Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
RESEARCH FRONT

The response of barley to salinity stress differs between hydroponic and soil systems

Ehsan Tavakkoli A , Pichu Rengasamy A and Glenn K. McDonald A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: glenn.mcdonald@adelaide.edu.au

Functional Plant Biology 37(7) 621-633 https://doi.org/10.1071/FP09202
Submitted: 30 July 2009  Accepted: 30 January 2010   Published: 2 July 2010

Abstract

Many studies on salinity stress assume that responses in hydroponics mimic those in soil. However, interactions between the soil solution and the soil matrix can affect responses to salinity stress. This study compared responses to salinity in hydroponics and soil, using two varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The responses to salinity caused by high concentrations of Na+ and Cl were compared to assess any consistent differences between hydroponics and soil associated with a cation and an anion that contribute to salinity stress. Concentrated nutrient solutions were also used to assess the effects of osmotic stress. The effects of salinity differed between the hydroponic and soil systems. Differences between barley cultivars in growth, tissue moisture content and ionic composition were not apparent in hydroponics, whereas significant differences occurred in soil. Growth reductions were greater under hydroponics than in soil at similar electrical conductivity values, and the uptake of Na+ and Cl was also greater. The relative importance of ion exclusion and osmotic stress varied. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress (EC at field capacity up to 10 dS m–1) but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. High external concentrations of Cl had similar adverse effects as high concentrations of Na+, suggesting that Cl toxicity may reduce growth. Fundamental differences in salinity responses appeared between soil and solution culture, and the importance of the different mechanisms of damage varies according to the severity and duration of the salt stress.

Additional keywords: chlorine, ions, salt, sodium.


Acknowledgements

We thank Waite Analytical Services for their help with ICP-OES analysis; Mr David Keetch for his technical support with the experiments; and Professor S. Tyerman, Dr R. Munns, Dr G. Lyons and Dr J. Smith for the useful discussion and their constructive comments on this manuscript. We also thank Mr Stewart Coventry for kindly supplying the seed for this study. Funding provided by the Grains Research and Development Corporation (to ET) and by the University of Adelaide is gratefully acknowledged, as is generous support by the Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics.


References


Ashraf M (2001) Relationships between growth and gas exchange characteristics in some salt-tolerant amphidiploid Brassica species in relation to their diploid parents. Environmental and Experimental Botany 45, 155–163.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Barber SA, Ozanne PG (1970) Autoradiographic evidence for the differential effect of four plant species in altering the calcium content of the rhizosphere soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 34, 635–637.
CAS |


Bennett SJ, Barrett-Lennard EG, Colmer TD (2009) Salinity and waterlogging as constraints to saltland pasture production: a review. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 129, 349–360.
CrossRef |

Bowman WD (1988) Ionic and water relations responses of two populations of a non-halophyte to salinity. Journal of Experimental Botany 39, 97–105.
CrossRef |

Chi Lin C, Huei Kao C (2001) Relative importance of Na+, Cl-, and abscisic acid in NaCl induced inhibition of root growth of rice seedlings. Plant and Soil 237, 165–171.
CrossRef |

Colmer TD, Munns R, Flowers TJ (2005) Improving salt tolerance of wheat and barley: future prospects. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45, 1425–1443.
CrossRef | CAS |

Cramer GR (2002) Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress. In ‘Salinity: environment–plants–molecules’. pp. 205–228. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: London)

Cramer GR, Lauchli A, Polito VS (1985) Displacement of Ca2+ by Na+ from the plasmalemma of root cells: a primary response to salt stress? Plant Physiology 79, 207–211.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Cramer GR, Alberico GJ, Schmidt C (1994) Salt tolerance is not associated with the sodium accumulation of two maize hybrids. Functional Plant Biology 21, 675–692.
CAS |


Dang Y , McDonald M , Routley R , Dalal RC , Singh D , Orange D , Mann M (2006) High chloride in subsoil: a key indicator for potential grain yield losses in southwest Queensland. (The Regional Institute Ltd: Gosford, NSW) Available at http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2006/concurrent/soil/4554_dangy.htm?print=1 [Verified 4 March 2010]

Dumbroff EB, Cooper AW (1974) Effects of salt stress applied in balanced nutrient solutions at several stages during growth of tomato. Botanical Gazette 135, 219–224.
CrossRef |

Dunham RJ, Nye PH (1974) The influence of soil water content on the uptake of ions by roots. II. Chloride uptake and concentration gradients in soil. Journal of Applied Ecology 11, 581–595.
CrossRef | CAS |

Genc Y, McDonald GK, Tester M (2007) Reassessment of tissue Na+ concentration as a criterion for salinity tolerance in bread wheat. Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 1486–1498.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Gregory PJ, Bengough AG, Grinev D, Schmidt S, Thomas WTB, Wojciechowski T, Young IM (2009) Root phenomics of crops: opportunities and challenges. Functional Plant Biology 36, 922–929.
CrossRef |

Hamza M, Aylmore L (1992) Soil solute concentration and water uptake by single lupin and radish plant roots. Plant and Soil 145, 187–196.
CrossRef | CAS |

Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu J-K, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 51, 463–499.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Hochman Z, Dang YP, Schwenke GD, Dalgliesh NP, Routley R, McDonald M, Daniells IG, Manning W, Poulton PL (2007) Simulating the effects of saline and sodic subsoils on wheat crops growing on Vertosols. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58, 802–810.
CrossRef |

Hong C-Y, Chao Y-Y, Yang M-Y, Cho S-C, Huei Kao C (2009) Na+ but not Cl– or osmotic stress is involved in NaCl-induced expression of Glutathione reductase in roots of rice seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 166, 1598–1606.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Iwata S , Tabuchi T , Warkentin BP (1994) ‘Soil-water interactions: mechanism and applications.’ (Marcel Dekker: New York)

