Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 68 Number 4 2017

CP16224Phosphorus acquisition by three wheat cultivars contrasting in aluminium tolerance growing in an aluminium-rich volcanic soil

Alex Seguel, Pablo Cornejo, Ariel Ramos, Erik Von Baer, Jonathan Cumming and Fernando Borie
pp. 305-316

Phosphorus (P) deficiency and aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity are major limitations for crop yield in acid soils. The aim of this work was to study Al–P interactions on wheat genotypes of contrasting Al tolerance when grown in a volcanic soil with high Al saturation and low pH. The Al-tolerant genotypes were more effective at P acquisition from soil as well as from P fertiliser added, suggesting that plant traits such as Al tolerance, P efficiency, and AM colonisation potential co-operate in overcoming adverse acid soil conditions.

Two field experiments were conducted with three fungicide treatments, three N fertiliser rates and three cultivars. Fungicide applications and increasing N rates extended green-leaf-area duration. GPC increased in untreated plots mainly without N, whereas GPC, tenacity and dough strength were reduced with applications of triazole–strobilurin fungicide. Quality group of the cultivars influenced some rheological properties and the response of GPC under fungicide applications.

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is one of the most ubiquitous pathogens in cereal crops and grasses that cause significant yield losses in crops, particularly in wheat. The results describe in this article include comparative analysis of WSMV population based on coat protein sequences that occurs in wheat and grass hosts. A significant level of diversity of the virus was found between crop and non-crop grass hosts.

Variables determining growth and grain yield of rice at low-fertile soils are needed to be identified. Higher- seed weight and seed P content guarantee better crop establishment. Capacity to produce large root systems, higher P and K uptake rates, and longer crop duration are the determinants of higher grain yield.

Variation of stem-breaking strength depended on genotypes, internode position, developmental stages and crop density in foxtail millet. A linear correlation of the third to fifth basal internodes was observed across different developmental stages and crop densities. The measurement of stem-breaking strength of the fourth or fifth basal internode determined at the late grain-filling stage can differentiate the genotypes of this cereal crop.

CP16462Dissection of the genetic architecture for soybean seed weight across multiple environments

Weili Teng, Lei Feng, Wen Li, Depeng Wu, Xue Zhao, Yingpeng Han and Wenbin Li
pp. 358-365

Nine QTLs associated with soybean seed weight were identified through a RIL population derived from a cross between parents with large phenotypic difference across nine environments. These QTLs had additive and/or additive × environment interaction effects, which could explain 1.07–18.43% of the phenotypic variation in the different environments. Nine epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in different environments. These QTLs and their genetic information were valuable for marker-assisted breeding.

CP16426An improved CROPR model for estimating cotton yield under soil aeration stress

Long Qian, Xiu-Gui Wang, Wen-Bing Luo, Zhi-Ming Qi, Huai-Wei Sun and Yun-Ying Luo
pp. 366-377

Soil aeration stress, usually induced by rainstorm or over-irrigation, poses a threat to crop production, and it is crucial to estimate accurately the yield loss it causes. This study aimed to improve and apply a crop model that includes crop response mechanisms under aeration stress, and the model was demonstrated to be reliable. This work offers a theoretical and practical tool for estimating yield loss and managing the field water table during flooding control.

CP16193Mixed farming diversification may be costly: southern Queensland case study

A. F. Zull, J. Owens, M. Bourgault, B. Johnson, G. Peck and N. Christodoulou
pp. 378-389

Mixed farming may reduce risk, but the right scales of livestock and cropping enterprises is critical. We investigated expected farm profits, probability of breaking even, as-well-as the worst and best case scenarios using farm data and APSIM to simulate a typical, semi-arid, mixed-farm in southern Queensland. We found that too little cropping area decreased profits and increased risk due to higher overheads than more intensive cropping or livestock only enterprises.

CP17026Can management practices provide greenhouse gas abatement in grain farms in New South Wales, Australia?

Jeda Palmer, Peter J. Thorburn, Elizabeth A. Meier, Jody S. Biggs, Brett Whelan, Kanika Singh and David N. Eyre
pp. 390-400

Identifying strategies with the potential to abate greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural grains industry is important given the risks that global warming poses. Abatement can be achieved by changing land management practices. We found that management practices that sequester carbon can provide abatement in dryland farms in New South Wales, while practices that reduce nitrous oxide emissions can provide abatement in irrigated farms.

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