Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Profiling of secondary metabolites in blue lupin inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi following phosphite treatment

Tiffany K. Gunning A , Xavier A. Conlan A C , Rhiannon M. Parker B , Gail A. Dyson A , Mike J. Adams B , Neil W. Barnett A and David M. Cahill A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. 3217, Australia.

B Applied Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: xavier@deakin.edu.au

Functional Plant Biology 40(11) 1089-1097 https://doi.org/10.1071/FP13023
Submitted: 24 January 2013  Accepted: 19 April 2013   Published: 7 June 2013

Abstract

In order to discover phytochemicals that are potentially bioactive against Phytophthora cinnamomi, (a soil-borne plant pathogen) a metabolite profiling protocol for investigation of metabolic changes in Lupinus angustifolius L. plant roots in response to pathogen challenge has been established. Analysis of the metabolic profiles from healthy and P. cinnamomi-inoculated root tissue with high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed that although susceptible, L. angustifolius upregulated a defence associated genistein and 2′-hydroxygenistein-based isoflavonoid and a soyasapogenol saponin at 12 h post inoculation which increased in concentration at 72 h post inoculation. In contrast to the typical susceptible interaction, the application of a phosphorous-based treatment to L. angustifolius foliage 48 h before P. cinnamomi challenge negated the ability of the pathogen to colonise the root tissue and cause disease. Importantly, although the root profiles of water-treated and phosphite-treated plants post pathogen inoculation contained the same secondary metabolites, concentration variations were observed. Accumulation of secondary metabolites within the P. cinnamomi-inoculated plants confirms that pathogen ingress of the root interstitially occurs in phosphite-treated plants, confirming a direct mode of action against the pathogen upon breaching the root cells.

Additional keywords: mass spectrometry, NMR, plant defence mechanisms, plant defense mechanisms, phosphite.


References

Aberton MJ, Wilson BA, Cahill DM (1999) The use of potassium phosphonate to control Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation at Anglesea, Victoria. Australasian Plant Pathology 28, 225–234.
The use of potassium phosphonate to control Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation at Anglesea, Victoria.CrossRef |

Adler LS, Kittelson PM (2004) Variation in Lupinus arboreus alkaloid profiles and relationships with multiple herbivores. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 32, 371–390.
Variation in Lupinus arboreus alkaloid profiles and relationships with multiple herbivores.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXitFCjtrc%3D&md5=86cfec01557ad755a76ab8f1f1cfac3dCAS |

Allwood JW, Ellis DI, Goodacre R (2008) Biomarker metabolites capturing the metabolite variance present in a rice plant developmental period. Physiologia Plantarum 132, 117–135.

Bellomarino SA, Conlan XA, Parker RM, Barnett NW, Adams MJ (2009) Geographical classification of some Australian wines by discriminant analysis using HPLC with UV and chemiluminescence detection. Talanta 80, 833–838.
Geographical classification of some Australian wines by discriminant analysis using HPLC with UV and chemiluminescence detection.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXht1yltLvI&md5=b5ff61aecb081ea5ee1e14d09d93eefdCAS | 19836560PubMed |

Bellomarino SA, Parker RM, Conlan XA, Barnett NW, Adams MJ (2010) Partial least squares and principal components analysis of wine vintage by high performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection. Analytica Chimica Acta 678, 34–38.
Partial least squares and principal components analysis of wine vintage by high performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXht1Wmtb7P&md5=53e11cfd859345cba6c3595695c55493CAS | 20869501PubMed |

Cahill DM, Hardham AR (1994) Exploitation of zoospore taxis in the development of a novel dipstick immunoassay for the specific detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology 84, 193–200.
Exploitation of zoospore taxis in the development of a novel dipstick immunoassay for the specific detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi.CrossRef |

Cahill DM, Rookes JE, Wilson BA, Gibson L, McDougall KL (2008) Phytophthora cinnamomi and Australia’s biodiversity: impacts, predictions and progress towards control. Australian Journal of Botany 56, 279–310.
Phytophthora cinnamomi and Australia’s biodiversity: impacts, predictions and progress towards control.CrossRef |

Carswell C, Grant BR, Theodorou ME, Harris J, Niere JO, Plaxton WC (1996) The fungicide phosphonate disrupts the phosphate-starvation response in Brassica nigra seedlings. Plant Physiology 110, 105–110.

