Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sodium silicate and calcium silicate differentially affect silicon and aluminium uptake, antioxidant performance and phenolics metabolism of ryegrass in an acid Andisol

Alejandra Ribera-Fonseca A D , Cornelia Rumpel B E , María de la Luz Mora A F , Miroslav Nikolic C and Paula Cartes A F G
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Center of Plant–Soil Interaction and Natural Resources Biotechnology, Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus (BIOREN-UFRO), Universidad de La Frontera, Avenida Francisco Salazar 01145, PO Box 54-D, Temuco, Chile.

B CNRS, IEES (UMR 7618, UPMC-CNRS-INRA-IRD-UPEC), Bâtiment EGER, Aile B, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France.

C Plant Nutrition Research Group, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, PO Box 33, Belgrade, Serbia.

D Departamento de Producción Agropecuaria, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Avenida Francisco Salazar 01145, PO Box 54-D, Temuco, Chile.

E CNRS, Ecosys (UMR INRA-AgroParisTech), Bâtiment EGER,Aile B, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France.

F Departamento de Ciencias Químicas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad de La Frontera, Avenida Francisco Salazar 01145, PO Box 54-D, Temuco, Chile.

G Corresponding author. Email: paula.cartes@ufrontera.cl

Crop and Pasture Science 69(2) 205-215 https://doi.org/10.1071/CP17202
Submitted: 2 June 2017  Accepted: 21 November 2017   Published: 2 February 2018

Abstract

Evidence indicates that silicon (Si) alleviates diverse stresses by improving the antioxidant capacity and phenolics metabolism of plants. We assessed the effect of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and calcium silicate (CaSiO3) on Si and aluminium (Al) uptake, antioxidant performance and phenolics (with antioxidant or structural function) of ryegrass cultivated on an acid Andisol under greenhouse conditions. Ryegrass was treated with either sodium silicate or calcium silicate at gradually increasing doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg Si kg–1 soil). Yield and concentrations of Si and Al were measured in roots and two shoot cuts. At the first cut, phenols, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lignin production and composition were also determined. Ryegrass supplied with sodium silicate exhibited the highest Si content. Root Si was closely correlated with Al or Si : Al ratio. Shoot Si uptake increased total phenols and activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and POD), but reduced lipid peroxidation. Silicon also changed the lignin production and composition in shoots at the highest sodium silicate dose. Silicon uptake reduced the deleterious effect of soil acidity in ryegrass. Sodium silicate had the greatest influence on the antioxidant system through enhancement of phenols production and antioxidant enzyme activation. Peroxidase activity appears to be associated with increased lignin biosynthesis in plants supplied with sodium silicate.

Additional keywords: acid soils, lignin, phenolic compounds, plant nutrition.


References

Abiven S, Heim A, Schmidt MWI (2011) Lignin content and chemical characteristics in maize and wheat vary between plant organs and growth stages: consequences for assessing lignin dynamics in soil. Plant and Soil 343, 369–378.
Lignin content and chemical characteristics in maize and wheat vary between plant organs and growth stages: consequences for assessing lignin dynamics in soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXmtFSksLk%3D&md5=da5accce14d9eb534f08b0bcec9516d4CAS |

Alcarde JÁ, Rodella AA (2003) Qualidade e legislação de fertilizantes e corretivos. In ‘Tópicos em ciência do solo’. (Eds N Curi, JJ Marques, LRG Guilherme, JM Lima, AS Lopes, VH Alvares) pp. 291–334. (Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo: Viçosa, MG, Brazil)

Barcelo J, Poschenrieder C (2002) Fast root growth responses, root exudates, and internal detoxification as clues to the mechanisms of aluminium toxicity and resistance: A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany 48, 75–92.
Fast root growth responses, root exudates, and internal detoxification as clues to the mechanisms of aluminium toxicity and resistance: A review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XksVans7s%3D&md5=984c24e3c69e8f4e5724da08b5c027c9CAS |

