Australian Journal of Chemistry Australian Journal of Chemistry Society
An international journal for chemical science
REVIEW

The Evolution of New Catalytic Mechanisms for Xenobiotic Hydrolysis in Bacterial Metalloenzymes*

Elena Sugrue A , Carol J. Hartley B , Colin Scott B and Colin J. Jackson A C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

B CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: colin.jackson@anu.edu.au




Elena Sugrue is a Ph.D. scholar at the Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University (ANU). She completed her Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Canterbury, receiving first class honours before taking up doctoral studies at the ANU in 2013. Her research interests include investigating the chemical basis of biological function and how chemical and biophysical features can change over evolutionary trajectories.



Dr Carol Hartley is a research scientist and leader of the Biocatalysis and Synthetic Biology research team within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Canberra, Australia. She obtained a Ph.D. in microbiology from Rhodes University, South Africa, before joining the CSIRO and has a strong interest in biocatalysis and the use of enzymes to advance biotechnology and synthetic biology.



Dr Colin Scott obtained his Ph.D. in molecular microbiology from the University of Sheffield in the UK in 2000 before taking up a post-doctoral fellowship with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). He currently leads the Biotechnology and Synthetic Biology Group at the CSIRO. He has strong interests in enzyme evolution, biocatalysis, microbial physiology, and synthetic biology.



Associate Professor Colin Jackson has held research positions at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and was a visiting research fellow at the Weizmann Institute of Science (Rehovot, Israel) and a Marie Curie Research Fellow at the Institut de Biologie Structurale (Grenoble, France), before his appointment at the Research School of Chemistry at the Australian National University. He is an ARC Future Fellow and has been awarded an ARC DECRA, a Human Frontiers in Science Young Investigator Award, an AIPS Tall Poppy Award, ACT Tall Poppy of the Year, the 2015 ACT Scientist of the Year Award, and the 2015 RACI Rennie Memorial Medal.

Australian Journal of Chemistry 69(12) 1383-1395 https://doi.org/10.1071/CH16426
Submitted: 21 July 2016  Accepted: 6 September 2016   Published: 23 September 2016

Abstract

An increasing number of bacterial metalloenzymes have been shown to catalyse the breakdown of xenobiotics in the environment, while others exhibit a variety of promiscuous xenobiotic-degrading activities. Several different evolutionary processes have allowed these enzymes to gain or enhance xenobiotic-degrading activity. In this review, we have surveyed the range of xenobiotic-degrading metalloenzymes, and discuss the molecular and catalytic basis for the development of new activities. We also highlight how our increased understanding of the natural evolution of xenobiotic-degrading metalloenzymes can be been applied to laboratory enzyme design.


References

[1]  K. J. Waldron, J. C. Rutherford, D. Ford, N. J. Robinson, Nature 2009, 460, 823.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXpvFCruro%3D&md5=2d049972c1512bf28680582b00ec62d1CAS | 19675642PubMed |

[2]  A. Cvetkovic, A. L. Menon, M. P. Thorgersen, J. W. Scott, F. L. Poole, F. E. Jenney, W. A. Lancaster, J. L. Praissman, S. Shanmukh, B. J. Vaccaro, Nature 2010, 466, 779.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXovFCns7s%3D&md5=7e2bfe616497ea933c96f826dfc0cfa9CAS | 20639861PubMed |

[3]  A. J. Thomson, H. B. Gray, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 1998, 2, 155.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjs1Olt70%3D&md5=0193b6198d38341a4657c9e93d825b37CAS | 9667942PubMed |

[4]  Y. Lu, S. M. Berry, T. D. Pfister, Chem. Rev. 2001, 101, 3047.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXntlGntbk%3D&md5=9c2a94f860ae4cc4fdbc3e600083e848CAS | 11710062PubMed |

[5]  J. Reedijk, E. Bouwman, Bioinorganic Catalysis 1999 (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL).

[6]  A. N. Bigley, F. M. Raushel, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Proteins Proteomics 2013, 1834, 443.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XnslOjur4%3D&md5=73e4981a22e6fcbbf6b6782a13864738CAS |

[7]  K. S. Hadler, E. A. Tanifum, S. H.-C. Yip, N. Mitic, L. W. Guddat, C. J. Jackson, L. R. Gahan, K. Nguyen, P. D. Carr, D. L. Ollis, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 14129.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXht1Sjt7vE&md5=a9a5fdd6aeedccf93030709bbdec2a12CAS | 18831553PubMed |

[8]  H. Feng, J. Ding, D. Zhu, X. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Zang, D.-C. Wang, W. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 14694.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhs1CnsrbK&md5=1770942ca36136de16f613820b511ab7CAS | 25268575PubMed |

[9]  J. L. Seffernick, E. Reynolds, A. A. Fedorov, E. Fedorov, S. C. Almo, M. J. Sadowsky, L. P. Wackett, J. Biol. Chem. 2010, 285, 30606.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXht1SlsrrE&md5=2d7db9c8b7bef75710b425f4cbe664a9CAS | 20659898PubMed |

[10]  E. Sugrue, N. J. Fraser, D. H. Hopkins, P. D. Carr, J. L. Khurana, J. G. Oakeshott, C. Scott, C. J. Jackson, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2015, 81, 2612.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXkvV2htLw%3D&md5=144c2961a9327da21fe7a0ee9d6df45bCAS | 25636851PubMed |

[11]  C. M. Seibert, F. M. Raushel, Biochemistry 2005, 44, 6383.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXjtVOjsrk%3D&md5=d8d8145afd302ad9d4b46046e1bb7d69CAS | 15850372PubMed |

[12]  C. Bebrone, Biochem. Pharmacol. 2007, 74, 1686.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtlWrt7vE&md5=24cbfab5b8f33ccf29cc4d78428876e3CAS | 17597585PubMed |

[13]  G. Schenk, N. Mitic, L. R. Gahan, D. L. Ollis, R. P. McGeary, L. W. Guddat, Acc. Chem. Res. 2012, 45, 1593.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XosFemtL4%3D&md5=7f6fd4cdae3568c9f165bedbaf66608bCAS | 22698580PubMed |

