Invertebrate Systematics Invertebrate Systematics Society
Systematics, phylogeny and biogeography
RESEARCH ARTICLE

The Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders of the family Idiopidae (Mygalomorphae : Arbanitinae): a relimitation and revision at the generic level

Michael G. Rix A B C G , Robert J. Raven A , Barbara Y. Main D , Sophie E. Harrison B , Andrew D. Austin B , Steven J. B. Cooper E B and Mark S. Harvey C D F
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Biodiversity and Geosciences Program, Queensland Museum, South Brisbane, Qld 4101, Australia.

B Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, and Department of Genetics and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

C Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, WA 6106, Australia.

D School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

E Evolutionary Biology Unit, South Australian Museum, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

F School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.

G Corresponding author. Email: michael.rix@qm.qld.gov.au

Invertebrate Systematics 31(5) 566-634 https://doi.org/10.1071/IS16065
Submitted: 19 September 2016  Accepted: 6 February 2017   Published: 20 September 2017

Abstract

The Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders of the family Idiopidae (subfamily Arbanitinae) are revised at the generic level, using a multi-locus molecular phylogenetic foundation and comprehensive sampling of all known lineages. We propose a new family- and genus-group classification for the monophyletic Australasian fauna, and recognise 10 genera in four tribes. The Arbanitini Simon includes Arbanitis L. Koch, 1874 (61 species), Blakistonia Hogg, 1902 (one species) and Cantuaria Hogg, 1902 (43 species). The Aganippini Simon includes Bungulla Rix, Main, Raven & Harvey, gen. nov. (two species), Eucanippe Rix, Main, Raven & Harvey, gen. nov. (one species), Eucyrtops Pocock, 1897 (two species), Gaius Rainbow, 1914 (one species) and Idiosoma Ausserer, 1871 (14 species). The Cataxiini Rainbow and Euoplini Rainbow include just Cataxia Rainbow, 1914 (11 species) and Euoplos Rainbow, 1914 (12 species), respectively. Two distinctive new genera of Aganippini are described from Western Australia, and several previously valid genera are recognised as junior synonyms of existing genus-group names, including Misgolas Karsch, 1878 (= Arbanitis; new synonymy), Aganippe O. P.-Cambridge, 1877 (= Idiosoma; new synonymy) and Anidiops Pocock, 1897 (= Idiosoma; new synonymy). Gaius stat. rev. is further removed from synonymy of Anidiops. Other previously hypothesised generic synonyms are supported by both morphology and molecular phylogenetic data from 12 genes, including the synonymy of Neohomogona Main, 1985 and Homogona Rainbow, 1914 with Cataxia, and the synonymy of Albaniana Rainbow & Pulleine, 1918, Armadalia Rainbow & Pulleine, 1918, Bancroftiana Rainbow & Pulleine, 1918 and Tambouriniana Rainbow & Pulleine, 1918 with Euoplos. At the species level, the identifications of Eucy. latior (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877) and I. manstridgei (Pocock, 1897) are clarified, and three new species are described: Bungulla bertmaini Rix, Main, Raven & Harvey, sp. nov., Eucanippe bifida Rix, Main, Raven & Harvey, sp. nov. and Idiosoma galeosomoides Rix, Main, Raven & Harvey, sp. nov., the latter remarkable for its phragmotic abdominal morphology. The Tasmanian species Mygale annulipes C. L. Koch, 1842 is here transferred to the genus Stanwellia Rainbow & Pulleine, 1918 (family Nemesiidae), comb. nov., Arbanitis mestoni Hickman, 1928 is transferred to Cantuaria, comb. nov. and Idiosoma hirsutum Main, 1952 is synonymised with I. sigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870), new synonymy. In addition to the morphological synopses and an illustrated key to genera, molecular diagnoses are presented for all nominal taxa, along with live habitus and burrow images to assist in field identification. The Australasian idiopid fauna is highly diverse, with numerous new species known from all genera. As a result, this study provides a taxonomic and nomenclatural foundation for future species-level analyses, and a single reference point for the monographic documentation of a remarkable fauna.

http://zoobank.org/?lsid=urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BACE065D-1EF9-40C6-9134-AADC9235FAD8

Additional keywords: biogeography, Domiothelina, Euctenizoidina, molecular systematics.


References

Ausserer, A. (1871). Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Arachniden-Familie der Territelariae Thorell (Mygalidae Autor). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 21, 117–224.