Bélanger RR, Benhamou N, Menzies JG (2003) Cytological evidence of an active role of silicon in wheat resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici). Phytopathology 93, 402–412.
Cytological evidence of an active role of silicon in wheat resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici).CrossRef |

Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248–254.
A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE28XksVehtrY%3D&md5=abe1cd27e8a98ca01e0f8f11eb0ac76cCAS |

Cakmak I, Römheld V (1997) Boron deficiency-induced impairments of cellular functions in plants. Plant and Soil 193, 71–83.
Boron deficiency-induced impairments of cellular functions in plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXmtFaltL0%3D&md5=d41fee7fd83f3c7e9af530f73c6625feCAS |

Cartes P, McManus M, Wulff C, Leung S, Gutiérrez A, Mora ML (2012) Differential superoxide dismutase expression in ryegrass cultivars in response to short term aluminium stress. Plant and Soil 350, 353–363.
Differential superoxide dismutase expression in ryegrass cultivars in response to short term aluminium stress.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs1agtr7K&md5=02056beb138c510e3cdcdee7c554ac61CAS |

Cocker KM, Evans D, Hodson MJ (1998) The amelioration of aluminium toxicity by silicon in higher plants: solution chemistry or an in plants mechanism? Physiologia Plantarum 104, 608–614.
The amelioration of aluminium toxicity by silicon in higher plants: solution chemistry or an in plants mechanism?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhtFOku74%3D&md5=6b687bfa31d246e9909bc051bf10b658CAS |

Cooke J, Leishman MT (2016) Consistent alleviation of abiotic stress with silicon addition: a meta-analysis. Functional Ecology 30, 1340–1357.
Consistent alleviation of abiotic stress with silicon addition: a meta-analysis.CrossRef |

Donahue JL, Okpodu CM, Cramer CL, Grabau EA, Alscher RG (1997) Responses of antioxidants to paraquat in pea leaves. Relationships to resistance. Plant Physiology 113, 249–257.
Responses of antioxidants to paraquat in pea leaves. Relationships to resistance.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXntlOmtQ%3D%3D&md5=da8732ae640a39dd81013b3127ef7016CAS |

Dorneles AOS, Pereira AS, Rossato LV, Possebom G, Sasso VM, Bernardy K, Sandri RQ, Nicoloso FT, Ferreira PAA, Tabaldi LA (2016) Silicon reduces aluminum content in tissues and ameliorates its toxic effects on potato plant growth. Ciência Rural 46, 506–512.
Silicon reduces aluminum content in tissues and ameliorates its toxic effects on potato plant growth.CrossRef |

Dragišić Maksimović J, Bogdanovic J, Maksimovic V, Nikolic M (2007) Silicon modulates the metabolism and utilization of phenolic compounds in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown at excess manganese. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 170, 739–744.
Silicon modulates the metabolism and utilization of phenolic compounds in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown at excess manganese.CrossRef |

Du Z, Bramlage WJ (1992) Modified thiobarbituric acid assay for measuring lipid oxidation in sugar-rich plant tissue extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40, 1566–1570.
Modified thiobarbituric acid assay for measuring lipid oxidation in sugar-rich plant tissue extracts.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XlsV2mtLY%3D&md5=8090f63e8d58d5b1645afee28942f6e6CAS |

Epstein E (1999) Silicon. Annual Review of Plant Biology 50, 641–664.
Silicon.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXkt1yktro%3D&md5=6b9c6623d187f7900939885af9badd40CAS |

Giannopolitis CN, Ries SK (1977) Superoxide dismutases I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiology 59, 309–314.
Superoxide dismutases I. Occurrence in higher plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE2sXhtlKgtrs%3D&md5=f8e7531f20a748c6b3822850add5f51eCAS |

