Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Shifts in nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and allocation in response to selection for yield in Chinese winter wheat

Zheng Wang A B , Victor O. Sadras B , Marianne Hoogmoed B , Xueyun Yang A , Fang Huang A , Xiaoyu Han A and Shulan Zhang A C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

B South Australian Research and Development Institute, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA 5064, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: zhangshulan@nwafu.edu.cn

Crop and Pasture Science 68(9) 807-816 https://doi.org/10.1071/CP17220
Submitted: 16 June 2017  Accepted: 6 October 2017   Published: 1 November 2017

Abstract

This study assessed changes in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake and partitioning in response to selection for yield in milestone varieties of Chinese winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We established a factorial trial combining 11 nutrient–water regimes with three (2013–14) and five (2014–15) varieties released from 1970 to 2005. Grain yield increased at a rate of 0.46% year–1, with no apparent increase in the uptake of nutrients. Nitrogen harvest index did not change, and P harvest index increased at a rate of 0.15% year–1. Consequently, yield per unit N uptake and yield per unit P uptake increased at similar rates (0.4% year–1) at the expense of nutrient concentration in grain, which declined at a rate of 0.47% year–1 for N and 0.31% year–1 for P. No trends in N nutrition index were found. Selection for yield in wheat increased the yield per unit nutrient uptake at the expense of grain nutrient concentration. Further gains in yield need to be matched by increasing N uptake to maintain grain protein. Dilution of P in grain needs to be considered in terms of the putatively undesirable role of phytate for human nutrition, and the need for P reserves in seed for crop establishment.

Additional keywords: breeding, grain nutrient concentration, nitrogen use efficiency, phosphorus use efficiency.


References

Acreche MM, Slafer GA (2009) Variation of grain nitrogen content in relation with grain yield in old and modern Spanish wheats grown under a wide range of agronomic conditions in a Mediterranean region. The Journal of Agricultural Science 147, 657–667.
Variation of grain nitrogen content in relation with grain yield in old and modern Spanish wheats grown under a wide range of agronomic conditions in a Mediterranean region.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtlantL7P&md5=bfff505aae193723f63adb45150a1c65CAS |

Austin RB, Bingham J, Blackwell RD, Evans LT, Ford MA, Morgan CL, Taylor M (1980) Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes. The Journal of Agricultural Science 94, 675–689.
Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes.CrossRef |

Aziz MM, Palta JA, Siddique KHM, Sadras VO (2017) Five decades of selection for yield reduced root length density and increased nitrogen uptake per unit root length in Australian wheat varieties. Plant and Soil 413, 181–192.
Five decades of selection for yield reduced root length density and increased nitrogen uptake per unit root length in Australian wheat varieties.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XhslGrtbnK&md5=0d2e55a598fed40c51ca51794ba563e9CAS |

Barraclough PB, Howarth JR, Jones J, Lopez-Bellido R, Parmar S, Shepherd CE, Hawkesford MJ (2010) Nitrogen efficiency of wheat: Genotypic and environmental variation and prospects for improvement. European Journal of Agronomy 33, 1–11.
Nitrogen efficiency of wheat: Genotypic and environmental variation and prospects for improvement.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXlsFSkurw%3D&md5=8061cbea494c8cc5926cae8ff09e2fe3CAS |

Barraclough PB, Lopez-Bellido R, Hawkesford MJ (2014) Genotypic variation in the uptake, partitioning and remobilisation of nitrogen during grain-filling in wheat. Field Crops Research 156, 242–248.
Genotypic variation in the uptake, partitioning and remobilisation of nitrogen during grain-filling in wheat.CrossRef |

Brancourt-Hulmel M, Doussinault G, Lecomte C, Be’rard P, Le Buanec B, Trottet M (2003) Genetic improvement of agronomic traits of winter wheat cultivars released in France from 1946 to 1992. Crop Science 43, 37–45.
Genetic improvement of agronomic traits of winter wheat cultivars released in France from 1946 to 1992.CrossRef |

Bregitzer P, Raboy V (2006) Effects of four independent low-phytate mutations on barley agronomic performance. Crop Science 46, 1318–1322.
Effects of four independent low-phytate mutations on barley agronomic performance.CrossRef |

Calderini DF, Dreccer MF, Slafer GA (1995a) Genetic improvement in wheat yield and associated traits. A re-examination of previous results and the latest trends. Plant Breeding 114, 108–112.
Genetic improvement in wheat yield and associated traits. A re-examination of previous results and the latest trends.CrossRef |

Calderini DF, Torres-León S, Slafer GA (1995b) Consequences of wheat breeding on nitrogen and phosphorus yield, grain nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and associated traits. Annals of Botany 76, 315–322.
Consequences of wheat breeding on nitrogen and phosphorus yield, grain nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and associated traits.CrossRef |