[14]  M. F. Mabanglo, D. F. Xiang, A. N. Bigley, F. M. Raushel, Biochemistry 2016, 55, 3963.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XhtVOisL3N&md5=c79f6698c92ac3a9919b536ffb1fb2b0CAS | 27353520PubMed |

[15]  C. J. Jackson, P. D. Carr, H.-K. Kim, J.-W. Liu, P. Herrald, N. Mitić, G. Schenk, C. A. Smith, D. L. Ollis, Biochem. J. 2006, 397, 501.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XmvFaku78%3D&md5=25ce699e66e53a285094eeeb1878bf3fCAS | 16686603PubMed |

[16]  L. J. Krutz, D. L. Shaner, C. Accinelli, R. M. Zablotowicz, W. B. Henry, J. Environ. Qual. 2008, 37, 848.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmtlahtrc%3D&md5=8dac8fa77e4148629e9fb16ccb23a3f2CAS | 18453406PubMed |

[17]  L. Barreiros, B. Nogales, C. M. Manaia, A. C. S. Ferreira, D. H. Pieper, M. A. Reis, O. C. Nunes, Environ. Microbiol. 2003, 5, 944.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXos1Cltb8%3D&md5=41b2c2a10b94764fc568749b068cb0dfCAS | 14510848PubMed |

[18]  I. Horne, T. D. Sutherland, R. L. Harcourt, R. J. Russell, J. G. Oakeshott, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2002, 68, 3371.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xlt1Snt7g%3D&md5=188c7a4a1683ad308032eaafe520a60eCAS | 12089017PubMed |

[19]  J. E. Cullington, A. Walker, Soil Biol. Biochem. 1999, 31, 677.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjs1Citr8%3D&md5=c08e86dcf4c92ab8ca90b09112be21fcCAS |

[20]  J. L. Seffernick, L. P. Wackett, Biochemistry 2001, 40, 12747.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXntF2itb8%3D&md5=60d6f1d8dad0616b9d8ade282681f6d2CAS | 11669610PubMed |

[21]  B. K. Singh, A. Walker, J. A. W. Morgan, D. J. Wright, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2004, 70, 4855.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXms1eksr0%3D&md5=bd5ef653d9879f7c212efa6643a82399CAS | 15294824PubMed |

[22]  L. Smith-Grenier, A. Adkins, Can. J. Microbiol. 1996, 42, 221.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XhvVGjtr4%3D&md5=5dd4c7ed998eaf2782aa782c36247ad6CAS |

[23]  V. Tett, A. Willetts, H. Lappin-Scott, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 1994, 14, 191.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXlt1OnsLo%3D&md5=1555dbd19f4251aab19463822361aa08CAS |

[24]  C. Yanze-Kontchou, N. Gschwind, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994, 60, 4297.
         | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXitlygur8%3D&md5=f59dc940b2d90c5ca088ded0daae7a0eCAS | 7811069PubMed |

[25]  W. Dejonghe, E. Berteloot, J. Goris, N. Boon, K. Crul, S. Maertens, M. Höfte, P. De Vos, W. Verstraete, E. M. Top, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003, 69, 1532.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXitlCls7s%3D&md5=f59905bfbd694f78054d8c018b4bd24dCAS | 12620840PubMed |

[26]  C. van Ginkel, Biodegradation 1996, 7, 151.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XjtlSgtLs%3D&md5=9910c1563ba5a30ca280229a8728b84eCAS | 8882807PubMed |

[27]  R. Cantón, T. M. Coque, Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2006, 9, 466.
         | CrossRef | 16942899PubMed |

[28]  M. Watanabe, S. Iyobe, M. Inoue, S. Mitsuhashi, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1991, 35, 147.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXlvVOrtg%3D%3D&md5=808d074800f2f1a51e98d6802fd2f1b5CAS | 1901695PubMed |

[29]  E. Meyer, P. Gastmeier, M. Deja, F. Schwab, Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 2013, 303, 388.
         | CrossRef | 23727396PubMed |

[30]  H. M. LeBaron, J. Mc Farland, O. Burnside, The Triazine Herbicides 2011 (Elsevier: Amsterdam).

[31]  M. Wenk, T. Baumgartner, J. Dobovšek, T. Fuchs, J. Kucsera, J. Zopfi, G. Stucki, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1998, 49, 624.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXkt1Klt7g%3D&md5=9f08d3763bfbf71877b953383f83ef35CAS | 9650261PubMed |

[32]  C. Scott, C. J. Jackson, C. W. Coppin, R. G. Mourant, M. E. Hilton, T. D. Sutherland, R. J. Russell, J. G. Oakeshott, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2009, 75, 2184.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXksFWltb4%3D&md5=3324b2e9dce3ae718749f913b9fddc71CAS | 19201959PubMed |

[33]  L. Afriat-Jurnou, C. J. Jackson, D. S. Tawfik, Biochemistry 2012, 51, 6047.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhtVGhs77I&md5=79762eb93c2c5ef86939ff022d18d5e1CAS | 22809311PubMed |

[34]  S. Noor, M. C. Taylor, R. J. Russell, L. S. Jermiin, C. J. Jackson, J. G. Oakeshott, C. Scott, PLoS One 2012, 7, e39822.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XpvVCnsrc%3D&md5=270b3da1e37a9a0f4bbcd6f97dda7d46CAS | 22768133PubMed |

[35]  R. H. Holm, P. Kennepohl, E. I. Solomon, Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 2239.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xmt1Gnu7o%3D&md5=34767a75ec553f1cdf97860c47e33da9CAS | 11848828PubMed |

[36]  D. S. Auld, in Zinc Biochemistry, Physiology, and Homeostasis (Ed. W. Maret) 2001, pp. 85–127 (Springer: Dordrecht).

