Australian Journal of Chemistry Australian Journal of Chemistry Society
An international journal for chemical science
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Preparation and Structures of Group 12 and 14 Element Halide–Carbene Complexes

S. M. Ibrahim Al-Rafia A , Paul A. Lummis A , Anindya K. Swarnakar A , Kelsey C. Deutsch A , Michael J. Ferguson A , Robert McDonald A and Eric Rivard A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11227 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2, Canada.

B Corresponding author. Email: erivard@ualberta.ca

Australian Journal of Chemistry 66(10) 1235-1245 https://doi.org/10.1071/CH13209
Submitted: 26 April 2013  Accepted: 11 June 2013   Published: 1 August 2013

Abstract

The synthesis of a series of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes involving zinc, cadmium, and the heavy Group 14 elements germanium, tin, and lead is reported. The direct reaction between the bulky carbene IPr (IPr = (HCNDipp)2C:, Dipp = 2,6-iPr2C6H3) and the Group 14 halide reagents GeCl4 and SnCl4 afforded the 1 : 1 complexes IPr·ECl4 (E = Ge and Sn) in high yield; similarly, ZnI2 interacted with IPr in THF to give the THF-bound complex IPr·ZnI2·THF. CdCl2 underwent divergent chemistry with IPr and the major product isolated was the imidazolium salt [IPrH][IPr·CdCl3], which could be converted into IPr·CdCl2·THF upon treatment with Tl[OTf]. In addition, the stable PbII amide adduct, IPr·PbBr(NHDipp), was prepared. Each of the new carbene–element halide adducts was treated with the hydride sources Li[BH4] and Li[HBEt3] in order to potentially access new element hydride adducts and/or clusters. In most instances scission of the element–carbene bonds transpired, except in the case of IPr·ZnI2·THF, which reacted with two equivalents of Li[BH4] to yield the thermally stable bis(borohydride) zinc complex IPr·Zn(BH4)2.


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