Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
RESEARCH ARTICLE (Open Access)

Elevated field atmospheric CO2 concentrations affect the characteristics of winter wheat (cv. Bologna) grains

Francesca Verrillo A , Franz-Werner Badeck B , Valeria Terzi B G , Fulvia Rizza B , Letizia Bernardo B , Antimo Di Maro C , Clara Fares D , Alessandro Zaldei E , Francesco Miglietta E , Anna Moschella F , Marcella Bracale A and Candida Vannini A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Dipartimento Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via J.H. Dunant 3, 21100 Varese, Italy.

B CREA-GB, Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Via San Protaso 302, Fiorenzuola d’Arda, 29017 Piacenza, Italy.

C Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi della Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy.

D CREA-CI, Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial Crops, S.S 16 Km 675, 71121 Foggia, Italy.

E CNR-IBIMET, Istituto di Biometeorologia, Via G. Caproni, 8-50145 Firenze, Italy.

F CREA-CI, Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial Crops, Via di Corticella 133, 40128 Bologna, Italy.

G Corresponding author. Email: valeria.terzi@crea.gov.it

Crop and Pasture Science 68(8) 713-725 https://doi.org/10.1071/CP17156
Submitted: 19 April 2017  Accepted: 6 September 2017   Published: 11 October 2017

Journal Compilation © CSIRO 2017 Open Access CC BY-NC-ND

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of elevated concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), as expected over coming decades, on yield and quality of winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plants (cv. Bologna) were grown by using the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system at Fiorenzuola d’Arda under ambient (control) and elevated (570 ppm, e[CO2]) CO2 concentrations for two growing seasons. We addressed whether there would be a response of wheat grains to elevated CO2 concentration in terms of the contents of nitrogen (N), micro- and macronutrients, proteins and free amino acids. Under e[CO2], total wheat biomass and grain yield increased in both years of the study. Grain N percentage was reduced under e[CO2], but grain N yield (kg ha–1) was increased. Among macro- and micronutrients, a decrease in zinc concentration was observed. The proteome pattern was significantly different in grains grown at the two different CO2 levels, but the observed changes were highly dependent on interactions with prevailing environmental conditions. Finally, a negative trend was observed in the early germination rates of seeds from plants grown under e[CO2] compared with the controls. The results suggest that the expected increase in CO2 levels and their interactive effects with environmental variables may influence agronomic performance by increasing yield and negatively affecting quality.

Additional keywords: climate change, candidate core proteins, proteomics.


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