[37]  Z. Ma, F. E. Jacobsen, D. P. Giedroc, Chem. Rev. 2009, 109, 4644.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtF2qtLzN&md5=36dd37208627157a7d42ecf6553f846bCAS | 19788177PubMed |

[38]  K. J. Waldron, N. J. Robinson, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2009, 7, 25.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsFWitrfI&md5=975887e75703543cd4ec1a3642615448CAS | 19079350PubMed |

[39]  T. Dudev, Y.-l. Lin, M. Dudev, C. Lim, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 3168.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXht1Sgt7w%3D&md5=889d545871e8c877fd637edcb4bb95d7CAS | 12617685PubMed |

[40]  R. Jernigan, G. Raghunathan, I. Bahar, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 1994, 4, 256.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXmslCnurc%3D&md5=b512fd630cc431619b08bf0e73672490CAS |

[41]  R. G. Pearson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1963, 85, 3533.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF2cXksV0%3D&md5=e5e42dec9101100828b79122edf9d296CAS |

[42]  J.-L. Foo, C. J. Jackson, P. D. Carr, H.-K. Kim, G. Schenk, L. R. Gahan, D. L. Ollis, Biochem. J. 2010, 429, 313.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXotVajsL0%3D&md5=22d8996bcd985ca366ebb70d074be274CAS | 20459397PubMed |

[43]  R. Levy, V. Sobolev, M. Edelman, Hum. Mutat. 2011, 32, 1309.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtlagurvK&md5=28850e50031dc50b632b3b6d8093e5f9CAS | 21898656PubMed |

[44]  J. D. Cox, J. A. Hunt, K. M. Compher, C. A. Fierke, D. W. Christianson, Biochemistry 2000, 39, 13687.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXntFWjt7s%3D&md5=c984cadf84afcf7949cc89999e2098b5CAS | 11076507PubMed |

[45]  N. Mitic, K. S. Hadler, L. R. Gahan, A. C. Hengge, G. Schenk, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 7049.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXlsVeju7w%3D&md5=198f9665857db95011b174d5f367f608CAS | 20433174PubMed |

[46]  M. M. Pedroso, J. A. Larrabee, F. Ely, S. E. Gwee, N. Mitić, D. L. Ollis, L. R. Gahan, G. Schenk, Chem. – Eur. J. 2016, 22, 999.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXitVWru73N&md5=ef4634e55cf7177d9eda4b055a20bacaCAS | 26662456PubMed |

[47]  S. J. Smith, A. Casellato, K. S. Hadler, N. Mitić, M. J. Riley, A. J. Bortoluzzi, B. Szpoganicz, G. Schenk, A. Neves, L. R. Gahan, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2007, 12, 1207.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtFKrsb3K&md5=e972752b368632b08a972bdde7e15ef9CAS | 17701232PubMed |

[48]  N. Laraki, N. Franceschini, G. M. Rossolini, P. Santucci, C. Meunier, E. De Pauw, G. Amicosante, J. M. Frère, M. Galleni, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1999, 43, 902.
         | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXisVSnsrw%3D&md5=4e74815db9bedea6e7f3dff6541548ffCAS | 10103197PubMed |

[49]  A. D. Cameron, M. Ridderström, B. Olin, B. Mannervik, Structure 1999, 7, 1067.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXmtlartL0%3D&md5=d673acf34a66f500a6b8f549dff2aff4CAS | 10508780PubMed |

[50]  C. E. Outten, T. V. O’Halloran, Science 2001, 292, 2488.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXkvFWlsrk%3D&md5=0b73521ffb31cb8ba9849806c0fed6baCAS | 11397910PubMed |

[51]  A. Fernández-Gacio, A. Codina, J. Fastrez, O. Riant, P. Soumillion, ChemBioChem 2006, 7, 1013.
         | CrossRef | 16688707PubMed |

[52]  G. F. da Silva, L.-J. Ming, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 16380.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFOisLzE&md5=113bb6f9662c921bfa1197c19bbbeabfCAS | 16305209PubMed |

[53]  F. Baier, J. Chen, M. Solomonson, N. C. Strynadka, N. Tokuriki, ACS Chem. Biol. 2015, 10, 1684.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXmtV2ltLY%3D&md5=1c275a93160cb56c3af9c9a46f04591fCAS | 25856271PubMed |

[54]  S. C. Andrews, A. K. Robinson, F. Rodríguez-Quiñones, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 2003, 27, 215.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXksVOlt70%3D&md5=0d2373c09f7b81912b3f8c5b3f6e2333CAS | 12829269PubMed |

[55]  N. S. Jakubovics, H. F. Jenkinson, Microbiology 2001, 147, 1709.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlsVClur8%3D&md5=90ab0c96e36bad11d9ddd18030284714CAS | 11429449PubMed |

[56]  H. Reyes-Caballero, G. C. Campanello, D. P. Giedroc, Biophys. Chem. 2011, 156, 103.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXmtFeju7w%3D&md5=5807b32a1bf6e8313cf098a483433ac4CAS | 21511390PubMed |

[57]  I. J. Schalk, M. Hannauer, A. Braud, Environ. Microbiol. 2011, 13, 2844.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs1emtbbF&md5=d7e36f44ac13088126621462dc8f7ce9CAS | 21883800PubMed |

[58]  B. Montanini, D. Blaudez, S. Jeandroz, D. Sanders, M. Chalot, BMC Genomics 2007, 8, 107.
         | CrossRef | 17448255PubMed |

[59]  R. J. Russell, C. Scott, C. J. Jackson, R. Pandey, G. Pandey, M. C. Taylor, C. W. Coppin, J. W. Liu, J. G. Oakeshott, Evol. Appl. 2011, 4, 225.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XltFOru7o%3D&md5=78579a24edfb0643d9574e8161661ee6CAS | 25567970PubMed |

[60]  B. K. Singh, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2009, 7, 156.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsFajtbbO&md5=abf754397ab20fbc5773967028cd122cCAS | 19098922PubMed |

[61]  I. Horne, X. Qiu, R. J. Russell, J. G. Oakeshott, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2003, 222, 1.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjvV2lu7w%3D&md5=8df6374df32d6c5ec4b3c0457d4b8c8aCAS | 12757939PubMed |

[62]  D. Siddavattam, S. Khajamohiddin, B. Manavathi, S. B. Pakala, M. Merrick, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003, 69, 2533.
         | CrossRef | 12732518PubMed |

[63]  C. J. Jackson, K. S. Hadler, P. D. Carr, A. J. Oakley, S. Yip, G. Schenk, D. L. Ollis, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F: Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 2008, 64, 681.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXptlOqsrY%3D&md5=c7b28e5edca1e789bf43b1ec7c65f748CAS |

[64]  C. J. Jackson, P. D. Carr, J.-W. Liu, S. J. Watt, J. L. Beck, D. L. Ollis, J. Mol. Biol. 2007, 367, 1047.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjtFKisbk%3D&md5=f216497e262eb468732b6b88ef941facCAS | 17306828PubMed |

[65]  D. Dempsey, D. Perrin, Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control 1974 (Chapman and Hall: London).