Gong HJ, Chen KM, Zhao ZG, Chen GC, Zhou WJ (2008) Effects of silicon on defense of wheat against oxidative stress under drought at different developmental stages. Biologia Plantarum 52, 592–596.
Effects of silicon on defense of wheat against oxidative stress under drought at different developmental stages.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtFaqtrnO&md5=8435f49a6e4d5615548bc42826db54bbCAS |

Hashemi A, Abdolzadeh A, Reza Sadeghipour H (2010) Beneficial effects of silicon nutrition in alleviating salinity stress in hydroponically grown canola, Brassica napus L. plants. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 56, 244–253.
Beneficial effects of silicon nutrition in alleviating salinity stress in hydroponically grown canola, Brassica napus L. plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXotVWit7c%3D&md5=e8f14d97bb6a0e4fa0e493d082983e5cCAS |

Hodson MJ, Sangster AG (1993) The interaction between silicon and aluminium in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench: Growth analysis and X-ray microanalysis. Annals of Botany 72, 389–400.
The interaction between silicon and aluminium in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench: Growth analysis and X-ray microanalysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXitFalu7k%3D&md5=8ff245d5f61e2e62e24120925d690dc8CAS |

Illera V, Garrido F, Vizcayno C, García-González MT (2004) Field application of industrial by-products as Al-toxicity amendments: chemical and mineralogical implications. European Journal of Soil Science 55, 681–692.
Field application of industrial by-products as Al-toxicity amendments: chemical and mineralogical implications.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtFagsL%2FP&md5=6ffcc2595763c5ea42979aa0df33d83bCAS |

Inal A, Pilbeam DJ, Gunes A (2009) Silicon increases tolerance to boron toxicity and reduces oxidative damage in barley. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 112–128.
Silicon increases tolerance to boron toxicity and reduces oxidative damage in barley.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsFarsbjP&md5=cd757e5dbcd96e7f6960ed8ff3a4c737CAS |

Jansen S, Broadley M, Robbrecht E, Smets E (2002) Aluminum hyperaccumulation in angiosperms: a review of its phylogenetic significance. Botanical Review 68, 235–269.
Aluminum hyperaccumulation in angiosperms: a review of its phylogenetic significance.CrossRef |

Jarvis SC (1987) The uptake and transport of silicon by perennial ryegrass and wheat. Plant and Soil 97, 429–437.
The uptake and transport of silicon by perennial ryegrass and wheat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXhsFeitLk%3D&md5=98d8234c521eb179b32306b62a80fc15CAS |

Jones JB, Jr (2002) ‘Agronomic handbook: Management of crops, soils and their fertility.’ (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA)

Kidd PS, Llugany M, Poschenrieder C, Gunse B, Barcelo J (2001) The role of root exudates in aluminium resistance and silicon-induced amelioration of aluminium toxicity in three varieties of maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 52, 1339–1352.
The role of root exudates in aluminium resistance and silicon-induced amelioration of aluminium toxicity in three varieties of maize (Zea mays L.).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlsVCmsL0%3D&md5=10e1ccb6141a51310c663ffe1b296a40CAS |

Kochian LV, Piñeros MA, Owen HA (2005) The physiology, genetics and molecular biology of plant aluminum resistance and toxicity. Plant and Soil 274, 175–195.
The physiology, genetics and molecular biology of plant aluminum resistance and toxicity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVWiurfN&md5=82bbd7f57bd338338730e1d15886fe94CAS |

Kögel I, Bochter R (1985) Characterization of lignin in forest humus layers by high performance liquid chromatography of CuO oxidation products. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 17, 637–640.
Characterization of lignin in forest humus layers by high performance liquid chromatography of CuO oxidation products.CrossRef |

Korndörfer GH, Pereira HS, Camargo MS (2002) ‘Silicatos de cálcio e magnésio na agricultura. Boletim técnico 1, 24.’ (GPSi/ICIAG/UFU Publishing: Uberlândia, MG, Brazil)