James R, Rivelli AR, Munns R, Caemmere SV (2002) Factors affecting CO2 assimilation, leaf injury and growth in salt-stressed durum wheat. Functional Plant Biology 29, 1393–1403.
CrossRef | CAS |

James RA, Munns R, Von Caemmerer S, Trejo C, Miller C, Condon AG (2006) Photosynthetic capacity is related to the cellular and subcellular partitioning of Na+, K+ and Cl– in salt-affected barley and durum wheat. Plant, Cell & Environment 29, 2185–2197.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

James RA, Caemmerer SV, Condon AGT, Zwart AB, Munns R (2008) Genetic variation in tolerance to the osmotic stress component of salinity stress in durum wheat. Functional Plant Biology 35, 111–123.
CrossRef | CAS |

Kingsbury R, Epstein E (1986) Salt sensitivity in wheat. A case for specific ion toxicity. Plant Physiology 80, 651–654.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Kinraide TB (1999) Interactions among Ca2+, Na+ and K+ in salinity toxicity: quantitative resolution of multiple toxic and ameliorative effects. Journal of Experimental Botany 50, 1495–1505.
CrossRef | CAS |

Klute A (1986) Water retention: laboratory methods. In ‘Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. ASA Monograph Number 9’. (Ed. A Klute) pp. 635–662. (ASA and SSSA: Madison, WI)

Lisle ML, Lefroy RDB, Blair GJ (2000) Methods for rapid assessment of nutrient supply capacity of soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 31, 2627–2633.
CrossRef | CAS |

Martin P, Koebner R (1995) Sodium and chloride ions contribute synergistically to salt toxicity in wheat. Biologia Plantarum 37, 265–271.
CrossRef | CAS |

Munns R (1985) Na+, K+ and Cl– in xylem sap flowing to shoots of NaCl-treated barley. Journal of Experimental Botany 36, 1032–1042.
CrossRef | CAS |

Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell & Environment 25, 239–250.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Munns R, James RA (2003) Screening methods for salinity tolerance. Plant and Soil 253, 201–218.
CrossRef | CAS |

Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59, 651–681.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Munns R, Schachtman DP, Condon AG (1995) The significance of a two-phase growth response to salinity in wheat and barley. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22, 561–569.
CrossRef | CAS |

Munns R, Husain S, Rivelli AR, James R, Condon AG, Lindsay M, Lagudah ES, Schachtman DP, Hare RA (2002) Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits. Plant and Soil 247, 93–105.
CrossRef | CAS |

Munns R, James RA, Lauchli A (2006) Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. Journal of Experimental Botany 57, 1025–1043.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Poustini K, Siosemardeh A (2004) Ion distribution in wheat cultivars in response to salinity stress. Field Crops Research 85, 125–133.
CrossRef |

Rajendran K, Tester M, Roy SJ (2009) Quantifying the three main components of salinity tolerance in cereals. Plant, Cell & Environment 32, 237.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

R Development Core Team (2006) ‘A language and environment for statistical computing.’ (R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna)

Rengasamy P (2006) World salinization with emphasis on Australia. Journal of Experimental Botany 57, 1017–1023.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Rivandi A (2009) ‘Toward map-based cloning of Na+ exclusion gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).’ (The University of Adelaide: Adelaide)

Robinson SP, Downton WJS, Millhouse JA (1983) Photosynthesis and ion content of leaves and isolated chloroplasts of salt-stressed spinach. Plant Physiology 73, 238–242.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Rush DW, Epstein E (1981) Comparative studies on the sodium, pottasium, and chloride relations of a wild halophytic and a domestic salt-sensitive tomato species. Plant Physiology 68, 1308–1313.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Schachtman DP, Munns R, Whitecross MI (1991) Variation in sodium exclusion and salt tolerance in Triticum tauschii. Crop Science 31, 992–997.
CAS |


Seemann JR, Critchley C (1985) Effects of salt stress on the growth, ion content, stomatal behaviour and photosynthetic capacity of a salt-sensitive species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Planta 164, 151–162.
CrossRef | CAS |

Shabala S, Shabala L, Volkenburgh EV (2003) Effect of calcium on root development and root ion fluxes in salinised barley seedlings. Functional Plant Biology 30, 507–514.
CrossRef | CAS |

Termaat A, Munns R (1986) Use of concentrated macronutrient solutions to separate osmotic from NaCl-specific effects on plant growth. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 13, 509–522.
CrossRef | CAS |

Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Annals of Botany 91, 503–527.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Vetterlein D, Kuhn K, Schubert S, Jahn R (2004) Consequences of sodium exclusion on the osmotic potential in the rhizosphere – comparing of two maize cultivars differing in Na+ uptake. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167, 337–344.
CrossRef |

White PJ, Broadley MR (2001) Chloride in soils and its uptake and movement within the plant: a review. Annals of Botany 88, 967–988.
CrossRef | CAS |

Widodo , Patterson JH, Newbigin E, Tester M, Bacic A, Roessner U (2009) Metabolic responses to salt stress of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Sahara and Clipper, which differ in salinity tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 60, 4089–4103.
CrossRef | CAS |

Yeo AR, Flowers TJ (1983) Varietal differences in the toxicity of sodium ions in rice leaves. Physiologia Plantarum 59, 189–195.
CrossRef | CAS |

Zarcinas BA, Cartwright B, Spouncer LR (1987) Nitric acid digestion and multi-element analysis of plant material by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 18, 131–146.
CrossRef | CAS |

Ziska LH, Seemann JR, DeJong TM (1990) Salinity induced limitations on photosynthesis in Prunus salicina, a deciduous tree species. Plant Physiology 93, 864–870.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (35 KB) Export Citation Cited By (51)