Australian Journal of Chemistry Australian Journal of Chemistry Society
An international journal for chemical science
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effect of Structured Surfaces on MALDI Analyte Peak Intensities*

Sajid Bashir A B E , Jingbo L. Liu B and Peter J. Derrick A C D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Institute of Mass Spectrometry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

B Texas A&M University – Kingsville, Department of Chemistry, MSC 161, 700 University Boulevard, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA.

C Department of Physics, The University of Auckland, 7 Symonds Street, Auckland 1061, New Zealand.

D Deceased.

E Corresponding author. Email: br9@hotmail.com

Australian Journal of Chemistry - https://doi.org/10.1071/CH17456
Submitted: 8 August 2017  Accepted: 5 September 2017   Published online: 6 October 2017

Abstract

A surface modification method is presented: a sodium chloride crystal, a transparent wide bandgap insulator, was deposited onto a stainless steel surface. The surface was subjected to various stimuli to induce surface defects either on the steel surface or salt crystal and the ion yield of substance P, a model peptide, was investigated as a function of stimuli. The interaction of the laser at potential defect sites resulted in an increase in the ion yield of substance P (3–17 fold increase relative to no stimuli).


References

[1]  M. Karas, U. Bahr, U. Gießmann, Mass Spectrom. Rev. 1991, 10, 335.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XitlSqt7s%3D&md5=e8fe0e27feb65e7947f3e7637218dcbbCAS |

[2]  J. Wei, J. M. Buriak, G. Siuzdak, Nature 1999, 399, 243.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjsFyku7c%3D&md5=76ff922fa67457870bdcb54086c861e2CAS |

[3]  J. Sunner, E. Dratz, Y. C. Chen, Anal. Chem. 1995, 67, 4335.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXovFSktrY%3D&md5=dd783dc3adeefb108b65c3df4048923aCAS |

[4]  Special issue devoted to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization: Various, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Process. 1997, 169/170, 1.

[5]  Special issue devoted to laser ablation of molecular substrates: Various, Chem. Rev. 2003, 103, 1.

[6]  S. Alimpiev, S. Nikiforov, V. Karavanskii, T. Minton, J. Sunner, J. Chem. Phys. 2001, 115, 1891.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXltFCltLY%3D&md5=5db4dbea279c40b605ab8740d28c85dcCAS |

[7]  K. Dreisewerd, M. Schürenberg, M. Karas, F. Hillenkamp, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Process. 1995, 141, 127.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXktFeqtr8%3D&md5=eb13183b03c0d9ec4972bc708fda775aCAS |

[8]  W. Ens, Y. Mao, F. Mayer, K. G. Standing, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 1991, 5, 117.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXitFOgs74%3D&md5=a49c22db641d18c98a899f742ecb9db0CAS |

[9]  P. Y. Yau, T. W. D. Chan, P. G. Cullis, A. W. Colburn, P. J. Derrick, Chem. Phys. Lett. 1993, 202, 93.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXis1ehs70%3D&md5=b959af83b29727dc7312a5fea4a84fdfCAS |

[10]  M. Karas, U. Bahr, U. Gießmann, Mass Spectrom. Rev. 1991, 10, 335.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XitlSqt7s%3D&md5=e8fe0e27feb65e7947f3e7637218dcbbCAS |

[11]  T. W. D. Chan, A. W. Colburn, P. J. Derrick, J. Mass Spectrom. 1992, 27, 53.
         | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XhsVOhurk%3D&md5=d31614eda246f5d0e847aa52a7443596CAS |

[12]  A. M. Hoberg, D. M. Haddleton, P. J. Derrick, J. H. Scrivens, Eur. J. Mass Spectrom. 1997, 3, 471.
         | CrossRef |

[13]  M. C. Fitzgerald, L. M. Smith, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 1995, 24, 117.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXmt1ams7k%3D&md5=e470f042c3c6c946390eeddba383eb6dCAS |

[14]  L. V. Zhigilei, B. J. Garrison, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 1999, 69, S75.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhs1Sht7Y%3D&md5=e30d0a4b3dba5b86614a08d3ea0f146cCAS |

[15]  M. Wiegelmann, J. Soltwisch, T. W. Jaskolla, K. Dreisewerd, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2013, 405, 6925.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsV2qtLrE&md5=9a6c9c3e2a7a36758f0b5c3011fecfa8CAS |

[16]  W. C. Chang, L. C. L. Huang, Y. S. Wang, W. P. Peng, H. C. Chang, N. Y. Hsu, W. B. Yang, C. H. Chen, Anal. Chim. Acta 2007, 582, 1.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xhtlart7nI&md5=f49aa2f8175760a643dc57ab4d9ce80bCAS |

[17]  J. Soltwisch, T. W. Jaskolla, K. Dreisewerd, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2013, 24, 1477.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXht1Oqtb%2FK&md5=6cb61de0f495ce92567e49f9027fc6a6CAS |

[18]  R. Knochenmuss, R. Zenobi, Chem. Rev. 2003, 103, 441.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XpsFCnsrc%3D&md5=458f1ccb8e4b35b33c3191a509d76cbcCAS |