Clark LJ, Whalley WR, Barraclough PB (2003) How do roots penetrate strong soil? Plant and Soil 255, 93–104.
How do roots penetrate strong soil?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXotV2js7g%3D&md5=df7dddada2373d596749efe50068f2f0CAS |

Egle K, Manske G, Römer W, Vlek P (1999) Improved phosphorus efficiency of three new wheat genotypes from CIMMYT in comparison with an older Mexican variety. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 162, 353–358.
Improved phosphorus efficiency of three new wheat genotypes from CIMMYT in comparison with an older Mexican variety.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXktF2mtLo%3D&md5=41fe3b502706c565f0d80f5f89f551b9CAS |

FAO (2014) ‘World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB).’ (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome)

Fischer RA (1985) Number of kernels in wheat crops and the influence of solar radiation and temperature. The Journal of Agricultural Science 105, 447–461.
Number of kernels in wheat crops and the influence of solar radiation and temperature.CrossRef |

Fischer T, Byerlee D, Edmeades G (2014) ‘Crop yields and global food security: will yield increase continue to feed the world?’ (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra, ACT)

Flavel RJ, Guppy CN, Tighe MK, Watt M, Young IM (2014) Quantifying the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root system architecture to phosphorus in an Oxisol. Plant and Soil 385, 303–310.
Quantifying the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root system architecture to phosphorus in an Oxisol.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsVSqs73M&md5=7e3301b078561ed0301cf968ec253443CAS |

Foulkes MJ, Hawkesford MJ, Barraclough PB, Holdsworth MJ, Kerr S, Kightley S, Shewry PR (2009) Identifying traits to improve the nitrogen economy of wheat: Recent advances and future prospects. Field Crops Research 114, 329–342.
Identifying traits to improve the nitrogen economy of wheat: Recent advances and future prospects.CrossRef |

Gastal F, Lemaire G, Durand J, Louarn G (2015) Quantifying crop responses to nitrogen and avenues to improve nitrogen-use efficiency. In ‘Crop physiology: applications for genetic improvement and agronomy’. (Eds VO Sadras, DF Calderini) pp. 161–206. (Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA)

Giunta F, Motzo R, Pruneddu G (2007) Trends since 1900 in the yield potential of Italian-bred durum wheat cultivars. European Journal of Agronomy 27, 12–24.
Trends since 1900 in the yield potential of Italian-bred durum wheat cultivars.CrossRef |

Gorjanovic B, Brdar-Jokanovic M, Kraljevic-Balalic M (2011) Phenotypic variability of bread wheat genotypes for nitrogen harvest index. Genetika 43, 419–426.
Phenotypic variability of bread wheat genotypes for nitrogen harvest index.CrossRef |

Guttieri MJ, Baenziger PS, Frels K, Carver B, Arnall B, Waters BM (2015) Variation for grain mineral concentration in a diversity panel of current and historical great plains hard winter wheat germplasm. Crop Science 55, 1035–1052.
Variation for grain mineral concentration in a diversity panel of current and historical great plains hard winter wheat germplasm.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXosFSgtrs%3D&md5=b78fe1ccf0e8d7484250485e6d442fc2CAS |

Guttieri MJ, Frels K, Regassa T, Waters BM, Baenziger PS (2017) Variation for nitrogen use efficiency traits in current and historical great plains hard winter wheat. Euphytica 213, 87
Variation for nitrogen use efficiency traits in current and historical great plains hard winter wheat.CrossRef |

Henery ML, Westoby M (2001) Seed mass and seed nutrient content as predictors of seed output variation between species. Oikos 92, 479–490.
Seed mass and seed nutrient content as predictors of seed output variation between species.CrossRef |

Ho MD, McCannon BC, Lynch JP (2004) Optimization modeling of plant root architecture for water and phosphorus acquisition. Journal of Theoretical Biology 226, 331–340.
Optimization modeling of plant root architecture for water and phosphorus acquisition.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpt1SjtL4%3D&md5=1f4eb5e4795d511bafda51bb80c7c7eeCAS |

Hoogmoed M, Sadras VO (2016) The importance of water-soluble carbohydrates in the theoretical framework for nitrogen dilution in shoot biomass of wheat. Field Crops Research 193, 196–200.
The importance of water-soluble carbohydrates in the theoretical framework for nitrogen dilution in shoot biomass of wheat.CrossRef |

Justes E, Mary B, Meynard JM, Machet JM, Thelier-Huche L (1994) Determination of a critical N dilution curve for winter wheat crops. Annals of Botany 74, 397–407.
Determination of a critical N dilution curve for winter wheat crops.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXmvF2qtbg%3D&md5=dd61b70cdb64fee51ce394610ae8c85dCAS |

Kitson R, Mellon M (1944) Colorimetric determination of phosphorus as molybdivanadophosphoric acid. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 16, 379–383.