[66]  S. Kouda, M. Ohara, M. Onodera, Y. Fujiue, M. Sasaki, T. Kohara, S. Kashiyama, S. Hayashida, T. Harino, T. Tsuji, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2009, 64, dkp142.

[67]  T. J. Carruthers, P. D. Carr, C. T. Loh, C. J. Jackson, G. Otting, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 14269.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXitVGlsrzE&md5=043f11e040216dfa1aebf37ead289205CAS |

[68]  W. Maret, J. Nutr. 2000, 130, 1455S.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXivFKms7o%3D&md5=34de04cab5a3eac9694cf0e7a3df50cfCAS | 10801959PubMed |

[69]  P. Hinsinger, Plant Soil 2001, 237, 173.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XovVWlsQ%3D%3D&md5=99a7d5937d05b2142b7de9b3ada6ca8fCAS |

[70]  L. J. Daumann, B. Y. McCarthy, K. S. Hadler, T. P. Murray, L. R. Gahan, J. A. Larrabee, D. L. Ollis, G. Schenk, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Proteins Proteomics 2013, 1834, 425.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xjt1GrsL8%3D&md5=ece24a16448bd944fb79f5f40303b209CAS |

[71]  F. Ely, K. S. Hadler, L. R. Gahan, L. W. Guddat, D. L. Ollis, G. Schenk, Biochem. J. 2010, 432, 565.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsVOkt7rP&md5=2d148263560bfe3679e82c62e5975dddCAS | 20868365PubMed |

[72]  C. J. Jackson, J.-L. Foo, H.-K. Kim, P. D. Carr, J.-W. Liu, G. Salem, D. L. Ollis, J. Mol. Biol. 2008, 375, 1189.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXlsFOmsA%3D%3D&md5=9e600194d0707232bf9bdb176481c036CAS | 18082180PubMed |

[73]  C. Jackson, H.-K. Kim, P. D. Carr, J.-W. Liu, D. L. Ollis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Proteins Proteomics 2005, 1752, 56.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXptVWnu78%3D&md5=ba29259cdeb062da068472c5b8c15f36CAS |

[74]  G. A. Omburo, J. M. Kuo, L. S. Mullins, F. Raushel, J. Biol. Chem. 1992, 267, 13278.
         | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XltVOht7s%3D&md5=a1960b9ac66c685b6a17749f4611817aCAS | 1320014PubMed |

[75]  D. Rochu, N. Viguie, F. Renault, D. Crouzier, M.-T. Froment, P. Masson, Biochem. J. 2004, 380, 627.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXltVahurc%3D&md5=625ac6f0b127f34f8634d00568435d3cCAS | 15018612PubMed |

[76]  R. Eisenthal, M. J. Danson, D. W. Hough, Trends Biotechnol. 2007, 25, 247.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXlsFGrtrY%3D&md5=4bb95a9957066c1b8fa8fd28ed65eefeCAS | 17433847PubMed |

[77]  C. J. Jackson, J.-W. Liu, M. L. Coote, D. L. Ollis, Org. Biomol. Chem. 2005, 3, 4343.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1OisrfP&md5=6bbb9d2163920a140515303dd35e49a2CAS | 16327895PubMed |

[78]  L. Sillén, A. Martell, Stability Constants of Metal Ion Complexes: Supplement 1. Special Publication No. 25 1971 (Royal Society of Chemistry: London).

[79]  D. W. Christianson, Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 1997, 67, 217.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjvFOiuw%3D%3D&md5=239ad59e376c8ab6e408420a67414149CAS | 9446936PubMed |

[80]  M. M. Benning, H. Shim, F. M. Raushel, H. M. Holden, Biochemistry 2001, 40, 2712.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXosVGjtQ%3D%3D&md5=c3db3433199eb4c04ba5814b9c799ff1CAS | 11258882PubMed |

[81]  L. R. Rulíšek, J. Vondrášek, J. Inorg. Biochem. 1998, 71, 115.
         | CrossRef |

[82]  B. Xue, J. Y. Chow, A. Baldansuren, L. L. Yap, Y. H. Gan, S. A. Dikanov, R. C. Robinson, W. S. Yew, Biochemistry 2013, 52, 2359.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXjsVymu7k%3D&md5=b964f0f38d940b249bb54d49362ae1d6CAS | 23461395PubMed |

[83]  A. Espart, M. Marín, S. Gil-Moreno, O. Palacios, F. Amaro, A. Martín-González, J. C. Gutiérrez, M. Capdevila, S. Atrian, Int. J. Biol. Sci. 2015, 11, 456.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXlsFShs7k%3D&md5=8e2475dcb688e478da7ab17d7610de2bCAS | 25798065PubMed |

[84]  B. C. Tripp, C. B. Bell, F. Cruz, C. Krebs, J. G. Ferry, J. Biol. Chem. 2004, 279, 6683.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXht1Cltb0%3D&md5=0281d22087ce26e6b0a8fb65650acb10CAS | 14662760PubMed |

[85]  M. M. He, S. L. Clugston, J. F. Honek, B. W. Matthews, Biochemistry 2000, 39, 8719.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXksVagtbw%3D&md5=ac8a8038d23a7f94c7d1bb4e6c798416CAS | 10913283PubMed |

[86]  Ò. Palacios, A. Pagani, S. Pérez-Rafael, M. Egg, M. Höckner, A. Brandstätter, M. Capdevila, S. Atrian, R. Dallinger, BMC Biol. 2011, 9, 4.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhsFWitr8%3D&md5=c717268b2fa3bbae73cde7542774ca09CAS | 21255385PubMed |

