Exploration Geophysics Exploration Geophysics Society
Journal of the Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Improved reservoir characterisation using fuzzy logic platform: an integrated petrophysical, seismic structural and poststack inversion study

Muhammad Kamran Jafri 1 2 Aref Lashin 3 4 6 El-Khedr Hassan Ibrahim 1 5 Kamal A. Hassanein 1 Nassir Al Arifi 1 Muhammad Naeem 1
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

1 King Saud University, College of Science, Department of Geology and Geophysics, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

2 Bahria University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

3 King Saud University, College of Engineering - Petroleum and Gas Engineering Department, PO Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia.

4 Benha University, Faculty of Science - Geology Department, Benha 13518, Egypt.

5 Mansoura University, Faculty of Science - Geology Department, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.

6 Corresponding author. Email: aref70@hotmail.com

Exploration Geophysics - https://doi.org/10.1071/EG15112
Submitted: 27 October 2015  Accepted: 29 April 2016   Published online: 23 June 2016

Abstract

There is a tendency for applying different integrated geophysical approaches for better hydrocarbon reservoir characterisation and interpretation. In this study, petrophysical properties, seismic structural and poststack seismic inversion results are integrated using the fuzzy logic AND operator to characterise the Tensleep Sandstone Formation (TSF) at Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming, USA. TSF is deposited in a coastal plain setting during the Pennsylvanian era, and contains cross-bedded sandstone of Aeolian origin as a major lithology with alternative sabkha dolomite/carbonates. Wireline logging datasets from 17 wells are used for the detailed petrophysical evaluation. Three units of the TSF (A-sandstone, B-dolomite and B-sandstone) are targeted and their major rock properties estimated (i.e. shale/clay volume, Vsh; porosity, φEff; permeability, K; fluid saturations, Sw and SH; and bulk volume water, BVW). The B-sandstone zone, with its petrophysical properties of 5–20% effective porosity, 0.10–250 mD permeability and hydrocarbon potential up to 72%, is considered the best reservoir zone among the three studied units. Distributions of the most important petrophysical parameters of the B-sandstone reservoir (Vsh, φEff, K, Sw) are generated as GIS thematic layers.

The two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) seismic structural interpretations revealed that the hydrocarbons are entrapped in an anticlinal structure bounded with fault closures at the west of the study area. Poststack acoustic impedance (PSAI) inversion is performed on 3D seismic data to extract the inverted acoustic impedance (AI) cube. Two attribute slices (inverted AI and seismic amplitude) were extracted at the top of the B-sandstone unit as GIS thematic layers. The reservoir properties and inverted seismic attributes were then integrated using fuzzy AND operator. Finally, a fuzzy reservoir quality map was produced, and a prospective reservoir area with best reservoir characteristics is proposed for future exploration. The current study showed that integration of petrophysical, seismic structural and poststack inversion under a fuzzy logic platform can be used as an effective tool for interpreting multiple reservoir zones.

Key words: fuzzy logic, petrophysical analysis, reservoir characterisation, seismic inversion, Teapot Dome, Tensleep.


References

Abd El Rahman, A., and Lashin, A., 2004, Evaluation of the basement reservoir rocks in some selected wells in north Gulf of Suez and south Sinai: Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, XXVII, 459–477

Al-Zuabi, Y., Al-Khaled, O., Abd-Rabu, K., Sulistiono, D., and Celma, R., 2011, Quantitative reservoir characterization through simultaneous inversion: a case study from the Burgan Field, Kuwait: 81st SEG Annual Meeting, San Antonio, SEG-2011–1719.

AlMuhaidib, A. M., Sen, M. K., and Toksoz, M. N., 2012, Integration of geology, rock physics, logs, and prestack seismic data for reservoir porosity estimation: AAPG Bulletin, 96, 1235–1251
Integration of geology, rock physics, logs, and prestack seismic data for reservoir porosity estimation:CrossRef |

Amaefule, J. O., Altunbay, M., Tiab, D., Kersey, D. G., and Keelan, D. K., 1993, Enhanced reservoir description using core and log data to identify hydraulic (flow) units and predict permeability in uncored intervals/wells: 68th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, 205–220 .

Amigun, J., and Bakare, N., 2013, Reservoir evaluation of “Danna” field Niger delta using petrophysical analysis and 3D seismic interpretation: Petroleum & Coal, 55, 119–127
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXot1Wnurc%3D&md5=84388f9910ebe665b0986b7d843de94eCAS |

Anna, L. O., 2009, Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Powder River Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana. Digital Data Series DDS–69–U.