Li ZP, Feng H, Song MD (2015) Critical nitrogen dilution curve and nitrogen nutrition index of winter wheat in Guanzhong Plain. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 46, 177–273. [In Chinese]

Moll RH, Kamprath EJ, Jackson WA (1982) Analysis and interpretation of factors which contribute to efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Agronomy Journal 74, 562–564.
Analysis and interpretation of factors which contribute to efficiency of nitrogen utilization.CrossRef |

Monaghan JM, Snape JW, Chojecki AJS, Peter SK (2001) The use of grain protein deviation for identifying wheat cultivars with high grain protein concentration and yield. Euphytica 122, 309–317.
The use of grain protein deviation for identifying wheat cultivars with high grain protein concentration and yield.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XltlWmuw%3D%3D&md5=91173157e41b3c931aefcc2c0151f240CAS |

Ortiz-Monasterio R JI, Peñna RJ, Sayre KD, Rajara S (1997a) CIMMTY’s genetic progress in wheat grain quality under four nitrogen rates. Crop Science 37, 892–898.
CIMMTY’s genetic progress in wheat grain quality under four nitrogen rates.CrossRef |

Ortiz-Monasterio R JI, Sayre KD, Rajaram S, McMahon M (1997b) Genetic progress in wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency under four nitrogen rates. Crop Science 37, 898–904.
Genetic progress in wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency under four nitrogen rates.CrossRef |

Raboy V (2007) Seed phosphorus and the development of low-phytate crops. In ‘Inositol phosphates: linking agriculture and the environment’. (Eds BL Turner, AE Richardson, EJ Mullaney) pp. 111–132. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

Raboy V (2009) Approaches and challenges to engineering seed phytate and total phosphorus. Plant Science 177, 281–296.
Approaches and challenges to engineering seed phytate and total phosphorus.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXpt1Kgsrc%3D&md5=3d710aceaa3bf243ade833ba8924f60cCAS |

Radin JW, Matthews MA (1989) Water transport properties of cortical cells in roots of nitrogen and phosphorus-deficient cotton seedlings. Plant Physiology 89, 264–268.
Water transport properties of cortical cells in roots of nitrogen and phosphorus-deficient cotton seedlings.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXhtFeluro%3D&md5=9e00c3f71f937e19a0989cea5f077110CAS |

Sadras VO, Lawson C (2013) Nitrogen and water-use efficiency of Australian wheat varieties released between 1958 and 2007. European Journal of Agronomy 46, 34–41.
Nitrogen and water-use efficiency of Australian wheat varieties released between 1958 and 2007.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXisVaktLs%3D&md5=1e6411e015f14dfa4156f861ec972cc6CAS |

Sadras VO, O’Leary GJ, Roget DK (2005) Crop responses to compacted soil: capture and efficiency in the use of water and radiation. Field Crops Research 91, 131–148.
Crop responses to compacted soil: capture and efficiency in the use of water and radiation.CrossRef |

Sadras VO, Hayman PT, Rodriguez D, Monjardino M, Bielich M, Unkovich M, Mudge B, Wang E (2016) Interactions between water and nitrogen in Australian cropping systems: physiological, agronomic, economic, breeding and modelling perspectives. Crop & Pasture Science 67, 1019–1053.
Interactions between water and nitrogen in Australian cropping systems: physiological, agronomic, economic, breeding and modelling perspectives.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28Xhs1Ggtb3F&md5=90a2da015e814c0ef32e3b48691900f0CAS |

Semenov MA, Jamieson PD, Martre P (2007) Deconvoluting nitrogen use efficiency in wheat: A simulation study. European Journal of Agronomy 26, 283–294.
Deconvoluting nitrogen use efficiency in wheat: A simulation study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXitl2hsrc%3D&md5=ebcaa6b0e9ed118f5278ea7d9dd360ddCAS |

Sharpley AN, Chapra SC, Wedepohl R, Sims JT, Daniel TC, Reddy KR (1994) Managing agricultural phosphorus for protection of surface waters: Issues and options. Journal of Environmental Quality 23, 437–451.
Managing agricultural phosphorus for protection of surface waters: Issues and options.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXktFOisLY%3D&md5=154abfd9100a5a6eeeea29e47e6ba49cCAS |

Slafer GA, Andrade FH, Feingold SE (1990) Genetic improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Argentina: relationships between nitrogen and dry matter. Euphytica 50, 63–71.
Genetic improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Argentina: relationships between nitrogen and dry matter.CrossRef |

Sun Y, Wang X, Wang N, Chen Y, Zhang S (2014) Changes in the yield and associated photosynthetic traits of dry-land winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the 1940s to the 2010s in Shaanxi Province of China. Field Crops Research 167, 1–10.
Changes in the yield and associated photosynthetic traits of dry-land winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the 1940s to the 2010s in Shaanxi Province of China.CrossRef |

Sylvester-Bradley R, Kindred DR (2009) Analysing nitrogen responses of cereals to prioritize routes to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany 60, 1939–1951.
Analysing nitrogen responses of cereals to prioritize routes to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXmtFSjtb0%3D&md5=820acfa72ee6b33547fe0e4b4b8bd7d3CAS |

Tian Z, Li Y, Liang Z, Guo H, Cai J, Jiang D, Cao W, Dai T (2016) Genetic improvement of nitrogen uptake and utilization of winter wheat in the Yangtze River Basin of China. Field Crops Research 196, 251–260.
Genetic improvement of nitrogen uptake and utilization of winter wheat in the Yangtze River Basin of China.CrossRef |

Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Bragg J, Finnegan PM, Lovelock CE, Plaxton WC, Price CA, Scheible WR, Shane MW, White PJ, Raven JA (2012) Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plants. New Phytologist 195, 306–320.
Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XosFSntb0%3D&md5=8beee59c6232a2f1d7ed5d3f72212cf4CAS |

Wang Z, Sadras VO, Yang X, Han X, Huang F, Zhang S (2017) Synergy between breeding for yield in winter wheat and high-input agriculture in North-West China. Field Crops Research 209, 136–143.
Synergy between breeding for yield in winter wheat and high-input agriculture in North-West China.CrossRef |

White PJ (1993) Relationship between the development and growth of rye (Secale cereale L.) and the potassium concentration in solution. Annals of Botany 72, 349–358.
Relationship between the development and growth of rye (Secale cereale L.) and the potassium concentration in solution.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXhs1aksb0%3D&md5=9d7756b2f23cf45c3537bf0409778895CAS |

White PJ, Broadley MR (2009) Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets—iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. New Phytologist 182, 49–84.
Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets—iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXksVKhtbw%3D&md5=ce0e7f9876f6b1f7d9d4c1d98f2fe91eCAS |

White PJ, Veneklaas EJ (2012) Nature and nurture: the importance of seed phosphorus content. Plant and Soil 357, 1–8.
Nature and nurture: the importance of seed phosphorus content.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhtVegt7nE&md5=45f64b53d1d74227b7ba8ad35948614bCAS |

Yang X, Li P, Zhang S, Sun B, Chen X (2011a) Long-term-fertilization effects on soil organic carbon, physical properties, and wheat yield of a loess soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 174, 775–784.
Long-term-fertilization effects on soil organic carbon, physical properties, and wheat yield of a loess soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht1SqtbvM&md5=a29b17a54a01014235a811d8cee34da2CAS |

Yang X, Yang Y, Sun B, Zhang S (2011b) Long-term fertilization effects on yield trends and soil properties under a winter wheat–summer maize cropping system. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6, 3392–3401.

Yu LH, Wu J, Tang H, Yuan Y, Wang SM, Wang YP, Zhu QS, Li SG, Xiang CB (2016) Overexpression of Arabidopsis NLP7 improves plant growth under both nitrogen-limiting and -sufficient conditions by enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation. Scientific Reports 6, 27795
Overexpression of Arabidopsis NLP7 improves plant growth under both nitrogen-limiting and -sufficient conditions by enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XhtVSlu7%2FJ&md5=dde8c251b71fedeca906d68f999de392CAS |

Yuan F, Yu X, Dong D, Yang Q, Fu X, Zhu S, Zhu D (2017) Whole genome-wide transcript profiling to identify differentially expressed genes associated with seed field emergence in two soybean low phytate mutants. BMC Plant Biology 17, 16
Whole genome-wide transcript profiling to identify differentially expressed genes associated with seed field emergence in two soybean low phytate mutants.CrossRef |

Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14, 415–421.
A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals.CrossRef |

Zhang W, Zheng C, Song Z, Deng A, He Z (2015) Farming systems in China: Innovations for sustainable crop production. In ‘Crop physiology’. (Eds VO Sadras, DF Calderini) pp. 43–64. (Elsevier Inc.: San Diego, CA, USA)

Zhong L, Chen D, Min D, Li W, Xu Z, Zhou Y, Li L, Chen M, Ma Y (2015) AtTGA4, a bZIP transcription factor, confers drought resistance by enhancing nitrate transport and assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 457, 433–439.
AtTGA4, a bZIP transcription factor, confers drought resistance by enhancing nitrate transport and assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhtlSrsrY%3D&md5=d763a964c905682351fa0bbef13cea88CAS |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (563 KB) Export Citation