Environmental Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Society
Environmental problems - Chemical approaches
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Characterisation of suspended particulate matter in the Rhone River: insights into analogue selection

Danielle L. Slomberg A B , Patrick Ollivier C , Olivier Radakovitch A , Nicole Baran C , Nicole Sani-Kast D , Hélène Miche A , Daniel Borschneck A , Olivier Grauby E , Auguste Bruchet F , Martin Scheringer D and Jérôme Labille A B G

A Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS (Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique), IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), CEREGE (Centre Européen de Recherche et d’Enseignement des Géosciences de l’Environnement), UM 34, Europôle de l’Arbois, BP 80, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence, France.

B International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (iCEINT).

C BRGM (Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières), UMR 7327, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 36009, F-45060 Orléans, France.

D Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1-5/10, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

E Aix-Marseille Université and CINaM (Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanosciences de Marseille), CNRS, UMR 7325, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, F-13288 Marseille, France.

F CIRSEE (Centre International de Recherche Sur l’Eau et l’Environnement)–Suez Environnement, 38 rue du Président Wilson, F-78230 Le Pecq, France.

G Corresponding author: labille@cerege.fr

Environmental Chemistry - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EN15065
Submitted: 28 March 2015  Accepted: 12 January 2016   Published online: 29 March 2016

Environmental context. The fate and behaviour of pollutants such as pesticides, metals and nanoparticles in natural waters will influence their effects on the environment and human health. Owing to the complexity of natural waters and suspended particulate matter (SPM) that can interact with pollutants, as well as low pollutant concentrations, determination of pollutant fate and transport is non-trivial. Herein, we report a characterisation of the Rhone River chemistry to provide insight into selecting SPM analogues for experimental and modelling approaches.

Abstract. Selection of realistic suspended particulate matter (SPM) analogues remains vital for realising representative experimental and modelling approaches in predicting the environmental fate of pollutants. Here, we present the characterisation of dissolved-ion and SPM compositions for nine sampling sites over the length of the Rhone River. Dissolved-ion concentrations remained stable, but SPM concentrations varied among sampling sites. Size fractionation and mineralogical characterisation of the SPM revealed that the same minerals (e.g. quartz, calcite, muscovite) constituted every size class from 0.5 to >50 µm, as is usually found with allochthonous and large-scale systems. To gain insight into SPM analogue selection, aggregation kinetics of silica, calcite, muscovite, feldspars and clays were monitored in the native filtrate and related to the respective zeta potentials (ζ). An SPM mixture of calcite (49 %), muscovite (14 %), feldspar (23 %) and chlorite (14 %) proved the best match for the Rhone SPM, demonstrating that mineral surface chemistry, structure and size are all important in selecting a realistic SPM analogue for a riverine system.


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