Australian Journal of Botany Australian Journal of Botany Society
Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Inhibitory action of allelochemicals from Artemisia nanschanica to control Pedicularis kansuensis, an annual weed of alpine grasslands

Zhanhuan Shang A D , Yuan Hou A , Fei Li A , Cancan Guo A , Tianhua Jia A , A. Allan Degen B , Andrew White C , Luming Ding A and Ruijun Long A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu province, China.

B Desert Animal Adaptations and Husbandry, Wyler Department of Dryland Agriculture, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of Negev, Beer Sheva 8410500, Israel.

C The School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: shangzhh@lzu.edu.cn

Australian Journal of Botany 65(4) 305-314 https://doi.org/10.1071/BT17014
Submitted: 13 January 2017  Accepted: 21 April 2017   Published: 6 June 2017

Abstract

The inhibitory action of allelochemicals can be used effectively for biological weed management and can minimise environmental impacts related to herbicides. The aim of the present study was to identify allelochemicals of Artemisia nanschanica Krasch, a typical weed with strong allelopathic effects, that could potentially control Pedicularis kansuensis Maxim, the key pioneer weed that causes rapid degradation of alpine pastures. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to identify the compounds of six extracts from A. nanschanica. Two ethyl acetate extracts were the most effective in reducing the seed germination rate and in inhibiting seedling shoot and root growth of P. kansuensis. Three chemical compounds from the ethyl acetate extracts were identified for their allelopathic inhibitory effects, a sesquiterpene and two aromadendrene oxides, with the sesquiterpene being the most effective. The three compounds showed the best inhibitory effect through synergistic action. We concluded that the three allelochemicals of A. nanschanica, either alone or in combination, can be used to biologically control P. kansuensis in alpine pastures on the Tibetan plateau.

Additional keywords: alpine pasture, aromadendrene oxide, environmental impact, herbicide, sesquiterpene.


References

Aghaei M, Alizadeh M, Sharifian I (2011) Chemical composition of essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba from west Azerbaijan, Iran. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10, 2413–2416.

Alsaadawi IS, Al-Uqaili JK, Alrubeaa AJ, Al-Hadithy SM (1986) Allelopathic suppression of weed and nitrification by selected cultivars of Sorghum bicolour (L.) moench. Journal of Chemical Ecology 12, 209–219.
Allelopathic suppression of weed and nitrification by selected cultivars of Sorghum bicolour (L.) moench.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2c3jsVersw%3D%3D&md5=a2c08030f66d938aeaca3e05716bd11eCAS |

Ammon HU, Muller-Scharer H (1999) Prospects for combining biological weed control with integrated crop production systems, and with sensitive management of alpine pastures in Switzerland. Weed Science 106, 213–220.

Ayoughi F, Barzegar M, Sahari MA, Naghdibadi H (2011) Chemical composition of essential oils of Artemisia dracunculus L. and endemic Matricaria chamomilla L. and an evaluation of their antioxidative effectives. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology 13, 79–88.

Bai XF, Zhang BC (1994) Study of staple composition of Ajania tenuifolia oil on inhibition mechanism seeding initial growth of Elymu nutans. Acta Ecologica Sinica 14, 223–224.

Bhowmik PC, Inderjit (2003) Challengers and opportunities in implementing allelopathy for natural weed management. Crop Protection 22, 661–671.
Challengers and opportunities in implementing allelopathy for natural weed management.CrossRef |

Bicchi C, Frattini C, Sacco T (1985) Essential oils of three Asiatic Artemisia species. Phytochemistry 24, 2440–2442.
Essential oils of three Asiatic Artemisia species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL28XjtFOnsQ%3D%3D&md5=ca78bff31a7e5835abd68ce0acbbb9abCAS |

Chauhan RS, Kitchlu S, Ram G, Kaul MK, Tava A (2010) Chemical composition of capillenechemo type of Artemisia dracunculus L. from north-west Himalaya, India. Industrial Crops and Products 31, 546–549.
Chemical composition of capillenechemo type of Artemisia dracunculus L. from north-west Himalaya, India.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXjvFCis7g%3D&md5=3626f5f9f7badb1e79704f3de87e6da7CAS |