[87]  H. Renata, Z. J. Wang, F. H. Arnold, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 3351.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXjslCiur4%3D&md5=f479d8835db265587e3438566df646b2CAS |

[88]  J. L. Seffernick, M. L. de Souza, M. J. Sadowsky, L. P. Wackett, J. Bacteriol. 2001, 183, 2405.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXis1arsbs%3D&md5=a2c43a049cf3f13faefc3ab83c3b9b17CAS | 11274097PubMed |

[89]  S. Bershtein, K. Goldin, D. S. Tawfik, J. Mol. Biol. 2008, 379, 1029.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmsFKqtrc%3D&md5=3049092308f80308e397a550b5a83601CAS | 18495157PubMed |

[90]  N. Tokuriki, F. Stricher, L. Serrano, D. S. Tawfik, PLOS Comput. Biol. 2008, 4, e1000002.
         | CrossRef | 18463696PubMed |

[91]  J. D. Bloom, F. H. Arnold, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 9995.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXotFKnsb8%3D&md5=9af75d9bb67b5e7ed2ac6316404966e3CAS | 19528653PubMed |

[92]  A. I. Karsisiotis, C. Damblon, G. C. Roberts, Metallomics 2014, 6, 1181.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtVKjsLrN&md5=2d12c00ee016052584f3fa5de7f93a4cCAS | 24696003PubMed |

[93]  J. L. Khurana, C. J. Jackson, C. Scott, G. Pandey, I. Horne, R. J. Russell, A. Herlt, C. J. Easton, J. G. Oakeshott, Biochem. J. 2009, 418, 431.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhs1Onsrc%3D&md5=28b4c06b99cdd44ef3e7f5c603ee0336CAS | 19000034PubMed |

[94]  D. F. Xiang, Y. Patskovsky, C. Xu, A. J. Meyer, J. M. Sauder, S. K. Burley, S. C. Almo, F. M. Raushel, Biochemistry 2009, 48, 3730.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXkt1Omt7w%3D&md5=510e26d790e3f47b3f32210932d6c037CAS | 19281183PubMed |

[95]  D. F. Xiang, Y. Patskovsky, C. Xu, A. A. Fedorov, E. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sisco, J. M. Sauder, S. K. Burley, S. C. Almo, F. M. Raushel, Biochemistry 2010, 49, 6791.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXovFelsbw%3D&md5=07b28e35226cbb35af19f75e16220060CAS | 20604542PubMed |

[96]  D. F. Xiang, C. Xu, D. Kumaran, A. C. Brown, J. M. Sauder, S. K. Burley, S. Swaminathan, F. M. Raushel, Biochemistry 2009, 48, 4567.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXlt12mt7w%3D&md5=6f3d3248b7ca2dc9881bdeff655f3769CAS | 19358546PubMed |

[97]  H. Shim, F. M. Raushel, Biochemistry 2000, 39, 7357.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjsFGqu7w%3D&md5=b4fa470e9e70c0bf48f2daaeb3bd1463CAS | 10858282PubMed |

[98]  A. Lavie, K. N. Allen, G. A. Petsko, D. Ringe, Biochemistry 1994, 33, 5469.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXjtFyhtLc%3D&md5=200f79b2bcf09357c74ebc069c193364CAS | 8180169PubMed |

[99]  M. Ben-David, G. Wieczorek, M. Elias, I. Silman, J. L. Sussman, D. S. Tawfik, J. Mol. Biol. 2013, 425, 1028.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXitVGmtbY%3D&md5=255ec2ecca29c431d9247d40df6843c0CAS | 23318950PubMed |

[100]  J. M. González, A. Buschiazzo, A. J. Vila, Biochemistry 2010, 49, 7930.
         | CrossRef | 20677753PubMed |

[101]  M. Aitha, A. J. Moller, I. D. Sahu, M. Horitani, D. L. Tierney, M. W. Crowder, J. Inorg. Biochem. 2016, 156, 35.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXitVyqtLbI&md5=8739146e99ec1b6f9b20bb048f200601CAS | 26717260PubMed |

[102]  R. M. Breece, Z. Hu, B. Bennett, M. W. Crowder, D. L. Tierney, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 11642.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXptlGnsr8%3D&md5=9238435255739d9a49f3fc8fd2b2ddbcCAS | 19653676PubMed |

[103]  H. Zhang, Q. Hao, FASEB J. 2011, 25, 2574.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpvFersrk%3D&md5=f980918fc0e68dfded42cbeb2efdef67CAS | 21507902PubMed |

[104]  A. Costello, G. Periyannan, K.-W. Yang, M. W. Crowder, D. L. Tierney, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2006, 11, 351.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjtFamtrw%3D&md5=6f7f800a49708886476c9a9b28dd0229CAS | 16489411PubMed |

[105]  F. Baier, N. Tokuriki, J. Mol. Biol. 2014, 426, 2442.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXns1Crsbw%3D&md5=4068388e0964e93e3216e7c40b9feaa8CAS | 24769192PubMed |

[106]  A. Aharoni, L. Gaidukov, S. Yagur, L. Toker, I. Silman, D. S. Tawfik, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004, 101, 482.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmsFGgsA%3D%3D&md5=b90ac61c247bf570f7e17d161e06bf98CAS | 14695884PubMed |

[107]  R. Shamir, C. Hartman, R. Karry, E. Pavlotzky, R. Eliakim, J. Lachter, A. Suissa, M. Aviram, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2005, 39, 336.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlvVWksrs%3D&md5=103ee204f558da1e133a5fed2f139fe5CAS | 15993332PubMed |

[108]  M. Goldsmith, Y. Ashani, Y. Simo, M. Ben-David, H. Leader, I. Silman, J. L. Sussman, D. S. Tawfik, Chem. Biol. 2012, 19, 456.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XlvFygtrg%3D&md5=74459747acf58a0cfce7322217e965fdCAS | 22520752PubMed |

[109]  M. Sendovski, M. Kanteev, V. S. Ben-Yosef, N. Adir, A. Fishman, J. Mol. Biol. 2011, 405, 227.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsF2itrvL&md5=c1122594c098d2631be25c74ded291edCAS | 21040728PubMed |

