecology 8, 669–675.
Sclerophylly: primarily protective?CrossRef |

Tyree MT, Sperry JS (1989) Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 40, 19–36.
Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism.CrossRef |

Tyree MT, Zimmermann MH (2002) ‘Xylem structure and the ascent of sap.’ (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)

Uhl D, Mosbrugger V (1999) Leaf venation density as a climate and environmental proxy: a critical review and new data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 149, 15–26.
Leaf venation density as a climate and environmental proxy: a critical review and new data.CrossRef |

Vaieretti MV, Díaz S, Vile D, Garnier E (2007) Two measurement methods of leaf dry matter content produce similar results in a broad range of species. Annals of Botany 99, 955–958.
Two measurement methods of leaf dry matter content produce similar results in a broad range of species.CrossRef |

Valette J-C (1997) Inflammabilities of Mediterranean species. In ‘Forest fire risk and management. EUR 16719 EN’. (Ed. P Balabanis, F Eftichidis, R Fantechi) pp. 51–64 (European Commission, Environment and Quality of Life: Brussels)

Van Altena C, Van Logtestijn RSP, Cornwell WK, Cornelissen JHC (2012) Species composition and fire: non-additive mixture effects on ground fuel flammability. Frontiers in Plant Science 3, 63
Species composition and fire: non-additive mixture effects on ground fuel flammability.CrossRef |

Van der Pijl L (1982) ‘Principles of dispersal in higher plants.’ (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)

Van Gelder HA, Poorter L, Sterck FJ (2006) Wood mechanics, allometry, and life-history variation in a tropical rain forest tree community. New Phytologist 171, 367–378.
Wood mechanics, allometry, and life-history variation in a tropical rain forest tree community.CrossRef |

Van Groenendael JM, Klimeš L, Klimešova J, Hendriks RJJ (1997) Comparative ecology of clonal plants. In ‘Plant life histories’. (Eds JL Harper, J Silvertown, M Franco) pp. 191–209 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Vendramini F, Díaz S, Gurvich DE, Wilson PJ, Thompson K, Hodgson JG (2002) Leaf traits as indicators of resource-use strategy in floras with succulent species. New Phytologist 154, 147–157.
Leaf traits as indicators of resource-use strategy in floras with succulent species.CrossRef |

Veneklaas EJ, Poorter L (1998) Growth and carbon partitioning of tropical tree seedlings in contrasting light environments. In ‘Inherent variation in plant growth’. (Eds H Lambers, H Poorter, MMI Van Vuuren) pp. 337–361 (Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands)

Veneklaas EJ, Zagt RJ, Van Leerdam A, Van Ek R, Broekhoven AJ, Van Genderen M (1990) Hydrological properties of the epiphyte mass of a montane tropical rain forest, Colombia. Vegetatio 89, 183–192.
Hydrological properties of the epiphyte mass of a montane tropical rain forest, Colombia.CrossRef |

Vesk PA, Westoby M (2004) Sprouting ability across diverse disturbances and vegetation types worldwide. Journal of Ecology 92, 310–320.
Sprouting ability across diverse disturbances and vegetation types worldwide.CrossRef |

Vile D, Garnier E, Shipley B, Laurent G, Navas M-L, Roumet C, Lavorel S, Díaz S, Hodgson JG, Lloret F, Midgley GF, Poorter H, Rutherford MC, Wilson PJ, Wright IJ (2005) Specific leaf area and dry matter content estimate thickness in laminar leaves. Annals of Botany 96, 1129–1136.
Specific leaf area and dry matter content estimate thickness in laminar leaves.CrossRef |

Violle C, Navas M-L, Vile D, Kazakou E, Fortunel C, Hummel I, Garnier E (2007) Let the concept of trait be functional! Oikos 116, 882–892.
Let the concept of trait be functional!CrossRef |

Wahl S, Ryser P (2000) Root tissue structure is linked to ecological strategies of grasses. New Phytologist 148, 459–471.
Root tissue structure is linked to ecological strategies of grasses.CrossRef |

Walters MB, Reich PB (1999) Low-light carbon balance and shade tolerance in the seedlings of woody plants: do winter deciduous and broad-leaved evergreen species differ? New Phytologist 143, 143–154.
Low-light carbon balance and shade tolerance in the seedlings of woody plants: do winter deciduous and broad-leaved evergreen species differ?CrossRef |