Cheema ZA, Khaliq A, Saeed S (2004) Weed control in maize (Zea mays L.) through sorghum allelopathy. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 23, 73–86.
Weed control in maize (Zea mays L.) through sorghum allelopathy.CrossRef |

de Bertoldi C, de Leo M, Braca A, Ercoli L (2009) Bioassay-guided isolation of allelochemicals from Avenasativa L.: allelopathic potential of flavone C-glycosides. Chemoecology 19, 169–176.
Bioassay-guided isolation of allelochemicals from Avenasativa L.: allelopathic potential of flavone C-glycosides.CrossRef |

Dong SK, Long RJ, Hu ZZ, Kang MY (2005) Productivity and persistence of perennial grass mixture under competition from annual weeds in the alpine region of the Qinghai–Tibetan plateau. Weed Research 45, 114–120.
Productivity and persistence of perennial grass mixture under competition from annual weeds in the alpine region of the Qinghai–Tibetan plateau.CrossRef |

Duke SO, Dayan FE, Romagni JG, Rimando AM (2000) Natural products as sources of herbicides: current status and future trends. Weed Research 40, 99–111.
Natural products as sources of herbicides: current status and future trends.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhs1yhtbY%3D&md5=ac2726f7e7d31fa305a34831cb6fadffCAS |

Ens E-J, French K, Bremner JB, Korth J (2009) Identification of volatile compounds released by roots of aninvasive plant, bitou bush (Chrysanthe moidesmonilifera spp. rotundata), and their inhibition of native seedling growth. Biological Invasions 11, 275–287.
Identification of volatile compounds released by roots of aninvasive plant, bitou bush (Chrysanthe moidesmonilifera spp. rotundata), and their inhibition of native seedling growth.CrossRef |

Ens E-J, French K, Bremner JB, Korth J (2010) Novel technique shows different hydrophobic chemical signatures of exotic and indigenous plant soils with similar effects of extracts on indigenous species seedling growth. Plant and Soil 326, 403–414.
Novel technique shows different hydrophobic chemical signatures of exotic and indigenous plant soils with similar effects of extracts on indigenous species seedling growth.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsFGrt7nF&md5=7cd43f51d4a5930e4e905f935f77a588CAS |

Escudero A, Albert MJ, Pita JM, Perez-Garcia F (2000) Inhibitory effects of Artemisia herba-alba on the germination of the gypsophyte Helian themum squamatum. Plant Ecology 148, 71–80.
Inhibitory effects of Artemisia herba-alba on the germination of the gypsophyte Helian themum squamatum.CrossRef |

Fernandez C, Monnier Y, Ormeno E, Baldy V, Greff S, Pasqualini V, Mevy J-P, Bousquet-Melou A (2009) Variations in allelochemical composition of leachates of different organs and maturity stages of Pinus halepensis. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35, 970–979.
Variations in allelochemical composition of leachates of different organs and maturity stages of Pinus halepensis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtFCitr3E&md5=64d0772f9620cfaedd06f0911cb554beCAS |

Fischer NH, Williamson GB, Weidenhamer JD, Richardson DR (1994) In search of allelopathy in the florida scrub: the role of terpenoids. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20, 1355–1380.
In search of allelopathy in the florida scrub: the role of terpenoids.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXksFequrc%3D&md5=1ebb905737b9a77e5656191a613141c2CAS |

Foy CL, Inderjit (2001) Understanding the role of allelopathy in weed interference and declining plant diversity. Weed Technology 15, 873–878.
Understanding the role of allelopathy in weed interference and declining plant diversity.CrossRef |

Gao TG (2007) ‘Catalogue of life, China. Species China 2000 node. 2010 annual checklist.’ Available at http://data.sp2000.cn/2010_cnnode_e/show_species_details.php?name_code=6ab88adb-39a5-4542-8f14-4d7593d95fc4 [Verified 20 January 2016]

Goodall J, Witkowski EdTF, Ammann S, Reinhardt C (2010) Does allelopathy explain the invasiveness of Campuloclinium macrocephalum (popmpom weed) in the South African grassland biome? Biological Invasions 12, 3497–3512.
Does allelopathy explain the invasiveness of Campuloclinium macrocephalum (popmpom weed) in the South African grassland biome?CrossRef |

Han CM, Pan KW, Wu N, Wang JC, Li W (2008) Allelopathic effect of ginger on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean and chive. Scientia Horticulturae 116, 330–336.
Allelopathic effect of ginger on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean and chive.CrossRef |

