Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Combined effects of soil salinity and high temperature on photosynthesis and growth of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa)

Verena I. Becker A , Johannes W. Goessling A C , Bernardo Duarte B , Isabel Caçador B , Fulai Liu A , Eva Rosenqvist A and Sven-Erik Jacobsen A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegård Allé 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark.

B MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal.

C Corresponding author. Email: johannesg@bio.ku.dk

Functional Plant Biology 44(7) 665-678 https://doi.org/10.1071/FP16370
Submitted: 25 October 2016  Accepted: 17 March 2017   Published: 3 May 2017

Abstract

The halophytic crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to soil salinity and cold climate, but recent investigations have shown that quinoa can be grown in significantly warmer latitudes, i.e. the Mediterranean region, where high temperature and soil salinity can occur in combination. In this greenhouse study, effects of saltwater irrigation and high temperature on growth and development of the Bolivian cultivar ‘Achachino’ were determined. Development was slightly delayed in response to saltwater treatment, but significantly faster at high temperature. Biomass and seed yield decreased in response to salt, but not to high temperature. Plants increased their number of stomata in response to salt stress, but reduced its size on both sides of the leaf, whereas high temperature treatment significantly increased the stomata size on the abaxial leaf surface. When salt and high temperature was combined, the size of stomata was reduced only on the abaxial side of the leaf, and the number of epidermal bladder cells significantly increased on the abaxial leaf surface, resulting in preservation of photosynthetic quantum yields. We hypothesise that this morphological plasticity improves the partition of water and CO2 resulting in maintenance of photosynthesis in quinoa under adverse environmental conditions. We present a GLM-model that predicts yield parameters of quinoa grown in regions affected by soil salinity, high temperature and the factors combined.

Additional keywords: abiotic stress, Chenopodium spp., developmental physiology, photosynthesis, seed yield, stomatal conductance.


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