Bond, J. E., Hendrixson, B. E., Hamilton, C. A., and Hedin, M. (2012). A reconsideration of the classification of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae) based on three nuclear genes and morphology. PLoS One 7, e38753.
A reconsideration of the classification of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae) based on three nuclear genes and morphology.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XptlSntr0%3D&md5=04e2aa2bc01a26c0489b042588369147CAS |

Bonnet, P. (1956). ‘Bibliographia Araneorum. Tome II (2me partie: C–F).’ (Douladore: Toulouse, France.)

Bonnet, P. (1959). ‘Bibliographia Araneorum. Tome II (5me partie: T–Z).’ (Douladore: Toulouse, France.)

Brignoli, P. M. (1983). ‘A Catalogue of the Araneae Described between 1940 and 1981.’ (Manchester University Press: Manchester, UK.)

Brown, R. W. (1956). ‘Composition of Scientific Words: a Manual of Methods and a Lexicon of Materials for the Practice of Logotechnics.’ (Smithsonian Books: Washington, DC.)

Cambridge, O. P. (1870). Monograph of the genus Idiops, including descriptions of several species new to science. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870, 101–108.

Cambridge, O. P. (1877). On some new genera and species of Araneidea. Annals & Magazine of Natural History 19, 26–39.
On some new genera and species of Araneidea.CrossRef |

Castalanelli, M. A., Teale, R., Rix, M. G., Kennington, W. J., and Harvey, M. S. (2014). Barcoding of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Mygalomorphae) in the Pilbara bioregion of Western Australia reveals a highly diverse biota. Invertebrate Systematics 28, 375–385.
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsFKntr7J&md5=b7c2824b3c7ea64101e54907c3a8a850CAS |

de Queiroz, K. (2007). Species concepts and species delimitation. Systematic Biology 56, 879–886.
Species concepts and species delimitation.CrossRef |

Ellis, R. J. (2015). Some observations on the field behaviour of the vulnerable mygalomorph spider, Idiosoma nigrum. Western Australian Naturalist (Perth) 29, 241–246.

Faulder, R. J. (1985). Some species of Aganippe (Araneae: Ctenizidae) from eastern Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 108, 83–96.

Forster, R. R. (1968). The spiders of New Zealand. Part II. Ctenizidae, Dipluridae. Otago Museum Bulletin 2, 1–72, 126–180.

Goloboff, P. A. (1993). A reanalysis of mygalomorph spider families (Araneae). American Museum Novitates 3056, 1–32.

Harrison, S. E., Rix, M. G., Harvey, M. S., and Austin, A. D. (2016). An African mygalomorph lineage in temperate Australia: the trapdoor spider genus Moggridgea (Araneae: Migidae) on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Austral Entomology 55, 208–216.

Hedin, M., and Bond, J. E. (2006). Molecular phylogenetics of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S): conflict and agreement with the current system of classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41, 454–471.
Molecular phylogenetics of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S): conflict and agreement with the current system of classification.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtVagtbzF&md5=2326b9eba763df1e906f8801519fb7c6CAS |

Hickman, V. V. (1928). Studies in Tasmanian spiders. Part II. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1927, 158–175.

Hickman, V. V. (1933). A new ctenizid spider from New South Wales. Annals & Magazine of Natural History 12, 210–216.
A new ctenizid spider from New South Wales.CrossRef |

Hickman, V. V. (1967). ‘Some Common Spiders of Tasmania.’ (Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery: Hobart, Tas.)

Hogg, H. R. (1901). On Australian and New Zealand spiders of the suborder Mygalomorphae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1901, 218–279.

Hogg, H. R. (1902). On some additions to the Australian spiders of the suborder Mygalomorphae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, 121–142.

Hogg, H. R. (1903). Two new Australian spiders of the family Ctenizidae. Annals & Magazine of Natural History 11, 308–312.
Two new Australian spiders of the family Ctenizidae.CrossRef |

ICZN (1999). ‘International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.’ 4th edn. (International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature: London, UK.)

Karsch, F. (1878). Exotisch-araneologisches II. Zeitschrift für die gesammten Naturwissenschaften 51, 771–826.

Koch, C.L. (1842). ‘Die Arachniden, Getreu Nach der Natur Abgebildet und Beschrieben.’ (C.H. Zeh’schen Buchhandlung: Nuremberg, Germany.)

Koch, L. (1873). ‘Die Arachniden Australiens, Nach der Natur Beschrieben und Abgebildet.’ (Bauer & Raspe: Nuremberg, Germany.)

Koch, L. (1874). ‘Die Arachniden Australiens, Nach der Natur Beschrieben und Abgebildet.’ (Bauer & Raspe: Nuremberg, Germany.)