Daniel R, Wilson BA, Cahill DM (2005) Potassium phosphonate alters the defence response of Xanthorrhoea australis following infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Australasian Plant Pathology 34, 541–548.
Potassium phosphonate alters the defence response of Xanthorrhoea australis following infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1KntLbI&md5=d6c4dba1542c935582d47d03f3577ddbCAS |

Deacon JW, Donaldson SP (1993) Molecular recognition in the homing responses of zoosporic fungi, with special reference to Pythium and Phytophthora. Mycological Research 97, 1153–1171.
Molecular recognition in the homing responses of zoosporic fungi, with special reference to Pythium and Phytophthora.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXitl2lu7Y%3D&md5=b3ad2b8659fcea85686f6cc6abd4054cCAS |

Drenth A, Wagels G, Smith B, Sendall B, O’Dwyer C, Irvine G, Irwin JAG (2006) Development of a DNA-based method for detection and identification of Phytophthora species. Australasian Plant Pathology 35, 147–159.
Development of a DNA-based method for detection and identification of Phytophthora species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xis1ert70%3D&md5=e93ae9c02a900b2795efa427b41b0e3fCAS |

Gunning T, Cahill DM (2009) A soil-free plant growth system to facilitate analysis of plant pathogen interactions in roots. Journal of Phytopathology 157, 497–501.
A soil-free plant growth system to facilitate analysis of plant pathogen interactions in roots.CrossRef |

Halket JM, Waterman D, Przyborowska AM, Patel RKP, Fraser PD, Bramley PM (2005) Chemical derivatization and mass spectral libraries in metabolic profiling by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS. Journal of Experimental Botany 56, 219–243.
Chemical derivatization and mass spectral libraries in metabolic profiling by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXkt1Wluw%3D%3D&md5=c3a0507d3d14904f04b54b949e2b1e77CAS | 15618298PubMed |

Harborne JB (1977) Chemosystematics and coevolution. Pure and Applied Chemistry 49, 1403–1421.
Chemosystematics and coevolution.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE1cXhslCisg%3D%3D&md5=af6a0d6a1b0a2dfd556335e307726cbeCAS |

Hardham AR, Cahill DM (2010) The role of oomycete effectors in plant–pathogen interactions. Functional Plant Biology 37, 919–925.
The role of oomycete effectors in plant–pathogen interactions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtFyqt7vM&md5=d464b6b743dfa58cb2b5192e200f7ee3CAS |

Hardy GES, Barrett S, Shearer BL (2001) The future of phosphite as a fungicide to control the soilborne plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi in natural ecosystems. Australasian Plant Pathology 30, 133–139.
The future of phosphite as a fungicide to control the soilborne plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi in natural ecosystems.CrossRef |

Hsieh M-C, Graham TL (2001) Partial purification and characterization of a soybean beta-glucosidase with high specific activity towards isoflavone conjugates. Phytochemistry 58, 995–1005.
Partial purification and characterization of a soybean beta-glucosidase with high specific activity towards isoflavone conjugates.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXos1WrsLg%3D&md5=66d0bdd0ab8f9ce9e2b07167d712d326CAS | 11730862PubMed |

Ignat I, Volf I, Popa VI (2011) A critical review of methods for characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables. Food Chemistry 126, 1821–1835.
A critical review of methods for characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht1Wlt7Y%3D&md5=582adb596218d94b2ce87efa01cea654CAS |

Jackson TJ, Burgess T, Colquhoun I, Hardy GES (2000) Action of the fungicide phosphite on Eucalyptus marginata inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Pathology 49, 147–154.
Action of the fungicide phosphite on Eucalyptus marginata inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXitFCgsr0%3D&md5=7ee48d3562ed266793646b7a69186e45CAS |

Jones JDG, Dangl JL (2006) The plant immune system. Nature 444, 323–329.
The plant immune system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xht1SgtbzO&md5=4eb65d2e59484a4d695fc1f0dcadc4f1CAS |

Kellam MK, Coffey MD (1985) Quantitative comparison of the resistance to phytophthora root-rot in 3 avocado rootstocks. Phytopathology 75, 230–234.
Quantitative comparison of the resistance to phytophthora root-rot in 3 avocado rootstocks.CrossRef |

McDonald AE, Niere JO, Plaxton WC (2001) Phosphite disrupts the acclimation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to phosphate starvation. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 47, 969–978.