[110]  H. Yoshida, M. Yamaji, T. Ishii, K. Izumori, S. Kamitori, FEBS J. 2010, 277, 1045.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhvV2jsbo%3D&md5=5e87b007a53679b4314ec183538febbcCAS | 20088877PubMed |

[111]  N. Tokuriki, C. J. Jackson, L. Afriat-Jurnou, K. T. Wyganowski, R. Tang, D. S. Tawfik, Nat. Commun. 2012, 3, 1257.
         | CrossRef | 23212386PubMed |

[112]  M. Kaltenbach, C. J. Jackson, E. C. Campbell, F. Hollfelder, N. Tokuriki, eLife 2015, 4, e06492.
         | CrossRef |

[113]  C. M. Miton, N. Tokuriki, Protein Sci. 2016, 25, 1260.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28Xht1Ontr0%3D&md5=bcb0aec8ac989a80608628a1c47ab5c5CAS | 26757214PubMed |

[114]  C. J. Jackson, C. W. Coppin, P. D. Carr, A. Aleksandrov, M. Wilding, E. Sugrue, J. Ubels, M. Paks, J. Newman, T. S. Peat, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2014, 80, 4003.
         | CrossRef | 24771025PubMed |

[115]  K. E. R. Duncan, M. J. Stillman, J. Inorg. Biochem. 2006, 100, 2101.
         | CrossRef |

[116]  C. Roodveldt, D. Tawfik, Protein Eng. Des. Sel. 2005, 18, 51.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXivFWhtrs%3D&md5=87f76abee18e0b187b18e14778382078CAS | 15790580PubMed |

[117]  L. Perezgasga, L. Sánchez-Sánchez, S. Aguila, R. Vazquez-Duhalt, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2012, 166, 1236.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XisFCqu7s%3D&md5=0d7160b5445d952245f38cb04b3ef7a9CAS | 22249853PubMed |

[118]  C. J. Wilson, D. Apiyo, P. Wittung-Stafshede, Q. Rev. Biophys. 2004, 37, 285.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVGjsL%2FE&md5=1959ec2963e9af07f373d4da66339287CAS | 16194296PubMed |

[119]  D. Andersson, P. Hammarström, U. Carlsson, Biochemistry 2001, 40, 2653.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXosVGjsA%3D%3D&md5=6e9a286def99f88751017ccae120981fCAS | 11258876PubMed |

[120]  J. W. Liu, K. S. Hadler, G. Schenk, D. Ollis, FEBS J. 2007, 274, 4742.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVyksLrI&md5=e11636cb8ad6b4a911e4243f7d4b491dCAS | 17714507PubMed |

[121]  A. E. Proudfoot, L. Goffin, M. A. Payton, T. N. Wells, A. R. Bernard, Biochem. J. 1996, 318, 437.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XlvFSmtb4%3D&md5=1feb4f353abdabee9181905250cdc4daCAS | 8809030PubMed |

[122]  W. Niu, Q. Shu, Z. Chen, S. Mathews, E. Di Cera, C. Frieden, J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 16156.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtFSlsr%2FK&md5=05ca855933300ed8b7fb220065587262CAS | 20815357PubMed |

[123]  K.-P. Wong, L. M. Hamlin, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1975, 170, 12.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE2MXlt1yhsr8%3D&md5=475c94a1e3b26fbac53677a0328656a2CAS | 240319PubMed |

[124]  X. L. Xu, J. X. Chen, L. Y. Zhang, X. H. Liu, W. Q. Liu, Q. L. Liu, Biopolymers 2006, 82, 167.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XkvFSmsrs%3D&md5=a62dca30a31f6f5eb7ae5a38bc1fdff7CAS | 16475157PubMed |

[125]  K. L. Gudiksen, A. R. Urbach, I. Gitlin, J. Yang, J. A. Vazquez, C. E. Costello, G. M. Whitesides, Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 7151.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptlygs7s%3D&md5=2d9a253b0018ae11199b13928eadfe94CAS | 15595855PubMed |

[126]  G. P. Lisi, R. P. Hughes, D. E. Wilcox, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2016, 21, 659.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XhtVOnsrbP&md5=71a045083f4c93cd7493ecc2f66fe839CAS | 27350155PubMed |

[127]  W. Li, J. Wang, J. Zhang, W. Wang, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 2015, 30, 25.
         | CrossRef | 25523438PubMed |

[128]  W. Li, W. Wang, S. Takada, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2014, 111, 10550.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtFCnsrfM&md5=a5dd2cef16ef31b77ccaad9b2c074d0cCAS | 25002491PubMed |

[129]  D. Wang, C. A. Fierke, Metallomics 2013, 5, 372.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXltVWqtrg%3D&md5=c92202a1f34c27f3988922cdc36e71efCAS | 23446818PubMed |

[130]  M. Saito, H. Kono, H. Morii, H. Uedaira, T. H. Tahirov, K. Ogata, A. Sarai, J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 3705.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhslKisLk%3D&md5=7e74d2006d6f517a40bd28d9afdccd1bCAS |

[131]  T. Sengupta, Y. Tsutsui, P. L. Wintrode, Biochemistry 2009, 48, 8233.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXpsFaktb8%3D&md5=75328248e275f555990c5639d5600e90CAS | 19624115PubMed |

[132]  K. Ishikawa, H. Nakamura, K. Morikawa, S. Kanaya, Biochemistry 1993, 32, 6171.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXks1Knu7w%3D&md5=51cc1234b8c6f9c74c5b2848b4aa8d01CAS | 8390295PubMed |

[133]  J. A. Gerlt, P. C. Babbitt, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2001, 70, 209.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlsVeht70%3D&md5=c32ee46deb9929effc3654a94dbdf7b1CAS | 11395407PubMed |

[134]  P. He, G. R. Moran, J. Inorg. Biochem. 2011, 105, 1259.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtFymtrbK&md5=51032bece40548269ad339b4014cbabaCAS | 21820381PubMed |