Archie G. E. 1942 The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics: Petroleum Transactions of AIME 146 54 62 10.2118/942054-g

Asquith, G. B., Krygowski, D., and Gibson, C. R., 2004, Basic well log analysis: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Brown, A. R., 2004, Interpretation of three-dimensional seismic data (6th edition): AAPG and SEG.

Chambers, R. L., and Yarus, J. M., 2002, Quantitative use of seismic attributes for reservoir characterization: CSEG Recorder, 27, 14–25

Cheney, T. M., and Sheldon, R. P., 1959, Permian stratigraphy and oil potential, Wyoming and Utah, in N. C. Williams, ed., Guidebook to the geology of the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Transition Area: Intermountain Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tenth Annual Field Conference, 90–100.

Chopra, S., and Marfurt, K., 2006, Seismic attributes – a promising aid for geologic prediction: CSEG Recorder, 31, 110–120

Clayton, J. L., and Ryder, R. T., 1984, Organic chemistry of black shales and oils in the Minnelusa Formation (Permian and Pennsylvanian), Powder River Basin, Wyoming, in J. Woodward, F. F. Meissner, and J. L. Clayton, eds., Hydrocarbon source rocks of the Greater Rocky Mountain region: Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 231–244.

Contreras, A., Torres-Verdin, C., Chesters, W., Kvien, K., and Globe, M., 2005, Joint stochastic inversion of petrophysical logs and 3D pre-stack seismic data to assess the spatial continuity of fluid units away from wells: application to a Gulf-of-Mexico deep water hydrocarbon reservoir: 46th Annual Logging Symposium, Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts, 26–29 June 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Cuddy, S. J., 1997, The application of fuzzy logic to petrophysics: 38th Annual Logging Symposium, Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts, 15–18 June 1997, Houston, Texas.

De Bruin, R. H., 1993, Overview of oil and gas geology of Wyoming, in A. W. Snoke, J. R. Steidtmann, and S. M. Roberts, eds., Geology of Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming, Memoir No. 5, 836–873.

Dennen, K., Burns, W., Burruss, R., and Hatcher, K., 2013, Geochemical analyses of oils and gases, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Teapot Dome Field, Natrona County, Wyoming: USGS Open-File Report 2005–1275.

Doll, T. E., Luers, D. K., Strong, G. R., Schulte, R. K., Sarathi, P. S., Olsen, D. K., and Hendricks, M. L., 1995, An update of steam injection operations at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Teapot Dome field, Wyoming: a shallow heterogeneous light oil reservoir: SPE International Heavy Oil Symposium, 19–21 June 1995, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Dolton, G. L., and Fox, J. E., 1995, Powder River Basin Province (033), in D. L. Gautier, G. L. Dolton, K. I. Takahashi, and K. L. Varnes, eds., 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources—Results, Methodology, and Supporting Data: US Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-30, one CD-ROM, Release 2.

Duijndam, A. J. W., 1988, Bayesian estimation in seimic inversion. Part I: Principles: Geophysical Prospecting, 36, 878–898
Bayesian estimation in seimic inversion. Part I: Principles:CrossRef |

El-Mowafy, H., and Marfurt, K. J., 2008, Structural interpretation of the middle Frio Formation using 3D seismic and well logs: an example from the Texas Gulf Coast of the United States: The Leading Edge, 27, 840–854
Structural interpretation of the middle Frio Formation using 3D seismic and well logs: an example from the Texas Gulf Coast of the United States:CrossRef |

El-Naby, A. A., El-Aal, M. A., Kuss, J., Boukhary, M., and Lashin, A., 2009, Structural and basin evolution in Miocene time, southwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaontologie. Abhandlungen, 251, 331–353
Structural and basin evolution in Miocene time, southwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt:CrossRef |

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014. Teapot Dome scandal. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/585252/Teapot-Dome-Scandal

Esri, 2011, Applying fuzzy logic to overlay rasters. Available at: http://help.arcgis.com/EN/ArcGISDesktop/10.0/Help/index.html#/Applying_fuzzy_logic_to_overlay_rasters/009z000000rv000000

Esri, 2012, ArcGIS resources. Available at: http://resources.arcgis.com/en/communities/imagery

Friedmann, S. J., and Stamp, V., 2006, Teapot Dome: site characterization of a CO2-enhanced oil recovery and storage research site in eastern Wyoming: Environmental Geoscience, 13, 181–199
Teapot Dome: site characterization of a CO2-enhanced oil recovery and storage research site in eastern Wyoming:CrossRef |

Friedmann, S., Nummedal, D., and Stamp, V., 2004, Science and technology goals of the Teapot Dome field experimental facility: The Fourth National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, D. C., 1–8.