[19]  M. Karas, R. Krüger, Chem. Rev. 2003, 103, 427.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXksFKhtw%3D%3D&md5=28f7fcbfbe6fbe5299357e9cd5dfc761CAS |

[20]  R. D. Burton, C. H. Watson, J. R. Eyler, G. L. Lang, D. H. Powell, M. Y. Avery, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 1997, 11, 443.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXisFeitbo%3D&md5=ea21844715a149536c7b255dffb952deCAS |

[21]  T. W. Jaskolla, M. Karas, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2008, 19, 1054.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXps1Wlsb8%3D&md5=c2a23b5f30ca041b34b9a81641d0037eCAS |

[22]  G. McCombie, R. Knochenmuss, Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 4990.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXlvVOnt74%3D&md5=30d3c3eab9b578794a7e814836d1f1a8CAS |

[23]  S. D. Hanton, K. G. Owens, C. Chavez-Eng, A. M. Hoberg, P. J. Derrick, Eur. J. Mass Spectrom. (Chichester, Eng.) 2005, 11, 23.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXktlyhu74%3D&md5=42fe16654f56c1499778084e1b691277CAS |

[24]  M. Karas, U. Bahr, I. Fournier, M. Glückmann, A. Pfenninger, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2003, 226, 239.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhs1egt7Y%3D&md5=31815b76431df9f334bf018334d7a711CAS |

[25]  M. Karas, M. Glückmann, J. Schäfer, J. Mass Spectrom. 2000, 35, 1.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhtVans7g%3D&md5=437351b1a94dd8b4b3a47c803c393b2fCAS |

[26]  M. Mormann, S. Bashir, P. J. Derrick, D. Kuck, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2000, 11, 544.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjt1Snsb4%3D&md5=969c7d2081d288cee0196f16608bd22bCAS |

[27]  E. Various, J. Mass Spectrom. 2006, 12, 345.

[28]  A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 1998, 286, 425.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXit1Sksbg%3D&md5=e1908e23b1c991320c3a8fbf39f538d4CAS |

[29]  Special issue devoted to MALDI ionization mechanisms; Tanaka received a Nobel Prize for his work on MALDI: K. Tanaka, H. Waki, Y. Ido, S. Akita, Y. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, T. Matsuo, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 1988, 2, 151.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXjtVSgug%3D%3D&md5=30c59328f27813c81e5e000e12c09d05CAS |

[30]  K. Dreisewerd, Chem. Rev. 2003, 103, 395.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXlsFaruw%3D%3D&md5=a635005fd351dbefe34ae8a41391f803CAS |

[31]  R. Zenobi, R. Knochenmuss, Mass Spectrom. Rev. 1998, 17, 337.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjsVagsbw%3D&md5=d46efb1e9d7ae1eaf0db7701db9574e9CAS |

[32]  S. F. Macha, P. A. Limbach, S. D. Hanton, K. G. Owens, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2001, 12, 732.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXktFGqs74%3D&md5=edd4aa35cc1e44019003468122f896ddCAS |

[33]  W. I. Burkitt, A. E. Giannakopulos, F. Sideridou, S. Bashir, P. J. Derrick, Aust. J. Chem. 2003, 56, 369.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXksleqt7Y%3D&md5=483a996fd6639b8a36339ed1e7427372CAS |

[34]  T. W. D. Chan, A. W. Colburn, P. J. Derrick, J. Mass Spectrom. 1991, 26, 342.
         | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXisVekt70%3D&md5=d7eeac67e96b1756a91eecece006a403CAS |

[35]  G. McCombie, R. Knochenmuss, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2006, 17, 737.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjvFynt7Y%3D&md5=ac5c207000e7312c063af26fab03ee1bCAS |

[36]  R. Knochenmuss, Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 3179.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjsFGgsb8%3D&md5=a41065259dc170a45acfdc45df2b81b2CAS |

[37]  K. Tanaka, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2003, 42, 3860.
         | CrossRef |

[38]  E. P. Go, J. V. Apon, G. Luo, A. Saghatelian, R. H. Daniels, V. Sahi, R. Dubrow, B. F. Cravatt, A. Vertes, G. Siuzdak, Anal. Chem. 2005, 77, 1641.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtlCgs70%3D&md5=ff7eff97fa5aa53c8787e52ebcc6007bCAS |

[39]  T. Redeby, J. Roeraade, Å. Emmer, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2004, 18, 1161.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXks1ylur4%3D&md5=0e3a03827241a326817d9583e17c6277CAS |

[40]  Y. Xu, M. L. Bruening, J. T. Watson, Mass Spectrom. Rev. 2003, 22, 429.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXptlahsro%3D&md5=4c0e9f2475dc2f69404516594ab75aceCAS |

[41]  Y. J. Twu, C. W. S. Conover, Y. A. Yang, L. A. Bloomfield, Phys. Rev. B 1990, 42, 5306.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXmtVSlsLg%3D&md5=f3235a470b28e3eff3e6e2f4d6f456c7CAS |