[135]  T. T. Nguyen, S. Brown, A. A. Fedorov, E. V. Fedorov, P. C. Babbitt, S. C. Almo, F. M. Raushel, Biochemistry 2008, 47, 1194.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXitFartw%3D%3D&md5=1378768bf83031f6174fc940e4d354e5CAS | 18171028PubMed |

[136]  D. J. Wichelecki, B. M. Balthazor, A. C. Chau, M. W. Vetting, A. A. Fedorov, E. V. Fedorov, T. Lukk, Y. V. Patskovsky, M. B. Stead, B. S. Hillerich, Biochemistry 2014, 53, 2722.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXlsFymsbk%3D&md5=737c705ee822b3d9242ca612df026942CAS | 24697546PubMed |

[137]  A. Aharoni, L. Gaidukov, O. Khersonsky, S. M. Gould, C. Roodveldt, D. S. Tawfik, Nat. Genet. 2005, 37, 73.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtFChsL%2FE&md5=863dece69975a356747c8b50be6af2f7CAS | 15568024PubMed |

[138]  D. S. Tawfik, Science 2006, 311, 475.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XpslegtQ%3D%3D&md5=e0b664a832ccb3ff0b4614ae772ff9dbCAS | 16439649PubMed |

[139]  H.-S. Park, S.-H. Nam, J. K. Lee, C. N. Yoon, B. Mannervik, S. J. Benkovic, H.-S. Kim, Science 2006, 311, 535.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XmvVymtQ%3D%3D&md5=db4c37eab4487c7be2681c9aad8203cdCAS | 16439663PubMed |

[140]  A. Ochoa-Leyva, F. Barona-Gómez, G. Saab-Rincón, K. Verdel-Aranda, F. Sánchez, X. Soberón, J. Mol. Biol. 2011, 411, 143.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpt1Oqurc%3D&md5=3345097e5e9aa5ef30137a89a4728fbfCAS | 21635898PubMed |

[141]  E. Dellus-Gur, A. Toth-Petroczy, M. Elias, D. S. Tawfik, J. Mol. Biol. 2013, 425, 2609.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXmtV2rsbs%3D&md5=c5a5971ba6c823bbd194d7cb1cc3de97CAS | 23542341PubMed |

[142]  H. Yang, P. D. Carr, S. Y. McLoughlin, J.-W. Liu, I. Horne, X. Qiu, C. Jeffries, R. Russell, J. G. Oakeshott, D. Ollis, Protein Eng. 2003, 16, 135.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXislektrs%3D&md5=b4c0be1bce937cd984e680732651a8acCAS | 12676982PubMed |

[143]  J. Hiblot, G. Gotthard, E. Chabriere, M. Elias, Sci. Rep. 2012, 2, 779.
         | 23139857PubMed |

[144]  J. Hiblot, G. Gotthard, M. Elias, E. Chabriere, PLoS One 2013, 8, e75272.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhsFeku73E&md5=f7a492ed98b00d966c25f4f6565eb65eCAS | 24086491PubMed |

[145]  C. J. Jackson, J.-L. Foo, N. Tokuriki, L. Afriat, P. D. Carr, H.-K. Kim, G. Schenk, D. S. Tawfik, D. Ollis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 21631.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXltlKjsw%3D%3D&md5=5af6eff6432c9241c98b4096f8c6453aCAS | 19966226PubMed |

[146]  M. M. Meier, C. Rajendran, C. Malisi, N. G. Fox, C. Xu, S. Schlee, D. P. Barondeau, B. Höcker, R. Sterner, F. M. Raushel, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 11670.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhtVKqtLvL&md5=2ad4f7e67e2db9fef9abbaec0c202805CAS | 23837603PubMed |

[147]  L. Afriat, C. Roodveldt, G. Manco, D. S. Tawfik, Biochemistry 2006, 45, 13677.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFChu7nP&md5=755e254be9199ffd8d482e81623658cfCAS | 17105187PubMed |

[148]  J. Hiblot, G. Gotthard, E. Chabriere, M. Elias, PLoS One 2012, 7, e47028.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsFOkurnE&md5=76f4e6c20cb49c7988149d51996da314CAS | 23071703PubMed |

[149]  J. Hiblot, J. Bzdrenga, C. Champion, E. Chabriere, M. Elias, Sci. Rep. 2015, 5, 8372.
         | 25670483PubMed |

[150]  M. W. Crowder, J. Spencer, A. J. Vila, Acc. Chem. Res. 2006, 39, 721.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xmsl2ksLY%3D&md5=e24d23d008bdd7f71b2e8f8610674224CAS | 17042472PubMed |

[151]  C. E. Valdez, M. Sparta, A. N. Alexandrova, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 730.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsFClsLjE&md5=9c28b9a666415baa98bf278e7f99428bCAS | 26589068PubMed |

[152]  P. E. Tomatis, S. M. Fabiane, F. Simona, P. Carloni, B. J. Sutton, A. J. Vila, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008, 105, 20605.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXks1GntA%3D%3D&md5=a22ed8bff4176fc355f3966631186d82CAS | 19098096PubMed |

[153]  P. E. Tomatis, R. M. Rasia, L. Segovia, A. J. Vila, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 13761.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVOqsb3J&md5=d0601d8c566dda7368c4d02678297754CAS | 16172409PubMed |

[154]  M. Dürrenberger, T. R. Ward, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2014, 19, 99.
         | CrossRef | 24608081PubMed |

[155]  Y. Lu, N. Yeung, N. Sieracki, N. M. Marshall, Nature 2009, 460, 855.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXpvFCkt7g%3D&md5=93ebc590dae03307c42bc45b000bcf39CAS | 19675646PubMed |

[156]  P. J. Deuss, R. den Heeten, W. Laan, P. C. Kamer, Chem. – Eur. J. 2011, 17, 4680.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXksVehtLY%3D&md5=be8be78e5fa183627319b04cb6214efdCAS | 21480401PubMed |

[157]  C. Esmieu, M. V. Cherrier, P. Amara, E. Girgenti, C. Marchi-Delapierre, F. Oddon, M. Iannello, A. Jorge-Robin, C. Cavazza, S. Ménage, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 3922.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXjtVaqurg%3D&md5=f9674af668e8a33395201d37cc4ecd2dCAS |

[158]  M. Creus, T. R. Ward, Org. Biomol. Chem. 2007, 5, 1835.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXmtVyltLw%3D&md5=55fa5d7776305827903588e56d84b91bCAS | 17551630PubMed |

[159]  Y. Lu, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2005, 9, 118.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXivFSmu70%3D&md5=63b831d8b89997b6e291bac55fa808f6CAS | 15811795PubMed |

[160]  T. Himiyama, D. F. Sauer, A. Onoda, T. P. Spaniol, J. Okuda, T. Hayashi, J. Inorg. Biochem. 2016, 12, 1314.