Main, B. Y. (1952). Notes on the genus Idiosoma, a supposedly rare Western Australian trap-door spider. Western Australian Naturalist (Perth) 3, 130–137.

Main, B. Y. (1957). Biology of aganippine trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 5, 402–473.
Biology of aganippine trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae).CrossRef |

Main, B. Y. (1964). ‘Spiders of Australia.’ (Jacaranda Press: Brisbane, Qld.)

Main, B. Y. (1969). The trap-door spider genus Cataxia Rainbow (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae) – taxonomy and natural history. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 8, 192–209.
The trap-door spider genus Cataxia Rainbow (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae) – taxonomy and natural history.CrossRef |

Main, B. Y. (1972). The mygalomorph spider genus Stanwellia Rainbow & Pulleine (Dipluridae) and its relationship to Aname Koch and certain other diplurine genera. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 55, 100–114.

Main, B. Y. (1977). Preliminary notes towards a revision of the mygalomorph spider genus Dyarcyops (Ctenizidae). Australian Entomological Magazine 4, 69–72.

Main, B. Y. (1978). Biology of the arid-adapted Australian tropdoor spider Anidiops villosus (Rainbow). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 4, 161–175.

Main, B. Y. (1983). Systematics of the trapdoor spider genus Homogona Rainbow (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae: Homogoninae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 22, 81–92.
Systematics of the trapdoor spider genus Homogona Rainbow (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae: Homogoninae).CrossRef |

Main, B. Y. (1985a). Further studies on the systematics of Australian ctenizid trapdoor spiders: description of a new species of Homogona Rainbow from Victoria (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae). Victorian Naturalist 102, 16–19.

Main, B. Y. (1985b). Further studies on the systematics of ctenizid trapdoor spiders: a review of the Australian genera (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae). Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series 33, 1–84.
Further studies on the systematics of ctenizid trapdoor spiders: a review of the Australian genera (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae).CrossRef |

Main, B. Y. (1985c). Mygalomorphae. In ‘Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 3’. (Ed. D. W. Walton.) pp. 1–48. (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, ACT.)

Main, B. Y. (1986). Trapdoors of Australian mygalomorph spiders: protection or predation? Actas X Congreso International de Arachnologia, Jaca, España 1, 95–102.

Main, B. Y. (1987). Persistence of invertebrates in small areas: case studies of trapdoor spiders in Western Australia. In ‘Nature Conservation: the Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation’. (Eds D. A. Saunders, G. W. Arnold, A. A. Burbidge and A. J. M. Hopkins.) pp. 29–39. (Surrey Beatty & Sons in association with CSIRO and CALM: Chipping Norton, NSW.)

Main, B. Y. (1990). Restoration of biological scenarios: the role of museum collections. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 16, 397–409.

Main, B. Y. (1993). From flood avoidance to foraging: adaptive shifts in trapdoor spider behaviour. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 33, 599–606.

Main, B. Y. (1995). Survival of trapdoor spiders during and after fire. CALMscience 4, 207–216.

Main, B. Y. (2000). Biosystematics of two new species of unusually coloured Australian mygalomorph spiders, Arbanitis (Araneae: Idiopidae), from south-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 83, 93–97.

Main, B. Y. (2003). Demography of the shield-back trapdoor spider Idiosoma nigrum Main in remnant vegetation of the Western Australian Wheatbelt. Records of the South Australian Museum. Monograph Series 7, 179–185.

Main, B. Y., and Mascord, R. (1974). Description and natural history of a ‘tube-building’ species of Dyarcyops from New South Wales and Queensland (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Australia 8, 15–21.

Main, B. Y., Sampey, A., and West, P. L. J. (2000). Mygalomorph spiders of the southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 61, 281–293.

Petrunkevitch, A. (1928). Systema Aranearum. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 29, 1–270.

Pocock, R. I. (1897). On some trapdoor spiders of the family Ctenizidae from South and West Australia, contained in the collection of the British Museum. Annals & Magazine of Natural History 19, 109–116.
On some trapdoor spiders of the family Ctenizidae from South and West Australia, contained in the collection of the British Museum.CrossRef |

Pocock, R. I. (1903). On the geographical distribution of spiders of the order Mygalomorphae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1903, 340–368.

Purcell, W. F. (1903). New South African spiders of the families Migidae, Ctenizidae, Barychelidae Dipluridae, and Lycosidae. Annals of the South African Museum 3, 69–142.