Wand SJE, Midgley GG, Jones MH, Curtis PS (1999) Responses of wild C4 and C3 grasses (Poaceae) species to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: a meta-analytical test of current theories and perceptions. Global Change Biology 5, 723–741.
Responses of wild C4 and C3 grasses (Poaceae) species to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: a meta-analytical test of current theories and perceptions.CrossRef |

Weiher E, Clarke GDP, Keddy PA (1998) Community assembly rules, morphological dispersion, and the coexistence of plant species. Oikos 81, 309–322.
Community assembly rules, morphological dispersion, and the coexistence of plant species.CrossRef |

Weiher E, Van der Werf A, Thompson K, Roderick M, Garnier E, Eriksson O (1999) Challenging Theophrastus: a common core list of plant traits for functional ecology. Journal of Vegetation Science 10, 609–620.
Challenging Theophrastus: a common core list of plant traits for functional ecology.CrossRef |

Westoby M (1998) A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme. Plant and Soil 199, 213–227.
A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme.CrossRef |

Westoby M, Cunningham SA, Fonseca C, Overton J, Wright IJ (1998) Phylogeny and variation in light capture area deployed per unit investment in leaves: designs for selecting study species with a view to generalizing. In ‘Variation in growth rate and productivity of higher plants’. (Eds H Lambers, H Poorter H, MMI Van Vuuren) pp. 539–566 (Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands)

Westoby M, Warton D, Reich PB (2000) The time value of leaf area. American Naturalist 155, 649–656.
The time value of leaf area.CrossRef |

Westoby M, Falster D, Moles A, Vesk P, Wright I (2002) Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33, 125–159.
Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species.CrossRef |

Whittaker RH (1975) ‘Communities and ecosystems.’ 2nd edn. (Macmillan Publishing: New York)

Will H, Tackenberg O (2008) A mechanistic simulation model of seed dispersal by animals. Journal of Ecology 96, 1011–1022.
A mechanistic simulation model of seed dispersal by animals.CrossRef |

Williamson GB, Wiemann MC (2010) Measuring wood specific gravity...Correctly. American Journal of Botany 97, 519–524.
Measuring wood specific gravity...Correctly.CrossRef |

Wilson PJ, Thompson K, Hodgson JG (1999) Specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content as alternative predictors of plant strategies. New Phytologist 143, 155–162.
Specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content as alternative predictors of plant strategies.CrossRef |

Withington JM, Reich B, Oleksyn J, Eissenstat DM (2006) Comparisons of structure and life span in roots and leaves among temperate trees. Ecological Monographs 76, 381–397.
Comparisons of structure and life span in roots and leaves among temperate trees.CrossRef |

Witkowski ETF, Lamont BB (1991) Leaf specific mass confounds leaf density and thickness. Oecologia 88, 486–493.

Wong S-C, Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1979) Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity. Nature 282, 424–426.
Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity.CrossRef |

Wong S-C, Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1985a) Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO2 assimilation. I. Influence of nitrogen nutrition, phosphorus nutrition, photon flux density, and ambient partial pressure of CO2 during ontogeny. Plant Physiology 78, 821–825.
Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO2 assimilation. I. Influence of nitrogen nutrition, phosphorus nutrition, photon flux density, and ambient partial pressure of CO2 during ontogeny.CrossRef |

Wong S-C, Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1985b) Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO2 assimilation. II. Effects of short-term exposures to different photon flux densities. Plant Physiology 78, 826–829.
Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO2 assimilation. II. Effects of short-term exposures to different photon flux densities.CrossRef |

Wong S-C, Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1985c) Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO2 assimilation. III. Influences of water stress and photoinhibition. Plant Physiology 78, 830–834.
Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO2 assimilation. III. Influences of water stress and photoinhibition.CrossRef |

Wright IJ, Cannon K (2001) Relationships between leaf lifespan and structural defences in a low-nutrient, sclerophyll flora. Functional Ecology 15, 351–359.
Relationships between leaf lifespan and structural defences in a low-nutrient, sclerophyll flora.CrossRef |

Wright W, Illius AW (1995) A comparative study of the fracture properties of 5 grasses. Functional Ecology 9, 269–278.
A comparative study of the fracture properties of 5 grasses.CrossRef |

Wright W, Vincent JFK (1996) Herbivory and the mechanics of fracture in plants. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 71, 401–413.
Herbivory and the mechanics of fracture in plants.CrossRef |

Wright IJ, Westoby M (2002) Leaves at low versus high rainfall: coordination of structure, lifespan and physiology. New Phytologist 155, 403–416.
Leaves at low versus high rainfall: coordination of structure, lifespan and physiology.CrossRef |