He HB, Wang HB, Fang CX, Lin YY, Zeng CM, Wu LZ, Guo WC, Lin WX (2009) Herbicida effect of a combination of oxygenic terpenoids on Echinochloa crus-galli. Weed Research 49, 183–192.
Herbicida effect of a combination of oxygenic terpenoids on Echinochloa crus-galli.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXksFaqu7Y%3D&md5=f6f046b8e51dbf02ff7471ed5e4694dbCAS |

Hou Y, Cheng XY, Ren GH, Deng B, Shang ZH (2011) Allelopathic effects of the typical ‘black soil land’ poisonous plant on Pedicularis kansuensis in Qinghai–Tibetan plateau. Xibei Zhiwu Xuebao 31, 1651–1656.

Jassbi AR, Zamanizadehnajari S, Baldwin IT (2010) Phytotoxic volatiles in the roots and shoots of Artemisia tridentate as detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry analysis. Journal of Chemical Ecology 36, 1398–1407.
Phytotoxic volatiles in the roots and shoots of Artemisia tridentate as detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhs1Wgur7N&md5=86e00fb79ec632c4a8b9f86b10c4ab2eCAS |

Ji ZY, Wang YL (2008) The research advance of Black soil land-artificial grassland in Three-Rivers-Resource region. Chinese Qinghai Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 38, 42–43.

Johnson RH, Halitschke R, Kessler A (2010) Simultaneous analysis of tisse-and genotype-specific variation in Solidago altissima (Asteraceae) rhizome terpenoids and the polyacetylene dehydromatricaria ester. Chemoecology 20, 255–264.
Simultaneous analysis of tisse-and genotype-specific variation in Solidago altissima (Asteraceae) rhizome terpenoids and the polyacetylene dehydromatricaria ester.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXht1GjsrfK&md5=86a3dcbde74d466051667bbc8d9acb6eCAS |

Kalinova J (2010) Chapter 14: allelopathy and organic farming. In ‘Sociology, organic farming, climate change and soil science’. (Ed. E. Lichtfouse) pp. 379–418. (Springer: New York, USA)

Kong CH (2010) Ecological pest management and control by using allelopathic weeds (Ageratum conyzoides, Ambrosia trifida, and Lantana camara) and their allelochemicals in China. Weed Biology and Management 10, 73–80.
Ecological pest management and control by using allelopathic weeds (Ageratum conyzoides, Ambrosia trifida, and Lantana camara) and their allelochemicals in China.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXpsFSjurs%3D&md5=137c41105f633295446feef70686e9cdCAS |

Kong CH, Xu XH (2003) ‘The separation and structure identification of organic compounds.’ (Chemical Industry Press: Beijing)

Kong CH, Hu F, Xu XH, Zhang MX, Liang WJ (2005) Volatile allelochemicals in the Ageratum conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard and their effects on mites Amblyseius newsami and Panonychus citri. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31, 2193–2203.
Volatile allelochemicals in the Ageratum conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard and their effects on mites Amblyseius newsami and Panonychus citri.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXptVWltbk%3D&md5=f11bdaec31356abd623bfff4f90d4f8bCAS |

Kordali S, Aslan I, Calmasur O, Cakir A (2006) Toxicity of essential oils isolated from three Artemisia species and some of their major components to granary weevil, Sitophilus granaries (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Industrial Crops and Products 23, 162–170.
Toxicity of essential oils isolated from three Artemisia species and some of their major components to granary weevil, Sitophilus granaries (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhvVWgtLg%3D&md5=c84c5da4272e5233c9e48d9f10930fdcCAS |

Langenheim JH (1994) Higher plant terpenoids: a phytocentric overview of their ecological roles. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20, 1223–1280.
Higher plant terpenoids: a phytocentric overview of their ecological roles.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXksFert7s%3D&md5=9032cefe6a68be23daacdbf5adaa120eCAS |

Li BL, Zhu LF, Lin YR, Lu BY (1992) Study on the chemotaxonomy of Artemisia L. (compositae) in China: the correlation of chemical constitution of the essential oil with the plant classification. Botanical Journal of South China 1, 87–100.

Li GH, Lan ZG, Li XR (2007) Determination of volatile chemical components of Radix Paeoniae Rubra by GC–MS and HELP method. Journal of Central South University 38, 89–92.

Li XF, Wang J, Huang D, Wang LX, Wang K (2011) Allelopathic potential of Artemisia frigid and successional changes of plant communities in the northern China steppe. Plant and Soil 341, 383–398.
Allelopathic potential of Artemisia frigid and successional changes of plant communities in the northern China steppe.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXjt1WjtLg%3D&md5=4b0787adf3c26489ffd681fcffe423c4CAS |

Ling YR (1981) On the genus Artemisia Linn. in Xizang. Journal of Nanjing Technological College of Forest Products 1, 81–105.

Ma YQ, Liu LQ, Chen SY (1995) Allelopathic research among pastures and its application on artificial mixture pasture cropping. Caoye Kexue 12, 9–10.

Ma YS, Lang BN, Li QY, Shi JJ, Dong QM (2002) Study on rehabilitating and rebuilding technologies for degenerated alpine meadow in the Changjiang and Yellow river source region. Caoye Kexue 19, 1–4.

Ma RJ, Wang ML, Zhu XT (2005) Allelopathy and chemical constituents of Ligularia virgaurea volatile. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 16, 1826–1829.

Ma H, Ma RJ, Wang NL, Li G (2006a) Allelopathic effects of different plants on the major weed Ligularia sagitata in alpine and cold grassland. Xibei Zhiwu Xuebao 26, 2307–2311.

Ma RJ, Wang ML, Zhao K, Guo SJ, Zhao QF, Sun K (2006b) Allelopathy of aqueous extract from Ligularia virgaurea a dominant weed in psychro-grassland on pasture plants. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 17, 845–850.

Ma YS, Shang ZH, Shi JJ (2006c) Studies on communities diversity and their structure of ‘black-soil-land’ degraded grassland in the headwater of Yellow River. Caoye Kexue 23, 6–11.

Macías FA, Simonet AM, Pacheco PC, Barrero AF, Cabrera E, Jiménez-González D (2000) Natural and synthetic podolactones with potential use as natural herbicide models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 3003–3007.
Natural and synthetic podolactones with potential use as natural herbicide models.CrossRef |

Macías FA, Torres A, Galindo JLG, Varela RM, Álvarez JA, Molinillo MG (2002) Bioactive terpenoids from sunflower leaves cv. Peredovick. Phytochemistry 61, 687–692.
Bioactive terpenoids from sunflower leaves cv. Peredovick.CrossRef |

Macías FA, Molinillo JMG, Varela RM, Galindo JCG (2007) Allelopathy-a natural alternative for weed control. Pest Management Science 63, 327–348.
Allelopathy-a natural alternative for weed control.CrossRef |

Meier CL, Keyseling K, Bowman WD (2009) Fine root inputs to soil reduce growth of a neighbouring plant via distinct mechanisms dependent on root carbon chemistry. Journal of Ecology 97, 941–949.
Fine root inputs to soil reduce growth of a neighbouring plant via distinct mechanisms dependent on root carbon chemistry.CrossRef |

Morvillo CM, de la Fuente EB, Gil A, Martinez-Ghersa MA, Gonzalez-Andujar JL (2011) Competitive and allelopathic interference between soybean crop and annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) under field conditions. European Journal of Agronomy 34, 211–221.
Competitive and allelopathic interference between soybean crop and annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) under field conditions.CrossRef |

Muller CH (1966) The role of chemical inhibition (allelopathy) in vegetational composition. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 93, 332–351.
The role of chemical inhibition (allelopathy) in vegetational composition.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF2sXks1M%3D&md5=1a9f08f088f2a4500443af4d501bda18CAS |

Mulyaningsih S, Sporer F, Zimmermann S, Reichling J, Wink M (2010) Synergistic properties of the terpenoidsaromadendrene and 1,8-cineole from the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Phytomedicine 17, 1061–1066.
Synergistic properties of the terpenoidsaromadendrene and 1,8-cineole from the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant pathogens.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtlSqtLrI&md5=c01b97fa313c4a54bdf57c3d46423834CAS |

Petroski RJ, Stanley DW (2009) Natural compounds for pest and weed control. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57, 8171–8179.
Natural compounds for pest and weed control.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtVKmtbvN&md5=1fcaaca54869ede8914235bc86522e78CAS |

Qiu ZQ, Ma YS, Shi JJ (2006a) Influence of Pedicularis kansuensis on Elymus nutans artificial grassland in ‘black soil type’ degenerated alpine grassland. Grassland and Turf 5, 26–29.

Qiu ZQ, Ma YS, Shi JJ (2006b) Analysis of harm of poisonous and weed plants on Elymus nutans artificial grassland in the ‘black soil type’ degenerated pasture of source area of three rivers. Chinese Qinghai Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 36, 1–2.

Riahi L, Ghazghazi H, Ayari B, Aouadhi C, Klay I, Chograni H, Cherif A, Zoghlami N (2015) Effect of environmental conditions on chemical polymorphism and biological activities among Artermisia absinthium L. essential oil provenances grown in Tunisia. Industrial Crops and Products 66, 96–102.
Effect of environmental conditions on chemical polymorphism and biological activities among Artermisia absinthium L. essential oil provenances grown in Tunisia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXht1yjtLg%3D&md5=f611be8224a4a2bbeb144ae3e84e03c7CAS |

Rice EL (1995) ‘Biological control of weeds and plant diseases: advances in applied allelopathy.’ (University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, OK)

Schmidt IK, Michelsen A, Jonasson S (1997) Effects on plant production after addition of labile carbon to arctic/alpine soils. Oecologia 112, 305–313.
Effects on plant production after addition of labile carbon to arctic/alpine soils.CrossRef |

Schmidt SK, Lipson DA, Raab TK (2000) Effects of willows (Salix brachycarpa) on populations of salicylate-mineralizing microorganisms in alpine soils. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26, 2049–2057.
Effects of willows (Salix brachycarpa) on populations of salicylate-mineralizing microorganisms in alpine soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXotFaisbc%3D&md5=20ba27bb60bbfc2a95f065acad23e320CAS |

Shang ZH, Long RJ, Ma YS (2006) Discussion on restoration and rebuilding of ‘black soil patch’ degraded meadow in the headwater area of Yangtze and Yellow rivers. Zhongguo Caodi Xuebao 28, 69–74.

Shang ZH, Ma YS, Long RJ, Ding LM (2008) Effect of fencing, artificial-seeding and abandonment on vegetation composition and dynamics of ‘black soil land’ in the headwaters of the Yangtze and the Yellow rivers (HAYYR) of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Land Degradation & Development 19, 554–563.
Effect of fencing, artificial-seeding and abandonment on vegetation composition and dynamics of ‘black soil land’ in the headwaters of the Yangtze and the Yellow rivers (HAYYR) of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau.CrossRef |

Shang ZH, Tang Y, Long RJ (2011) Allelopathic effect of Aconitum pendulum (Ranunculaceae) on seed germination and seedlings of five native grass species in the Tibetan Plateau. Nordic Journal of Botany 29, 488–494.
Allelopathic effect of Aconitum pendulum (Ranunculaceae) on seed germination and seedlings of five native grass species in the Tibetan Plateau.CrossRef |

Shang ZH, Hou Y, Long RJ (2012) Chemical composition of essential oil of Artemisia nanschanica Krasch. from Tibetan Plateau. Industrial Crops and Products 40, 35–38.
Chemical composition of essential oil of Artemisia nanschanica Krasch. from Tibetan Plateau.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XmvFGktb8%3D&md5=eab24dffd355359f09f8e357fb97f9d0CAS |

Suleimenov EM, Tkachev AV, Adekenov SM (2010) Essential oil from Kazahstan Artemisia species. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 46, 135–139.
Essential oil from Kazahstan Artemisia species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXjvVSgs78%3D&md5=7e856ad1a93acd6457f578d12737d448CAS |

Sun HY, Zhou MD, Yan P, Huang XJ (2010) Plant research of Anthemideae in Karakorum Mountains in China. Xibei Zhiwu Xuebao 30, 1409–1496.

Tang Y, Shang ZH, Li XL, Ma YS, Wu HY, Long RJ (2008) Allelopathic effects of Aerbalupulin on several graminaceous grass species on alpine meadow. Shengtaixue Zazhi 27, 2067–2072.

Tesio F, Weston LA, Ferrero A (2011) Allelochemicals idenrified from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) residues and their potential inhibitory activity in the field and laboratory. Scientia Horticulturae 129, 361–368.
Allelochemicals idenrified from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) residues and their potential inhibitory activity in the field and laboratory.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXmslKhtbY%3D&md5=4a45c27059d74ebb4a28351fdbcfb227CAS |

Wang MD, Chen HG, Liu XY (2009) Isolation and identification of allelochemicls from Rehmannia Glutinosa that affect Sesamum indicum. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 33, 1191–1198.