Merken HM, Beecher GR (2000) Measurement of food flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography: a review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 577–599.
Measurement of food flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhtlKjtrg%3D&md5=6805ba8c896f475bc4a064342a8c0a7fCAS | 10725120PubMed |

Ratjen AM, Gerendas J (2009) A critical assessment of the suitability of phosphite as a source of phosphorus. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 172, 821–828.
A critical assessment of the suitability of phosphite as a source of phosphorus.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsV2gs7%2FL&md5=ecc33e56252bbbba224dec1a9d889a96CAS |

Robards K (2003) Strategies for the determination of bioactive phenols in plants, fruit and vegetables. Journal of Chromatography. A 1000, 657–691.
Strategies for the determination of bioactive phenols in plants, fruit and vegetables.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXktFGgsbw%3D&md5=d166052bbc8ebaa085b693f2584dd8b5CAS | 12877194PubMed |

Roessner U, Willmitzer L, Fernie AR (2001) High-resolution metabolic phenotyping of genetically and environmentally diverse potato tuber systems. Identification of phenocopies. Plant Physiology 127, 749–764.
High-resolution metabolic phenotyping of genetically and environmentally diverse potato tuber systems. Identification of phenocopies.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXos1Kntb4%3D&md5=cc2e85ee79f9fb1def0e93a97dc6edaeCAS | 11706160PubMed |

Roos GHP, Loane C, Dell B, Hardy GES (1999) Facile high performance ion chromatographic analysis of phosphite and phosphate in plant samples. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 30, 2323–2329.
Facile high performance ion chromatographic analysis of phosphite and phosphate in plant samples.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXmvFOis7Y%3D&md5=ddd5e8c5115d1276d3889721a9a1d471CAS |

Schliemann W, Ammer C, Strack D (2008) Metabolite profiling of mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula. Phytochemistry 69, 112–146.
Metabolite profiling of mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhsVOks7rN&md5=bd8a34de367087a1ef7785815791a4cdCAS | 17706732PubMed |

Schroetter S, Angeles-Wedlel D, Kreuzig R, Schnug E (2006) Effects of phosphite on phosphorous supply and growth of corn (Zea mays). Landbauforschung Volkenrode 56, 87–99.

Silva OC, Santos HAA, Dalla Pria M, Mio L (2011) Potassium phosphite for control of downy mildew of soybean. Crop Protection 30, 598–604.
Potassium phosphite for control of downy mildew of soybean.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXkvFaitr0%3D&md5=c199e8592ac594e49e6854d9da7a0443CAS |

Skov T, van den Berg F, Tomasi G, Bro R (2006) Automated alignment of chromatographic data. Journal of Chemometrics 20, 484–497.
Automated alignment of chromatographic data.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXmt1ajsb4%3D&md5=b696de34a0d62058bfe9eaabe5f3cd9aCAS |

Smith CJ (1996) Accumulation of phytoalexins: Defence mechanism and stimulus response system. New Phytologist 132, 1–45.
Accumulation of phytoalexins: Defence mechanism and stimulus response system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XhsV2rs7g%3D&md5=d4a546c94d14d606ed60f0f0cbc29969CAS |

Tahara S (2007) A journey of twenty-five years through the ecological biochemistry of flavonoids. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 71, 1387–1404.
A journey of twenty-five years through the ecological biochemistry of flavonoids.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXnslyqtLg%3D&md5=da4f20728588654748f051c53f5b8d6cCAS | 17587669PubMed |

Tahara S, Ibrahim RK (1995) Prenylated isoflavonoids – an update. Phytochemistry 38, 1073–1094.
Prenylated isoflavonoids – an update.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXlsVGqsL0%3D&md5=ffa9cd7cf1914bf0805ba7113349b342CAS |

Thao HTB, Yamakawa T, Myint AK, Sarr PS (2008) Effects of phosphite, a reduced form of phosphate, on the growth and phosphorous nutrition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 54, 761–768.
Effects of phosphite, a reduced form of phosphate, on the growth and phosphorous nutrition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsFWgs7vI&md5=e63702c0b7dcbb596eb33f964ec68eabCAS |

Tomasi G, van den Berg F, Andersson C (2004) Correlation optimized warping and dynamic time warping as preprocessing methods for chromatographic data. Journal of Chemometrics 18, 231–241.
Correlation optimized warping and dynamic time warping as preprocessing methods for chromatographic data.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXnvVWgtbg%3D&md5=63aa6c3f523adeb428918786ff7d5326CAS |

Weste G, Ruppin P (1977) Phytophthora cinnamomi – population-densities in forest soils. Australian Journal of Botany 25, 461–475.
Phytophthora cinnamomi – population-densities in forest soils.CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (6)