Liang Y, Nikolic M, Bélanger R, Gong H, Song A (2015) ‘Silicon in agriculture: From theory to practice.’ (Springer Publishing: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Lima MDR, Barros UO, Barbosa MAM, Segura FR, Silva FF, Batista BL, Lobato AKS (2016) Silicon mitigates oxidative stress and has positive effects in Eucalyptus platyphylla under aluminium toxicity. Plant, Soil and Environment 62, 164–170.
Silicon mitigates oxidative stress and has positive effects in Eucalyptus platyphylla under aluminium toxicity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2sXmvVSqsbc%3D&md5=72a03e4bf78e43929551e71c01f71d8bCAS |

Ma JF (2004) Role of silicon in enhancing the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 50, 11–18.
Role of silicon in enhancing the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhvVGqs7k%3D&md5=7e2fc25d4e851b3500691080a688105dCAS |

Ma JF, Yamaji N (2006) Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends in Plant Science 11, 392–397.
Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xns1Kjurg%3D&md5=a4e40f3ddb4181e9f0ca49dad83a8d96CAS |

Marodin JC, Resende JTV, Morales RGF, Silva MLS, Galvão AG, Zanin DS (2014) Yield of tomato fruits in relation to silicon sources and rates. Horticultura Brasileira 32, 220–224.
Yield of tomato fruits in relation to silicon sources and rates.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhvFagsL7L&md5=45065f30cfd2a450e342cebd947c2398CAS |

Mora ML, Baeza G, Pizarro C, Demanet R (1999) Effect of calcitic and dolomitic lime on physicochemical properties of a Chilean Andisol. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 30, 427–439.
Effect of calcitic and dolomitic lime on physicochemical properties of a Chilean Andisol.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhvFajsb4%3D&md5=cfb354af8eceaa82eec67945cc4eb13eCAS |

Mora ML, Cartes P, Demanet R, Cornforth IS (2002) Effects of lime and gypsum on pasture growth and composition on acid Andisol in Chile, South America. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 33, 2069–2081.
Effects of lime and gypsum on pasture growth and composition on acid Andisol in Chile, South America.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XmtVegurk%3D&md5=dea1ea24383045d43f88671ce2f50b11CAS |

Mora ML, Alfaro MA, Jarvis SC, Demanet R, Cartes P (2006) Soil aluminium availability in Andisols of Southern Chile and its effect on forage production and animal metabolism. Soil Use and Management 22, 95–101.
Soil aluminium availability in Andisols of Southern Chile and its effect on forage production and animal metabolism.CrossRef |

Motomura Y, Reyes-Díaz M, Mora ML (2008) Effect of selenite on total polyphenol content and antioxidative activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts in sprouts of four agronomic species. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 8, 55–67.
Effect of selenite on total polyphenol content and antioxidative activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts in sprouts of four agronomic species.CrossRef |

Nakano Y, Asada K (1981) Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant & Cell Physiology 22, 867–880.
Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXltFWqur0%3D&md5=329fc87a49e714f763c87e6bdd784125CAS |

Nanayakkara UN, Uddin W, Datnoff LE (2008) Effects of soil type, source of silicon, and rate of silicon source on development of gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass turf. Plant Disease 92, 870–877.
Effects of soil type, source of silicon, and rate of silicon source on development of gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass turf.CrossRef |

Nolla A, Korndörfer GH, Da Silva CAT, Da Silva TRB, Zucarelli V, Da Silva MA (2013) Correcting soil acidity with the use of slags. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8, 5174–5180.
Correcting soil acidity with the use of slags.CrossRef |

Pavlovic J, Samardzic J, Maksimovic V, Timotijevic G, Stevic N, Laursen KH, Hansen TH, Husted S, Schjoerring JK, Liang Y, Nikolic M (2013) Silicon alleviates iron deficiency in cucumber by promoting mobilization of iron in the root apoplast. New Phytologist 198, 1096–1107.
Silicon alleviates iron deficiency in cucumber by promoting mobilization of iron in the root apoplast.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXnsVWiurk%3D&md5=f5a39418f63c4add55d4ea6ca3ae122cCAS |