[161]  A. Pordea, M. Creus, J. Panek, C. Duboc, D. Mathis, M. Novic, T. R. Ward, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 8085.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmsVelsL0%3D&md5=5dadaa324622279d6930f623198442a4CAS | 18507383PubMed |

[162]  I. N. Ugwumba, K. Ozawa, Z.-Q. Xu, F. Ely, J.-L. Foo, A. J. Herlt, C. Coppin, S. Brown, M. C. Taylor, D. L. Ollis, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 326.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsFKqurzF&md5=87649860f921151e749ec4b30080475eCAS | 21162578PubMed |

[163]  D. A. Evans, M. M. Morrissey, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106, 3866.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXkslWrs7g%3D&md5=da90c4597e0f79f37f8a3fc9ddf29d30CAS |

[164]  Q. Jing, K. Okrasa, R. J. Kazlauskas, Chem. – Eur. J. 2009, 15, 1370.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhslCqsLY%3D&md5=bfb53d39a162ca77e1c216c6a652586dCAS | 19115310PubMed |

[165]  J. S. Plegaria, V. L. Pecoraro, Methods Mol. Biol. 2016, 1414, 187.
         | CrossRef | 27094292PubMed |

[166]  V. M. Cangelosi, A. Deb, J. E. Penner-Hahn, V. L. Pecoraro, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 7900.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhtVShurnI&md5=83b3a9c26d837f2e73e659e734cd214fCAS |

[167]  M. Faiella, C. Andreozzi, R. T. M. de Rosales, V. Pavone, O. Maglio, F. Nastri, W. F. DeGrado, A. Lombardi, Nat. Chem. Biol. 2009, 5, 882.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsVWlsbrN&md5=613b31b7e6d435269c3a4451b197c2bbCAS | 19915535PubMed |

[168]  P. Srivastava, H. Yang, K. Ellis-Guardiola, J. C. Lewis, Nat. Commun. 2015, 6, 7789.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhtlWhurrF&md5=8c7c6d03dcb34fd8ebd77b4047b11e6fCAS | 26206238PubMed |

[169]  D. A. Evans, D. M. Barnes, J. S. Johnson, T. Lectka, P. von Matt, S. J. Miller, J. A. Murry, R. D. Norcross, E. A. Shaughnessy, K. R. Campos, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 7582.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXkvVynur8%3D&md5=ab380a187ba18794497e16a66e14fe3eCAS |

[170]  J. Podtetenieff, A. Taglieber, E. Bill, E. J. Reijerse, M. T. Reetz, Angew. Chem. 2010, 122, 5277.
         | CrossRef |

[171]  K. Okrasa, R. J. Kazlauskas, Chem. – Eur. J. 2006, 12, 1587.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhvFKksbw%3D&md5=0360273fec5538039e247fc3cdda503bCAS | 16416502PubMed |

[172]  C. S. Mocny, V. L. Pecoraro, Acc. Chem. Res. 2015, 48, 2388.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXht1Oqs7%2FE&md5=44f97a7d99602ae3fca44dc54791b206CAS | 26237119PubMed |

[173]  T. Heinisch, M. Pellizzoni, M. Dürrenberger, C. E. Tinberg, V. Köhler, J. Klehr, D. Häussinger, D. Baker, T. R. Ward, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 10414.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXht1GmsrrM&md5=b3b9bd84e74a4847c6021d9e79bb7fd0CAS | 26226626PubMed |

[174]  V. Köhler, J. Mao, T. Heinisch, A. Pordea, A. Sardo, Y. M. Wilson, L. Knörr, M. Creus, J. C. Prost, T. Schirmer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 10863.
         | CrossRef |

[175]  K. Fukumoto, A. Onoda, E. Mizohata, M. Bocola, T. Inoue, U. Schwaneberg, T. Hayashi, ChemCatChem 2014, 6, 1229.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXisFSrsbY%3D&md5=b6e8f31a269efd3db74643107052ccb5CAS |

[176]  M. Creus, A. Pordea, T. Rossel, A. Sardo, C. Letondor, A. Ivanova, I. LeTrong, R. E. Stenkamp, T. R. Ward, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 1400.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXisVylsro%3D&md5=93851363c3af6bf07b95f00610de572bCAS |

[177]  N. Shapir, C. Pedersen, O. Gil, L. Strong, J. Seffernick, M. J. Sadowsky, L. P. Wackett, J. Bacteriol. 2006, 188, 5859.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XosVehtLs%3D&md5=a348670076bb1a4030c22e3b3aae116eCAS | 16885454PubMed |

[178]  L. Lauretti, M. L. Riccio, A. Mazzariol, G. Cornaglia, G. Amicosante, R. Fontana, G. M. Rossolini, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1999, 43, 1584.
         | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXktlCks74%3D&md5=e631a282672bc9afa41225ed60864794CAS | 10390207PubMed |

[179]  D. Yong, M. A. Toleman, C. G. Giske, H. S. Cho, K. Sundman, K. Lee, T. R. Walsh, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2009, 53, 5046.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsF2gs7jK&md5=4547d420e408fc1d9576e754a9b70d4fCAS | 19770275PubMed |

[180]  M.-R. Meini, L. I. Llarrull, A. J. Vila, Antibiotics 2014, 3, 285.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXht1GjtLjP&md5=ae7c429d51ab89952ef738ac6104f327CAS | 25364574PubMed |


Full Text PDF (1.4 MB) Export Citation Cited By (3)