Rainbow, W. J. (1914). Studies in Australian Araneidae – no. 6. The Terretelariae. Records of the Australian Museum 10, 187–270.
Studies in Australian Araneidae – no. 6. The Terretelariae.CrossRef |

Rainbow, W. J. (1915). Arachnida collected in north-western South Australia. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 39, 772–793.

Rainbow, W. J. (1920). Trap-door spiders of the Chevert Expedition. Records of the Australian Museum 13, 77–86.
Trap-door spiders of the Chevert Expedition.CrossRef |

Rainbow, W. J., and Pulleine, R. H. (1918). Australian trap-door spiders. Records of the Australian Museum 12, 81–169.
Australian trap-door spiders.CrossRef |

Raven, R. J. (1985). The spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182, 1–180.

Raven, R. J., and Wishart, G. (2006). The trapdoor spider Arbanitis L. Koch (Idiopidae: Mygalomorphae) in Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 51, 531–557.

Rix, M. G., Edwards, D. L., Byrne, M., Harvey, M. S., Joseph, L., and Roberts, J. D. (2015). Biogeography and speciation of terrestrial fauna in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 90, 762–793.
Biogeography and speciation of terrestrial fauna in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot.CrossRef |

Rix, M. G., Cooper, S. J. B., Meusemann, K., Klopfstein, S., Harrison, S. E., Harvey, M. S., and Austin, A. D. (2017a). Post-Eocene climate change across continental Australia and the diversification of Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 109, 302–320.
Post-Eocene climate change across continental Australia and the diversification of Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae).CrossRef |

Rix, M. G., Huey, J., Main, B. Y., Waldock, J. M., Harrison, S. E., Comer, S., Austin, A. D., and Harvey, M. S. (2017b). Where have all the spiders gone? The decline of a poorly known invertebrate fauna in the agricultural and arid zones of southern Australia. Austral Entomology 56, 14–22.
Where have all the spiders gone? The decline of a poorly known invertebrate fauna in the agricultural and arid zones of southern Australia.CrossRef |

Simon, E. (1889). Arachnides. In ‘Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887–Avril 1888). 4e Mémoire’ Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 69, 169–220.

Simon, E. (1892). ‘Histoire Naturelle des Araignées, Vol. 1.’ (Roret: Paris, France.)

Simon, E. (1903). ‘Histoire Naturelle des Araignées, Vol. 2.’ (Roret: Paris, France.)

Strand, E. (1907). Aviculariidae und Atypidae des Kgl. Naturalienkabinetts in Stuttgart. Jahreshefte des Vereins für Vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg 63, 1–100.

Thorell, T. (1878). Studi sui ragni Malesi e Papuani. II. Ragni di Amboina raccolti Prof. O. Beccari. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 13, 1–317.

Todd, V. (1945). Systematic and biological account of the New Zealand Mygalomorphae (Arachnida). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 74, 375–407.

Urquhart, A. T. (1893). On new species of Tasmanian Araneae. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1892, 94–130.

Wishart, G. (1992). New species of the trapdoor spider genus Misgolas Karsch (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) with a review of the tube-building species. Records of the Australian Museum 44, 263–278.
New species of the trapdoor spider genus Misgolas Karsch (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) with a review of the tube-building species.CrossRef |

Wishart, G. (2006). Trapdoor spiders of the genus Misgolas (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) in the Sydney region, Australia, with notes on synonymies attributed to M. rapax. Records of the Australian Museum 58, 1–18.
Trapdoor spiders of the genus Misgolas (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) in the Sydney region, Australia, with notes on synonymies attributed to M. rapax.CrossRef |

Wishart, G. (2011). Trapdoor spiders of the genus Misgolas (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) in the Illawarra and South Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 63, 33–51.
Trapdoor spiders of the genus Misgolas (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) in the Illawarra and South Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia.CrossRef |

Wishart, G., and Rowell, D. (1997). Phenotypic variation in sexual and somatic morphology in the trapdoor spider Misgolas hubbardi Wishart in relation to its genotypic variation (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 36, 213–219.
Phenotypic variation in sexual and somatic morphology in the trapdoor spider Misgolas hubbardi Wishart in relation to its genotypic variation (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae).CrossRef |

Wishart, G., and Rowell, D. (2008). Trapdoor spiders of the genus Misgolas (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) from eastern New South Wales, with notes on genetic variation. Records of the Australian Museum 60, 45–86.
Trapdoor spiders of the genus Misgolas (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) from eastern New South Wales, with notes on genetic variation.CrossRef |

World Spider Catalog (2016). ‘World Spider Catalog.’ (Natural History Museum: Bern, Switzerland.) Available at http://wsc.nmbe.ch [verified 15 December 2016].



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation

View Altmetrics