Pinhero RG, Rao MV, Paliyath G, Murr DP, Fletcher RA (1997) Changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes and their relationship to genetic and paclobutrazol-induced chilling tolerance of maize seedlings. Plant Physiology 114, 695–704.
Changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes and their relationship to genetic and paclobutrazol-induced chilling tolerance of maize seedlings.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXktVWjtb4%3D&md5=49956934fd49846d76be97d9d68c8c1aCAS |

Pontigo S, Ribera A, Gianfreda L, Mora ML, Nikolic M, Cartes P (2015) Silicon in vascular plants: uptake, transport and its influence on mineral stress under acidic conditions. Planta 242, 23–37.
Silicon in vascular plants: uptake, transport and its influence on mineral stress under acidic conditions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXovFOgtr8%3D&md5=dbd989b1d3ee0195528c6fe284c25764CAS |

Pontigo S, Godoy K, Jimenez H, Gutierrez-Moraga A, Mora ML, Cartes P (2017) Silicon-mediated alleviation of aluminum toxicity by modulation of Al/Si uptake and antioxidant performance in ryegrass plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 8, 642
Silicon-mediated alleviation of aluminum toxicity by modulation of Al/Si uptake and antioxidant performance in ryegrass plants.CrossRef |

Remus-Borel W, Menzies JG, Bélangera RR (2005) Silicon induces antifungal compounds in powdery mildew-infected wheat. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 66, 108–115.
Silicon induces antifungal compounds in powdery mildew-infected wheat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpslyhu7c%3D&md5=5ced1cbc92f8ea92cfd92747500e1382CAS |

Richmond KE, Sussman M (2003) Got silicon? The non-essential beneficial plant nutrient. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6, 268–272.
Got silicon? The non-essential beneficial plant nutrient.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjs1Gitrc%3D&md5=d3b2c0ea5f1a34ec4543c3b89c91da9cCAS |

Sadzawka A, Carrasco M, Grez R, Mora ML (2004) ‘Métodos de análisis recomendados para los suelos chilenos.’ (Comisión de Normalización y Acreditación (CNA) de la Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo: Chillán, Chile)

Sadzawka A, Carrasco MA, Demanet R, Flores H, Grez R, Mora ML, Neaman A (2007) ‘Métodos de análisis de tejidos vegetales.’ Segunda edición. Serie Actas INIA No. 40. (INIA: Santiago, Chile)

Schaller J, Brackhage C, Dudel EG (2012) Silicon availability changes structural carbon ratio and phenol content of grasses. Environmental and Experimental Botany 77, 283–287.
Silicon availability changes structural carbon ratio and phenol content of grasses.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xht1Onurs%3D&md5=e435c3d668cdadf1abc32314fdd33ceeCAS |

Shen X, Xiao X, Dong Z, Chen Y (2014) Silicon effects on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of peanut under aluminum stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 36, 3063–3069.
Silicon effects on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of peanut under aluminum stress.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhvFelurg%3D&md5=5d2bbe231110f110ee195dead4cab81eCAS |

Shetty R, Frette X, Jensen B, Shetty NP, Jensen JD, Jørgen H, Jørgensen L, Newman MA, Christensen LC (2011) Silicon-induced changes in antifungal phenolic acids, flavonoids, and key phenylpropanoid pathway genes during the interaction between miniature roses and the biotrophic pathogen Podosphaera pannosa. Plant Physiology 157, 2194–2205.
Silicon-induced changes in antifungal phenolic acids, flavonoids, and key phenylpropanoid pathway genes during the interaction between miniature roses and the biotrophic pathogen Podosphaera pannosa.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs1ektLrM&md5=613bb4024471d9274adf14cd03b99744CAS | [W]

