Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
REVIEW

Magnesium alleviates plant toxicity of aluminium and heavy metals

Z. Rengel A E , J. Bose B , Q. Chen C and B. N. Tripathi D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Science, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6000, Australia.

B Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, Department of Plant Science, Waite Research Institute, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, PMB1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.

C Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500, China.

D Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup, 580-185, Republic of Korea.

E Corresponding author. Email: zed.rengel@uwa.edu.au

Crop and Pasture Science 66(12) 1298-1307 https://doi.org/10.1071/CP15284
Submitted: 31 August 2015  Accepted: 17 November 2015   Published: 21 December 2015

Abstract

Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient that can alleviate soilborne toxicity of many ions. This review paper critically assesses the literature on interactions and mechanisms influencing Mg alleviation of aluminium (Al) and heavy metal toxicity. Hydrated radii of Mg2+ and Al3+ are similar; therefore, these two ions compete for binding to ion transporters and other important biological molecules. In monocotyledonous species such as rice and wheat, millimolar concentrations of Mg alleviate Al toxicity, mainly by decreasing Al saturation and activity at cell wall and plasma membrane binding sites. In dicotyledonous legume species such as soybean (Glycine max), rice bean (Vigna umbellata) and broad bean (Vicia faba), micromolar concentrations of Mg may enhance biosynthesis of organic ligands and thus underpin alleviation of Al toxicity. Resistance to Al may be enhanced by increased expression of the genes coding for Mg transporters, as well as by upregulation of activity of Mg-transport proteins; intracellular Mg2+ activity may thus be increased under Al stress, which may increase the activity of H+-ATPases. In Vicia faba, Mg-related enhancement in the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase under Al stress was found to be due to post-translational modification (increased phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine as well as association with regulatory 14-3-3 proteins), resulting in increased resistance to Al stress. Magnesium can alleviate heavy metal stress by decreasing negative electrical potential and thus metal ion activities at the plasma membrane surface (physico-chemical competition), by enhancing activities of enzymes involved in biosynthesis of organic ligands, and by increasing vacuolar sequestration of heavy metals via increasing H+-pumping activity at the tonoplast. Future work should concentrate on characterising the role of intracellular Mg2+ homeostasis and Mg transporters in alleviating metal stress as well as in transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation of H+-pumps and enzymes involved in biosynthesis and exudation of organic ligands.

Additional keywords: cadmium, copper, exudation, intracellular magnesium, ion toxicity, magnesium transporters.


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