In-field methods for rapid detection of frost damage in Australian dryland wheat during the reproductive and grain-filling phaseEileen M. Perry A C , James G. Nuttall B , Ashley J. Wallace B and Glenn J. Fitzgerald B
A Department of Economic Development Jobs, Transport and Resources, Cnr Midland Highway and Taylors Street, Epsom, Vic. 3551, Australia.
B Grains Innovation Park, Department of Economic Development Jobs, Transport and Resources, 110 Natimuk Road, Horsham, Vic. 3400, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Crop and Pasture Science 68(6) 516-526 https://doi.org/10.1071/CP17135
Submitted: 1 April 2017 Accepted: 10 June 2017 Published: 11 July 2017
Frost damage causes significant production losses and costs to Australian dryland wheat, and frost impacts are not expected to decline in the near future, despite global warming. Rapid estimation of frost damage to crops on a spatial basis would allow for timely management decisions to reduce the economic impact of frost events. In this paper, we take a first step in evaluating the utility of hyperspectral reflectance and active light fluorescence for detecting frost damage to wheat during its reproductive phase. Two experiments were conducted immediately after the first observation of frost damage, (i) in 2006, five plots in an existing trial were opportunistically subdivided to take spectral reflectance measurements on frost damaged plants along with yield measurements, and (ii) in 2015, a transect across 31 rows within a commercial paddock was established to evaluate spectral reflectance, fluorometer measurements, and yield along a gradient from non-frosted to frost damaged plants. The results of the hyperspectral reflectance data appeared variable in response across the two experimental sites where frost was observed in-crop. In 2006, hyperspectral-derived indices showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between measurements of frosted and non-frosted canopies, but this was not the case for observations taken in 2015, where the mean response was reversed between experimental sites for several of the indices. In contrast, fluorometer measurements in the 2015 trial resulted in higher correlations with yield and observed frost damage compared with the reflectance measurements. Seven of the nine fluorometer indices evaluated were correlated with yield (used as an indicator of frost damage) at P < 0.01. An index of compounds which absorbs at 375 nm, FLAV, had the best correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90 for the two dates in 2015. The fluorescence index FLAV was selected to evaluate whether it could be used to classify the canopy as frost affected or not, using discriminant analysis for the 2015 transect data. The overall classification accuracy, defined as the number of correctly classified measurements (57) divided by the total number (62) was 92%. The present study was not able to provide insight into how rapidly the sensors could detect frost damage before detection with the naked eye, as the survey data constituted a transect based on early visual symptoms, however this study does provide important insight into what sensors and/or indices may be sensitive to ‘seeing’ early frost damage in-crop. The next steps, which build on this work and need to be resolved are (i) what is the nominal scale of measurements required, and for which portions of the plant canopy? (ii) How robust (over space and time) are any relationships between frost damage and index response? (iii) Can frost damage be detected before the onset of visual damage?
Additional keywords: fluorometer, proximal sensing, spectral reflectance.
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