[42]  R. Knochenmuss, Anal. Chem. 2003, 75, 2199.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXivFagur8%3D&md5=8da8a868a3571e8f2b6b4fac7bdcd6feCAS |

[43]  T. W. Jaskolla, M. Karas, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2011, 22, 976.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXnt1Ohsrc%3D&md5=e01b2d6a2e53535bbf98ab1f7b240bc4CAS |

[44]  D. R. Ermer, J. J. Shin, S. C. Langford, K. W. Hipps, J. T. Dickinson, J. Appl. Phys. 1996, 80, 6452.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xnt1eku7k%3D&md5=1b1355fc21853ffe271caaf4633ff367CAS |

[45]  G. Westmacott, W. Ens, F. Hillenkamp, K. Dreisewerd, M. Schürenberg, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2002, 221, 67.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XotVWmur4%3D&md5=5b8a1f7382dba0978c2da03250de1d78CAS |

[46]  E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kästner, M. Reichling, E. Matthias, Appl. Surf. Sci. 1997, 109–110, 162.
         | CrossRef |

[47]  V. Frankevich, R. Knochenmuss, R. Zenobi, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2002, 220, 11.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xms1GhsLY%3D&md5=a865c324dcbbb2bc91c34f5730fdbceeCAS |

[48]     (a) J. T. Dickinson, in Laser Ablation and Desorption (Eds J. C. Miller, R. F. Haglund) 1998, Vol. 30, Ch. 3, pp. 139–172 (Academic Press: New York, NY).
         (b) J.A. Carroll, R. C. Beavis, in Laser Ablation and Desorption (Eds J. C. Miller, R. F. Haglund) 1998, Vol. 30, Ch. 9, pp. 413–448 (Academic Press, New York, NY).

[49]  R. Knochenmuss, L. V. Zhigilei, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2012, 402, 2511.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXotlKntLY%3D&md5=25f73459d87ab0b9f5d7d17a0feb84c0CAS |

[50]  R. Knochenmuss, A. Stortelder, K. Breuker, R. Zenobi, J. Mass Spectrom. 2000, 35, 1237.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXosl2mtbk%3D&md5=1028551fda91015b36a4b718a6882f1cCAS |

[51]  Data from C. Binek: http://physics.unl.edu/~cbinek/Unit4_Ionic%20Bond.pptx

[52]  R. N. Barnett, U. Landman, J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100, 13950.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XksV2rtLc%3D&md5=2d830e821fc8bcec76b7203e307712b0CAS |

[53]  J. A. Mejias, Phys. Rev. B 1996, 53, 10281.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xis12gsL0%3D&md5=544b33e965602ef1b551578dffb5a665CAS |

[54]  E. H. Khan, S. C. Langford, J. T. Dickinson, L. A. Boatner, J. Appl. Phys. 2013, 114, 053511.
         | CrossRef |

[55]  Q. Zhang, H. Zou, Z. Guo, W. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Ni, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2001, 15, 217.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXht1Kmtbs%3D&md5=5e59715e6f0d34ed1e319b2a53f105bdCAS |

[56]  C. Bandis, S. C. Langford, J. T. Dickinson, D. R. Ermer, N. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 2000, 87, 1522.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXlvVeqsQ%3D%3D&md5=9824f80ec4c485dcdea5ffc6188c8447CAS |

[57]  J. T. Dickinson, C. Bandis, S. C. Langford, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 2000, 617, J1.
         | CrossRef |

[58]  J. Soltwisch, T. W. Jaskolla, F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, K. Dreisewerd, Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 6567.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XpvVKlurg%3D&md5=973d77faebd43936fb0b704ea836c336CAS |

[59]  H. Ehring, B. U. Sundqvist, J. Mass Spectrom. 1995, 30, 1303.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXotFWru7k%3D&md5=d54f9fe4c17ba187c97d5b0408e666eeCAS |

[60]  C. Bandis, S. C. Langford, J. T. Dickinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2000, 76, 421.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXlvVartw%3D%3D&md5=acfaa697f721f523c0d8bbf68186a0e8CAS |

[61]  R. Knochenmuss, A. Vertes, J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 5406.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjt1elt7k%3D&md5=d4381b9b06185874d9b49118e64902f8CAS |

[62]  F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, R. C. Beavis, B. T. Chait, Anal. Chem. 1991, 63, 1193A.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXmsFWhsLg%3D&md5=e75c628db3b5d38d9fb79e3d16651dceCAS |

[63]  S. Trimpin, B. Wang, E. D. Inutan, J. Li, C. B. Lietz, A. Harron, V. S. Pagnotti, D. Sardelis, C. N. McEwen, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2012, 23, 1644.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsVSqsL%2FL&md5=1ec319112380e2abd52f46e4bac21b44CAS |

[64]  R. Knochenmuss, Analyst 2014, 139, 147.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhvVGhtbbM&md5=a50d56760b953fea7660de25aacd7a1aCAS |

[65]  K. Dreisewerd, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2014, 406, 2261.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXkslGqtr8%3D&md5=d54ab71e6fcb661946bd492ad74f11f0CAS |



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (96 KB) Export Citation