Gardner, G. H. F., Gardner, L. W., and Gregory, A. R., 1974, Formation veloicty and density – the diagnostic basics for stratigraphic traps: Geophysics, 39, 770–780
Formation veloicty and density – the diagnostic basics for stratigraphic traps:CrossRef |

Jafri, M. K., Lashin, A., Ibrahim, E., and Naeem, M., 2016, Petrophysical evaluation of the Tensleep Sandstone formation using well logs and limited core data at Teapot Dome, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA: Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 41, 223–247
Petrophysical evaluation of the Tensleep Sandstone formation using well logs and limited core data at Teapot Dome, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA:CrossRef |

Kainz, W., 2010, Fuzzy logic and GIS: University of Vienna.

Larionov, V., 1969, Radiometry of boreholes: Nedra (Moscow).

Lashin, A., and Abd El Aal, M., 2004a, Juxtaposition and fault seal analysis of some mixed clastic reservoirs, Egypt: Journal of the Egyptian Geophysical Society, 2, 165–184

Lashin, A., and Abd El Aal, M., 2004b, Seismic data analysis to detect the depositional process environment and the structural framework of east central part of Gharib Province, Egypt: Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, XXVII, 523–550

Lashin, A., and El Din, S., 2013, Reservoir parameters determination using artificial neural networks: Ras Fanar field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6, 2789–2806
Reservoir parameters determination using artificial neural networks: Ras Fanar field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt:CrossRef |

Lashin, A., and El-Naby, A., 2014, Petrophysical, seismic structural and facies analysis of the Miocene reservoirs of East Morgan oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7, 3481–3504
Petrophysical, seismic structural and facies analysis of the Miocene reservoirs of East Morgan oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt:CrossRef |

Lashin, A., El Shahat, W., and Sharaf, M., 2003, Formation evaluation of the Cenomanian and Lower Cretaceous rocks in the north eastern part of Sinai, Egypt: Egyptian Journal of Geology, 47, 1297–1324

Lashin, A., Al-Arifi, N., and Ashour, N. A., 2011, Evaluation of the ASL and Hawara formations using seismic-and log-derived properties, October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 4, 365–383
Evaluation of the ASL and Hawara formations using seismic-and log-derived properties, October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt:CrossRef |

Lashin, A., Zahra, H., Ibrahim, F., Serag Eldien, S., and Al-Bassam, A., 2014, Petrophysical and electrofacies analysis of Nullipore Reservoir, Ras Fanar Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt: Petroleum Science and Technology, 32, 1851–1860
Petrophysical and electrofacies analysis of Nullipore Reservoir, Ras Fanar Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt:CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXpvVWjsrw%3D&md5=5efcb9feb6711ebd97b6dee642f1f2a2CAS |

Lashin, A., Bin Marta, E., and Mohamed Khamis, M., 2016, Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach: Journal of African Earth Sciences, 115, 121–142
Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach:CrossRef |

Latimer, R., Davison, R., and van Riel, P., 2000, An interpreter’s guide to understanding and working with seismic-derived acoustic impedance data: The Leading Edge, 19, 242–256
An interpreter’s guide to understanding and working with seismic-derived acoustic impedance data:CrossRef |

Lindseth, R. O., 1979, Synthetic sonic logs – a process for stratigraphic interpretation: Geophysics, 44, 3–26
Synthetic sonic logs – a process for stratigraphic interpretation:CrossRef |

Lloyd, H. J. E., and Margrave, G. F., 2011, Comparison of low frequency seismic data to well logs – Hussar example: CREWES Research Report, Vol. 23, No. 72.

Mohamed, A., Ibrahim, E., and Sabry, A., 2013, Petrophysical characteristics of Wakar Formation, Port Fouad marine field, north Nile Delta, Egypt: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6, 1485–1497
Petrophysical characteristics of Wakar Formation, Port Fouad marine field, north Nile Delta, Egypt:CrossRef |

Momper, J. A., and Williams, J. A., 1984, Geochemical exploration in the Powder River basin, in G. Demaison, and R. J. Murris, eds., Petroleum geochemistry and basin evaluation: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoirs 35, 181–191.

Morris, R., and Biggs, W., 1967, Using log-derived values of water saturation and porosity: 8th Annual Logging Symposium, Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts, 12–14 June, Denver, Colorado.

