Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 67 Number 11 2016

CP15250Economic and environmental implications of wheat-crop sequences on organic dairy-farm simulations

D. C. Abreu, A. K. Hoshide, E. B. Mallory, E. H. Roche, A. S. Oliveira, R. J. Kersbergen, R. P. Lana and M. A. Fonseca
pp. 1127-1138

The aim of this study was to determine the sustainability of eight 3-year crop sequences compared with a perennial forage baseline in long-term (25-year), well-managed, medium-sized organic dairy farm simulations. Growing winter wheat provides long-term environmental and economic benefits, although for spring wheat, much of this benefit is lost. Use of maize silage in place of grass, winter or spring wheat, or soybean was less profitable. Most cropping system scenarios were less economically favourable than producing and feeding exclusively grass silage; however, inclusion of soybean increased economic benefits.

Advanced phenotyping approaches can monitor N status in crop plants and fasten the breeding selection process for improved N-use efficiency. This study presents efficient and non-destructive approaches by using optical sensing equipment to phenotype diverse wheat varieties to study N-use efficiency under field conditions.

CP16331Nitrogen rate and timing effects on growth and yield of drill-sown rice

B. W. Dunn, T. S. Dunn and B. A. Orchard
pp. 1149-1157

Nitrogen fertiliser application timing was investigated for its effect on grain yield of semi-dwarf rice varieties when drill-sown. Nitrogen applied pre-permanent water had a higher apparent nitrogen recovery than nitrogen applied at panicle initiation. A moderate level of nitrogen uptake must be achieved at panicle initiation for high grain yields to be obtained, as panicle initiation applied nitrogen alone is not sufficient to maximise grain yield.

CP16204Physiological and biochemical indicators for assessing nitrogen-use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes under dry direct seeding

Rupinder Kaur, Seema Bedi, Gulshan Mahajan, Gurpreet Kaur and Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
pp. 1158-1167

To save labour and improve crop productivity, farmers of South Asia are showing more interest in direct-seeded rice (DSR). Nitrogen requirement in DSR is higher than puddled transplanted rice. For economize use of nitrogen, N-efficient genotypes are needed in DSR. Genotypes with improved nitrate assimilation and glutamine synthetase activity perform better under DSR. Proline content and soluble sugars could be used as N-efficiency indicator for selecting N efficient genotypes.

This study examined the effects of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) on major grain crops. Narrow-leafed lupin was very susceptible to soil Na, but canola and wheat were relatively salt tolerant and showed positive response in growth and yield at low–moderate Na with K deficiency. The difference in response to soil Na and K between grain crops has practical implication for K-fertiliser strategy on low K and sodic saline soils.

Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Erysiphe cruciferarum, is an emerging threat to oilseed Brassica production in Australia. Testing of 117 Australian canola and mustard cultivars revealed high-level leaf and stem resistance to the disease. The most resistant cultivars can now be deployed into regions where powdery mildew is a persistent problem, providing the oilseed Brassica industry with their first effective option for management of this increasingly troublesome disease.

CP16063Effects of grass–legume mixtures on the production and photosynthetic capacity of constructed grasslands in Inner Mongolia, China

Min Liu, Ji-Rui Gong, Yan Pan, Qin-Pu Luo, Zhan-Wei Zhai, Sha Xu and Li-Li Yang
pp. 1188-1198

The grass–legume mixture is an important way to construct grasslands. We analysed forage yields, quality, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in the mixtures, finding that grass–legume mixtures improved forage production and photosynthetic capacity. The study provides a scientific basis for establishment of constructed grasslands with high yield and quality.

CP16067Sward structure and relationship between canopy height and light interception for tropical C4 grasses growing under trees

Tiago Celso Baldissera, Laíse da Silveira Pontes, André Faé Giostri, Raquel Santiago Barro, Sebastião Brasil Campos Lustosa, Aníbal de Moraes and Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho
pp. 1199-1207

Field experiments were conducted to determine the influence of tree canopy (Eucalyptus dunnii) shading and nitrogen availability (0 and 300 kg N ha–1 year–1) on canopy height (CH) at 95% light interception of six perennial tropical grass species. Overall, species growing under trees showed higher CH, suggesting that greater CH should be considered in case of shade-grown plants. Nitrogen also had an impact on CH; however, its application did not compensate the shade effect.

Beckmannia syzigachne is a problematic grass in Chinese agriculture and is not controlled by the herbicides mesosulfuron-methyl and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. We found a population (JCWJ-R) that was resistant to all ACCase and ALS inhibitors tested, with resistance to ALS inhibitors caused by a Pro-197-Ser mutation in the ALS gene and resistance to ACCase inhibitors by an Ile-1781-Leu mutation in the ACCase gene. The evolution of multiple resistance to ACCase and ALS inhibitors in this population indicated the need for alternative methods to control resistant weeds.

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