Wright IJ, Clifford HT, Kidson R, Reed ML, Rice BL, Westoby M (2000) A survey of seed and seedling characters in 1744 Australian dicotyledon species: cross-species trait correlations and correlated trait-shifts within evolutionary lineages. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 69, 521–547.
A survey of seed and seedling characters in 1744 Australian dicotyledon species: cross-species trait correlations and correlated trait-shifts within evolutionary lineages.CrossRef |

Wright IJ, Westoby M, Reich PB (2002) Convergence towards higher leaf mass per area in dry and nutrient-poor habitats has different consequences for leaf life span. Journal of Ecology 90, 534–543.
Convergence towards higher leaf mass per area in dry and nutrient-poor habitats has different consequences for leaf life span.CrossRef |

Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, Ackerly DD, Baruch Z, Bongers F, Cavender-Bares J, Chapin T, Cornelissen JHC, Diemer M, Flexas J, Garnier E, Groom PK, Gulias J, Hikosaka K, Lamont BB, Lee T, Lee W, Lusk C, Midgley JJ, Navas ML, Niinemets U, Oleksyn J, Osada N, Poorter H, Poot P, Prior L, Pyankov VI, Roumet C, Thomas SC, Tjoelker MG, Veneklaas EJ, Villar R (2004) The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428, 821–827.
The worldwide leaf economics spectrum.CrossRef |

Wright IJ, Falster DS, Pickup M, Westoby M (2006) Cross-species patterns in the coordination between leaf and stem traits, and their implications for plant hydraulics. Physiologia Plantarum 127, 445–456.
Cross-species patterns in the coordination between leaf and stem traits, and their implications for plant hydraulics.CrossRef |

Wright IJ, Ackerly D, Bongers F, Harms KE, Ibarra-Manríquez G, Martínez-Ramos M, Mazer SJ, Muller-Landau HC, Paz H, Pitman NCA, Poorter L, Silman MR, Vriesendorp CF, Webb CO, Westoby M, Wright SJ (2007) Relationships among ecologically important dimensions of plant trait variation in seven neotropical forests. Annals of Botany 99, 1003–1015.
Relationships among ecologically important dimensions of plant trait variation in seven neotropical forests.CrossRef |

Yeo AR (1983) Salinity resistance: physiologies and prices. Physiologia Plantarum 58, 214–222.
Salinity resistance: physiologies and prices.CrossRef |

Zanne AE, Chapman CA, Kitajima K (2005) Evolutionary and ecological correlates of early seedling morphology in east African trees and shrubs. American Journal of Botany 92, 972–978.
Evolutionary and ecological correlates of early seedling morphology in east African trees and shrubs.CrossRef |

Zanne AE, Westoby M, Falster DS, Ackerly DD, Loarie SR, Arnold SEJ, Coomes DA (2010) Angiosperm wood structure: global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relation to wood density and potential conductivity. American Journal of Botany 97, 207–215.
Angiosperm wood structure: global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relation to wood density and potential conductivity.CrossRef |

Zhu JK (2001) Plant salt tolerance. Trends in Plant Science 6, 66–71.
Plant salt tolerance.CrossRef |

Zimmermann MH, Jeje AA (1981) Vessel-length distribution in stems of some American woody plants. Canadian Journal of Botany 59, 1882–1892.
Vessel-length distribution in stems of some American woody plants.CrossRef |

Zinke PJ (1962) The pattern of influence of individual forest trees on soil properties. Ecology 43, 130–133.
The pattern of influence of individual forest trees on soil properties.CrossRef |

Zotz G, Ziegler H (1997) The occurrence of crassulacean metabolism among vascular epiphytes from central Panama. New Phytologist 137, 223–229.
The occurrence of crassulacean metabolism among vascular epiphytes from central Panama.CrossRef |

Zwieniecki MA, Melcher PJ, Holbrook NM (2001) Hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic resistance in plants. Science 291, 1059–1062.
Hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic resistance in plants.CrossRef |

Zwieniecki MA, Melcher PJ, Boyce CK, Sack L, Holbrook NM (2002) Hydraulic architecture of leaf venation in Laurus nobilis L. Plant, Cell & Environment 25, 1445–1450.
Hydraulic architecture of leaf venation in Laurus nobilis L.CrossRef |


Full Text PDF (2.4 MB) Corrigendum (2.4 MB) Export Citation Cited By (461)

View Altmetrics