Naeem, M., El-Araby, H. E., Khalil, M. K., Jafri, K. M., and Khan, F., 2015, Study of seismic and well data for porosity estimation using multi-attribute transforms: a case study of Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8, 8777–8793
Study of seismic and well data for porosity estimation using multi-attribute transforms: a case study of Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA:CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXis1yhtro%3D&md5=857f5e01e0c2197ee0f89915f29f9fa4CAS |

Norland, U., 1996, Formalizing geological knowledge, with an example of modeling stratigraphy using fuzzy logic: Journal of Sedimentary Research, 66, 689–698

Pendrel, J., 2001, Seismic inversion – the best tool for reservoir characterization: CSEG Recorder, 26, 18–24

Pendrel, J., 2006, Seismic inversion – a critical tool in reservoir characterization: Scandinavian Oil-Gas Magazine, 5/6, 19–22

Pendrel, J., and Van Riel, P., 1997, Methodology for seismic inversion and modeling: a western Canadian reef example: CSEG Recorder, 22, 105–109

Roth, M., Emanuel, J., and Anderson, T., 2005, Better understanding Wyoming tight gas reservoirs through co-visualization and analysis of 3D seismic, VSP and engineering data – Teapot Dome, Powder River Basin: 3D Seismic Symposium, Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists/Denver Geological Society, 1–5.

Russell, B., 2005, Strata workshop: theory and exercises in seismic inversion and AVO: unpublished lecture notes.

Russell, B., and Hampson, D., 2006, The old and the new in seismic inversion: CSEG Recorder, 12, 5–11

Russell, B., and Toksöz, M. N., 1991, Comparison of poststack seismic inversion methods: 1991 SEG Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas, SEG-1991-0876.

Savic, M., VerWest, B., Masters, R., Sena, A., and Gingrich, D., 2006, Elastic impedance inversion in practice: ARCO Alaska Inc.

Schlumberger, 1986, Schlumberger well services. Houston, Texas.

Schlumberger, 1995, Log Interpretation, Principles/Applications. Houston, Texas.

Schlumberger, 1991, Charts. Schlumberger educational services. Houston, Texas.

Schwartz, B. C., 2006, Fracture pattern characterization of the Tensleep Formation, Teapot Dome, Wyoming: M.Sc. thesis, West Virginia University.

Serra, O., Westaway, P., and Abbott, H., 1984, Fundamentals of well-log interpretation: Elsevier.

Sheldon, R. P., 1967, Long-distance migration of oil in Wyoming: The Mountain Geologist, 4, 53–65
| 1:CAS:528:DyaF2sXkslGgsL8%3D&md5=8ea5c7c95064d4dce04ec775d8e4c5c8CAS |

Shrestha, R. K., and Boeckmann, M. K., 2002, Stochastic seismic inversion for reservoir modelling: SEG Annual Meeting, October 2002.

Sneider, R. M., and King, H. R., 1984, Integrated rock-log calibration in the Elmworth Field, Alberta, Canada: part I: reservoir rock detection and characterization, in J. A. Masters, ed., Elmworth – case study of a deep basin gas field: AAPG Memoir, 38, 205–214.

Strickland, J. W., 1958, Habitat of oil in the Powder River basin: 13th Annual Field Conference, Wyoming Geological Association, 132–147.

Thom, W. T., Jr, and Spieker, E. M., 1931, The significance of geologic conditions in Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Wyoming, with a section on the waters of the Salt Creek-Teapot Dome uplift by Herman Stabler: US Geological Survey, Paper 163.

Ulrych, T. J., Sacchi, M. D., and Woodbury, A., 2001, A Bayes tour of inversion: a tutorial: Geophysics, 66, 55–69

Vargas-Meleza, L., Megchun, J., and Vazquez, G., 2004, Petrophysical properties estimation by integrating AVO, seismic inversion and multiattribute analysis in a 3-D volume of Playuela, Veracruz: AAPG International Conference, 24–27 October, Cancun, Mexico.

Veeken, P. C. H., and Da Silva, M., 2004, Seismic inversion methods and some of their constraints: First Break, 22, 44–70

Walden, A., and White, R., 1998, Seismic wavelet estimation: IEEE transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 36, 287–297
Seismic wavelet estimation:CrossRef |

Wang, Z., 2001, Fundamentals of seismic rock physics: Geophysics, 66, 398–412

Wegemann, C. H., 1911, The Salt Creek oil field, Wyoming: US Geological Survey Bulletin, 452, 37–38

Zadeh, L., 1965, Fuzzy sets: Information and Control, 8, 338–353
Fuzzy sets:CrossRef |



Export Citation