Shi Q, Bao Z, Zhu Z, He Y, Qian Q, Yu J (2005) Silicon-mediated alleviation of Mn toxicity in Cucumis sativus in relation to activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Phytochemistry 66, 1551–1559.
Silicon-mediated alleviation of Mn toxicity in Cucumis sativus in relation to activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlvFejsro%3D&md5=638b17cbf2a1aaed0890104b96fa3225CAS |

Singh VP, Kumar-Tripathi D, Kumar D, Kumar-Chauhan D (2011) Influence of exogenous silicon addition on aluminium tolerance in rice seedlings. Biological Trace Element Research 144, 1260–1274.
Influence of exogenous silicon addition on aluminium tolerance in rice seedlings.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs1elsrrN&md5=b5fa5ee283fe5f696b5f0128a5117dd1CAS |

Slinkard K, Singleton VA (1977) Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 28, 49–55.

Song A, Li P, Li Z, Fan F, Nikolic M, Liang Y (2011) The alleviation of zinc toxicity by silicon is related to zinc transport and antioxidative reactions in rice. Plant and Soil 344, 319–333.
The alleviation of zinc toxicity by silicon is related to zinc transport and antioxidative reactions in rice.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXnsVCjtLo%3D&md5=7cd84e2b12fe078e6e25c7a7e7f506fbCAS |

Song A, Xue G, Cui P, Fan F, Liu H, Yin C, Sun W, Liang Y (2016) The role of silicon in enhancing resistance to bacterial blight of hydroponic- and soil-cultured rice. Scientific Reports 6, 24640
The role of silicon in enhancing resistance to bacterial blight of hydroponic- and soil-cultured rice.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XmsFamurc%3D&md5=a0e836f6e2008c5b60976828780585f9CAS |

Thevenot M, Dignac MF, Rumpel C (2010) Fate of lignins in soils: A review. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 42, 1200–1211.
Fate of lignins in soils: A review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXntVektLk%3D&md5=8098db2bfd1ef84789c28d295371a2acCAS |

von Uexküll HR, Mutert E (1995) Global extent, development and economic impact of acid soils. Plant and Soil 171, 1–15.
Global extent, development and economic impact of acid soils.CrossRef |

Wang Y, Stass A, Horst WJ (2004) Apoplastic binding of aluminum is involved in silicon-induced amelioration of aluminum toxicity in maize. Plant Physiology 136, 3762–3770.
Apoplastic binding of aluminum is involved in silicon-induced amelioration of aluminum toxicity in maize.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVCjtr%2FO&md5=b6c4084d122067d9fe8cff3541139628CAS |

Welinder KG (1991) The plant peroxidase superfamily. In ‘Biochemical, molecular and physiological aspects of plant peroxidases’. (Eds J Lobarzewski, H Greppin, C Penel, TH Gaspar) pp. 3–13. (University of Geneva Publishing: Geneva)

Whetten RW, MacKay JJ, Sederoff RR (1998) Recent advances in understanding lignin biosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Biology 49, 585–609.
Recent advances in understanding lignin biosynthesis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjvVSgs7o%3D&md5=ea71b42a873a04abf0cc839364e19933CAS |

Zhang G, Cui Y, Ding X, Dai Q (2013) Stimulation of phenolic metabolism by silicon contributes to rice resistance to sheath blight. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 176, 118–124.
Stimulation of phenolic metabolism by silicon contributes to rice resistance to sheath blight.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXisVSntbo%3D&md5=3be0004812b57e6857f4b16d6d8b5673CAS |

Zhang L, Liu R, Gung BW, Tindall S, Gonzalez JM, Halvorson JJ, Hagerman AE (2016) Polyphenol-aluminum complex formation: implications for aluminum tolerance in plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64, 3025–3033.
Polyphenol-aluminum complex formation: implications for aluminum tolerance in plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XkvFKrtr8%3D&md5=a982edd99f3e30d5263878873d307bdcCAS |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation