Australian Journal of Chemistry Australian Journal of Chemistry Society
An international journal for chemical science
RESEARCH FRONT

The Bioconjugation of Redox Proteins to Novel Electrode Materials

Daniel C. Goldstein A , Pall Thordarson A and Joshua R. Peterson A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Chemistry, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: peterson.j@unsw.edu.au




Daniel Goldstein was born in Australia in 1982. He went to school in Switzerland but returned to Sydney to obtain his B.Sc. in Nanotechnology at the University of NSW. He completed his honours thesis on the surface attachment of antibacterial furanones in 2006 under the supervision of Professor Naresh Kumar, and is currently in his third year of a Ph.D. working with Dr Pall Thordarson on the bioconjugation of proteins for biofuel cell devices. His research interests include nanotechnology, biomimicry, and research and development of solar and biofuel cells.



Pall Thordarson obtained his B.Sc. from the University of Iceland in 1996 and a Ph.D. from The University of Sydney in 2001, followed by a Marie Curie Fellowship at the University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. He returned to Australia in 2003 and obtained an ARC Australian Research Fellow at The University of Sydney in 2006. He was appointed as a Senior Lecturer at the University of NSW in 2007, where he leads a research group of 10 working on self-assembled gels for drug delivery and light-activated bioconjugates for biosensors and energy production. He was awarded the NSWYoung Tall Poppy Science Award in 2008.



Joshua Peterson obtained his B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Washington (Seattle, USA) in 1995. After several years in the biotechnology industry developing protein purification processes for clinical and commercial biopharmaceutical manufacturing, he returned to academia and completed a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Sydney in 2009. His research interests include the application of biochemistry, chemistry and other disciplines in the development of medical devices, biomaterials, biosensors and biofuel cells.

Australian Journal of Chemistry 62(10) 1320-1327 https://doi.org/10.1071/CH09240
Submitted: 24 April 2009  Accepted: 8 June 2009   Published: 13 October 2009

Abstract

The immobilization of redox proteins on electrode surfaces has been crucial for understanding the fundamentals of electron transfer in biological systems and has led to the development of biosensors and other bioelectronic devices. Novel materials, such as carbon nanotubes, gold and other metallic nanoparticles, carbon nanofibre and mesoporous materials have been widely used in the construction of these bioelectrodes, and have been shown to greatly improve the efficiency of electron transfer between the electrode and the redox centre of the protein. The use of these materials has spawned a diversity of covalent and non-covalent techniques for protein immobilization that offer different advantages and disadvantages to the performance of the bioelectrode. This review covers the important properties of these novel electrode materials relevant to the bioconjugation of proteins, and discusses the various methods of attachment from recent examples in the literature.


Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Australian Research Council (ARC DP0666325) for supporting our work and for an ARC Australian Research Fellowship to P.T. We also like to thank the University of New South Wales for a Scholarship to D.C.G.


References


[1]   C. Léger, P. Bertrand, Chem. Rev. 2008, 108,  2379.
        | CrossRef |   

[2]   Bioinorganic Electrochemistry (Eds O. Hammerich, J. Ulstrup) 2008 (Springer: Dordrecht).

[3]   I. Willner, Science 2002, 298,  2407.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[4]   J. Wang, Chem. Rev. 2008, 108,  814.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[5]   I. Willner, Y. M. Yan, B. Willner, R. Tel-Vered, Fuel Cells 2009, 9,  7.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[6]   A. Heller, Acc. Chem. Res. 1990, 23,  128.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[7]   S. Liu, C. Cai, J. Electroanal. Chem. 2007, 602,  103.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[8]   M. V. Pishko, I. Katakis, S.-E. Lindquist, L. Ye, B. A. Gregg, A. Heller, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1990, 29,  82.
        | CrossRef |   

[9]   Willner B., Willner I., in Bioelectronics: From Theory to Applications, 1st edn (Eds I. Willner, E. Katz) 2005, p. 35 (Wiley-VCH Verlag: Weinheim).

[10]   E. Ferapontova, L. Gorton, Electroanalysis 2003, 15,  484.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[11]   M. Tominaga, M. Ohtani, I. Taniguchi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2008, 10,  6928.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[12]   R. L. McCreery, Chem. Rev. 2008, 108,  2646.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[13]   D. Chen, G. Wang, J. Li, J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111,  2351.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[14]   J. J. Gooding, Electrochim. Acta 2005, 50,  3049.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[15]   G. G. Wildgoose, C. E. Banks, H. C. Leventis, R. G. Compton, Mikrochim. Acta 2006, 152,  187.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[16]   E. Katz, I. Willner, ChemPhysChem 2004, 5,  1084.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[17]   W. Yang, P. Thordarson, J. J. Gooding, S. P. Ringer, F. Braet, Nanotechnology 2007, 18,  412001.
        | CrossRef |   

[18]   S. Guo, S. Dong, Trends Analyt. Chem. 2009, 28,  96.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[19]   J. M. Pingarrón, P. Yáñez-Sedeño, A. González-Cortés, Electrochim. Acta 2008, 53,  5848.
        | CrossRef |   

[20]   A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, I. Willner, ChemPhysChem 2000, 1,  18.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[21]   X. J. Huang, C. C. Li, B. Gu, J. H. Kim, S. O. Cho, Y. K. Choi, J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112,  3605.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[22]   J. Jiménez, R. Sheparovych, M. Pita, A. N. García, E. Dominguez, S. Minko, E. Katz, J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112,  7337.
        | CrossRef |   

[23]   M. Yang, J. Jiang, Y. Lu, Y. He, G. Shen, R. Yu, Biomaterials 2007, 28,  3408.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[24]   E. Katz, I. Willner, J. Wang, Electroanalysis 2004, 16,  19.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[25]   V. Vamvakaki, K. Tsagaraki, N. Chaniotakis, Anal. Chem. 2006, 78,  5538.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[26]   M. Hartmann, Chem. Mater. 2005, 17,  4577.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[27]   J. Lee, J. Kim, T. Hyeon, Adv. Mater. 2006, 18,  2073.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[28]   J.-J. Feng, J.-J. Xu, H.-Y. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 2007, 22,  1618.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[29]   Hermanson G. T., Bioconjugate Techniques, 1st edn 1996 (Academic Press, Inc.: San Diego, CA).

[30]   P. Thordarson, B. Le Droumaguet, K. Velonia, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2006, 73,  243.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[31]   A. J. de Graaf, M. Kooijman, W. E. Hennink, E. Mastrobattista, Bioconjugate Chem. 2009,
        | CrossRef |   

[32]   J. Li, Y. B. Wang, J. D. Qiu, D. C. Sun, X. H. Xia, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2005, 383,  918.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[33]   H. Zimmermann, A. Lindgren, W. Schuhmann, L. Gorton, Chem. Eur. J. 2000, 6,  592.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[34]   F. Patolsky, Y. Weizmann, I. Willner, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43,  2113.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[35]   J. Liu, A. Chou, W. Rahmat, M. N. Paddon-Row, J. J. Gooding, Electroanalysis 2005, 17,  38.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[36]   J. J. Gooding, A. Chou, J. Liu, D. Losic, J. G. Shapter, D. B. Hibbert, Electrochem. Commun. 2007, 9,  1677.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[37]   M. Zayats, E. Katz, R. Baron, I. Willner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127,  12400.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[38]   B. Willner, E. Katz, I. Willner, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2006, 17,  589.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[39]   Y.-M. Yan, R. Tel-Vered, O. Yehezkeli, Z. Cheglakov, I. Willner, Adv. Mater. 2008, 20,  2365.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[40]   S. E. Baker, P. E. Colavita, K.-Y. Tse, R. J. Hamers, Chem. Mater. 2006, 18,  4415.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[41]   C. F. Blanford, R. S. Heath, F. A. Armstrong, Chem. Commun. 2007,  1710.
        |  CAS |  

[42]   P. P. Joshi, S. A. Merchant, Y. Wang, D. W. Schmidtke, Anal. Chem. 2005, 77,  3183.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[43]   H. Jiang, C. Du, Z. Zou, X. Li, D. L. Akins, H. Yang, J. Solid State Electrochem. 2009, 13,  791.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[44]   B. Kowalewska, P. J. Kulesza, Electroanalysis 2009, 21,  351.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[45]   C. You, X. Xu, B. Tian, J. Kong, D. Zhao, B. Liu, Talanta 2009, 78,  705.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[46]   J.-D. Qiu, W.-M. Zhou, J. Guo, R. Wang, R.-P. Liang, Anal. Biochem. 2009, 385,  264.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[47]   M. H. Xue, Q. Xu, M. Zhou, J. J. Zhu, Electrochem. Commun. 2006, 8,  1468.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[48]   P. Santhosh, K. M. Manesh, S. Uthayakumar, S. Komathi, A. I. Gopalan, K. P. Lee, Bioelectrochemistry 2009, 75,  61.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[49]   B. K. Jena, C. R. Raj, Anal. Chem. 2006, 78,  6332.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[50]   J. Wang, G. Liu, Y. Lin, Analyst 2006, 131,  477.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[51]   L. Deng, Y. Liu, G. Yang, L. Shang, D. Wen, F. Wang, Z. Xu, S. Dong, Biomacromolecules 2007, 8,  2063.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[52]   L. Bahshi, M. Frasconi, R. Tel-Vered, O. Yehezkeli, I. Willner, Anal. Chem. 2008, 80,  8253.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[53]   A. R. A. Ramanavicius, Fuel Cells 2009, 9,  25.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[54]   F. A. Armstrong, N. A. Belsey, J. A. Cracknell, G. Goldet, A. Parkin, E. Reisner, K. A. Vincent, A. F. Wait, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2009, 38,  36.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[55]   O. Rüdiger, J. M. Abad, E. C. Hatchikian, V. M. Fernandez, A. L. De Lacey, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127,  16008.
        | CrossRef |   

[56]   F. J. M. Hoeben, I. Heller, S. P. J. Albracht, C. Dekker, S. G. Lemay, H. A. Heering, Langmuir 2008, 24,  5925.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[57]   K. A. Vincent, J. A. Cracknell, J. R. Clark, M. Ludwig, O. Lenz, B. Friedrich, F. A. Armstrong, Chem. Commun. 2006,  5033.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[58]   M. Privman, T. K. Tam, M. Pita, E. Katz, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131,  1314.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[59]   R. Grimme, C. Lubner, D. Bryant, J. Golbeck, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130,  6308.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[60]   N. Lebedev, S. A. Trammell, S. Tsoi, A. Spano, J. H. Kim, J. Xu, M. E. Twigg, J. M. Schnur, Langmuir 2008, 24,  8871.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  

[61]   C. Shan, H. Yang, J. Song, D. Han, A. Ivaska, L. Niu, Anal. Chem. 2009, 81,  2378.
        | CrossRef |  CAS |  



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (11)