Weidenhamer JD, Does PD, Wilcox DS (2009) Solid-phase root zone extraction (SPRE): a new methodology for measurement of allelochemical dynamics in soil. Plant and Soil 322, 177–186.
Solid-phase root zone extraction (SPRE): a new methodology for measurement of allelochemical dynamics in soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtVWisrjF&md5=fbfdb40a3958a7215360739ec78dc2c5CAS |

Weih M, Didon UME, Ronnberg-Wastljung A-C, Bjorkman C (2008) Integrated agricultural research and crop breeding: allelopathic weed control in cereals and long-term productivity in perennial biomass crops. Agricultural Systems 97, 99–107.
Integrated agricultural research and crop breeding: allelopathic weed control in cereals and long-term productivity in perennial biomass crops.CrossRef |

Wu YH (2004) The floristic characteristics in the region of Bayan Har Mountains. Yunnan Zhi Wu Yan Jiu 26, 587–603.

Xu L, Shao XG (2004) ‘Methods of chemometrics.’ 2nd edn. (Academic Press: Beijing)

Xuan TD, Shinkichi T, Khanh TD, Chung IM (2005) Biological control of weeds and plant pathogens in paddy rice by exploiting plant allelopathy: an overview. Crop Protection 24, 197–206.
Biological control of weeds and plant pathogens in paddy rice by exploiting plant allelopathy: an overview.CrossRef |

Yang SP, Yan P, Lu JH (2008) Study on flora of genera seed plants in the Pamirs China. Ganhanqu Ziyuan Yu Huanjing 22, 133–139.

Yin JG, Yuan CS, Jia ZJ (2007) A new iridoidan other chemical constituents from Pedicularis kansuensis forma Albiflora Li. Archives of Pharmacal Research 30, 431–435.
A new iridoidan other chemical constituents from Pedicularis kansuensis forma Albiflora Li.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXls1ahs7o%3D&md5=70ade18a505fdd868a829ee2baadb575CAS |

Yuan CS, Xie WD, Yang XP, Jia ZJ (2003) A new iridoid glycoside and a new iridoid from Pedicularis kansuensis f. Albiflora. Chinese Chemical Letters 14, 932–933.

Zeng HY, Alan AR, Saxena PK (2009) Evaluation of in vitro shoots of Artemisia judaica for allelopathic potential. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31, 1237–1248.
Evaluation of in vitro shoots of Artemisia judaica for allelopathic potential.CrossRef |

Zhang BC, Ban XF, Gu LH, Zhen RD (1989) Study on allelopathy and natural degeneration phenomena of artificial grassland on alpine meadow. Acta Ecologica Sinica 9, 115–120.

Zhang ST, Liu JP, Bao XH, Niu KC (2011) Seed-to-seed potential allelopathic effects between Ligularia virgaurea and native grass species of Tibetan alpine grasslands. Ecological Research 26, 47–52.
Seed-to-seed potential allelopathic effects between Ligularia virgaurea and native grass species of Tibetan alpine grasslands.CrossRef |

Zhao XP, Wu XM, Su X (2005) Study on the resource surveying researching and exploiting of Pedicularis kansuensis maxim in Qinghai province. Qinghai Prataculture 14, 44–48.

Zhen RD, Zhang SY, Bai XF, Gu LH, Zhang BC (1996) Isolation and identification of allelopathic compounds in the volatile oil from Ajania tenuifolia inhibiting Elymus nutans. Acta Phytophysiologica Sinica 22, 311–314.

Zhigzhitzhapova SV, Radnaeva LD, Chen SL, Fu PC, Zhang FQ (2014) Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia hedinii Ostenf. et Pauls. from the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Industrial Crops and Products 62, 293–298.
Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia hedinii Ostenf. et Pauls. from the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsFGlu7jO&md5=ed534359a9fb4677821c66f15a8f9807CAS |

Zhigzhitzhapova SV, Radnaeva LD, Gao QB, Chen SL, Zhang FQ (2016) Chemical composition of volatile organic compounds of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae) from the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Industrial Crops and Products 83, 462–469.
Chemical composition of volatile organic compounds of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae) from the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XpsVanug%3D%3D&md5=483927e5935e320d47551ea1a087a1e9CAS |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation