Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
REVIEW

Looking backwards to look forwards: the role of natural history in temperate reef ecology

Stephen J. Hawkins A B , Nova Mieszkowska B , Louise B. Firth A B C I , Katrin Bohn A , Michael T. Burrows D , Moira A. MacLean A , Richard C. Thompson E , Benny K. K. Chan F , Colin Little G and Gray A. Williams H
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Waterfront Campus, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton, Hampshire SO14 3ZH, UK.

B The Marine Biological Association of the UK, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, UK.

C School of Geography, Earth & Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.

D Department of Ecology, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, UK.

E School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.

F Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

G Beggars Knoll, Long River Road, Newtown, Westbury BA13 3ED, UK.

H The Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, P.R. China.

I Corresponding author. Email: louise.firth@plymouth.ac.uk

Marine and Freshwater Research 67(1) 1-13 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF14413
Submitted: 16 December 2014  Accepted: 27 June 2015   Published: 27 August 2015

Abstract

Temperate reefs are superb tractable systems for testing hypotheses in ecology and evolutionary biology. Accordingly there is a rich history of research stretching back over 100 years, which has made major contributions to general ecological and evolutionary theory as well as providing better understanding of how littoral systems work by linking pattern with process. A brief resumé of the history of temperate reef ecology is provided to celebrate this rich heritage. As a community, temperate reef ecologists generally do well designed experiments and test well formulated hypotheses. Increasingly large datasets are being collected, collated and subjected to complex meta-analyses and used for modelling. These datasets do not happen spontaneously – the burgeoning subject of macroecology is possible only because of the efforts of dedicated natural historians whether it be observing birds, butterflies, or barnacles. High-quality natural history and old-fashioned field craft enable surveys or experiments to be stratified (i.e. replicates are replicates and not a random bit of rock) and lead to the generation of more insightful hypotheses. Modern molecular approaches have led to the discovery of cryptic species and provided phylogeographical insights, but natural history is still required to identify species in the field. We advocate a blend of modern approaches with old school skills and a fondness for temperate reefs in all their splendour.

Additional keywords: experiments, historical ecology.


References

Audouin, J. V., and Milne-Edwards, H. (1832). ‘Recherches pour Servir a l’Histoire Naturelle au Litbakertoral de la France.’ (Cruchard: Paris.)

Baker, S. M. (1910). On the causes of the zoning of brown seaweeds on the seashore, II. New Phytologist 9, 54–67.
On the causes of the zoning of brown seaweeds on the seashore, II.CrossRef |

Barratt, J. H., and Yonge, C. M. (1958). ‘Collins Pocket Guide to the Sea-Shore.’ (Collins: London.)

Beaubien, E. G., and Hamann, A. (2011). Plant phenology networks of citizen scientists: recommendations from two decades of experience in Canada. International Journal of Biometeorology 55, 833–841.
Plant phenology networks of citizen scientists: recommendations from two decades of experience in Canada.CrossRef | 21688202PubMed |

Benedetti-Cecchi, L. (2006). Understanding the consequences of changing biodiversity on rocky shores: how much have we learned from past experiments? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 338, 193–204.
Understanding the consequences of changing biodiversity on rocky shores: how much have we learned from past experiments?CrossRef |

Bennett, S., Wernberg, T., Connell, S. D., Hobdav, A. J., Johnson, C. R., and Poloczanska, E. S. (2016). The ‘Great Southern Reef’: socio-ecological and economic value of Australia’s neglected kelp forests. Marine and Freshwater Research 67, 96–102.
The ‘Great Southern Reef’: socio-ecological and economic value of Australia’s neglected kelp forests.CrossRef |

Boaventura, D., Alexander, M., Della Santina, P., Smith, N. D., Re, P., da Fonseca, L. C., and Hawkins, S. J. (2002a). The effects of grazing on the distribution and composition of low-shore algal communities on the central coast of Portugal and on the southern coast of Britain. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 267, 185–206.
The effects of grazing on the distribution and composition of low-shore algal communities on the central coast of Portugal and on the southern coast of Britain.CrossRef |

Boaventura, D., Cancela da Fonseca, L., and Hawkins, S. J. (2002b). Analysis of competitive interactions between the limpets Patella depressa Pennant and Patella vulgata on the northern coast of Portugal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 271, 171–188.
Analysis of competitive interactions between the limpets Patella depressa Pennant and Patella vulgata on the northern coast of Portugal.CrossRef |

Bokenham, N. A. M. (1938). The colonization of denuded rock surfaces in the intertidal region of the Cape Peninsula. Annals of the Natal Museum 9, 47–81.

Branch, G. M. (1976). Interspecific competition experienced by South African Patella species. Journal of Animal Ecology 45, 507–529.
Interspecific competition experienced by South African Patella species.CrossRef |

Brodie, J., Williamson, C. J., Smale, D. A., Kamenos, N. A., Mieszkowska, N., Santos, R., Cunliffe, M., Steinke, M., Yesson, C., Anderson, K. M., Asnaghi, V., Brownlee, C., Burdett, H. L., Burrows, M. T., Collins, S., Donohue, P. J. C., Harvey, B., Foggo, A., Noisette, F., Nunes, J., Ragazzola, F., Raven, J. A., Schmidt, D. N., Suggett, D., Teichberg, M., and Hall-Spencer, J. M. (2014). The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world. Ecology and Evolution 4, 2787–2798.
The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world.CrossRef | 25077027PubMed |

Broekhuysen, G. J. (1940). A preliminary investigation of the importance of desiccation, temperature and salinity as factors controlling the vertical distribution of certain intertidal marine gastropods in False Bay, South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 28, 255–292.
A preliminary investigation of the importance of desiccation, temperature and salinity as factors controlling the vertical distribution of certain intertidal marine gastropods in False Bay, South Africa.CrossRef |

Bunker, F., Brodie, J. A., and Maggs, C. A. (2012). ‘Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland.’ (Wild Nature Press.)

Burnett, N. P., Seabra, R., de Pirro, M., Wethey, D. S., Woodin, S. A., Helmuth, B., Zippay, M. L., Sarà, G., Monaco, C., and Lima, F. P. (2013). An improved noninvasive method for measuring heartbeat of intertidal animals. Limnology and Oceanography, Methods 11, 91–100.
An improved noninvasive method for measuring heartbeat of intertidal animals.CrossRef |

Burrows, M. T., and Hawkins, S. J. (1998). Modelling patch dynamics on rocky shores using deterministic cellular automata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 167, 1–13.
Modelling patch dynamics on rocky shores using deterministic cellular automata.CrossRef |

Burrows, M. T., and Hughes, R. N. (1991). Optimal foraging decisions by dogwhelks, Nucella lapillus (L.): influences of mortality risk and rate-constrained digestion. Functional Ecology 5, 461–475.
Optimal foraging decisions by dogwhelks, Nucella lapillus (L.): influences of mortality risk and rate-constrained digestion.CrossRef |

Burrows, E. M., and Lodge, S. M. (1950). A note on the inter-relationships of Patella, Balanus and Fucus on a semi-exposed coast. Port Erin Marine Biological Station Report 62, pp. 30–34. Port Erin, Isle of Man.

Burrows, M. T., Santini, G., and Chelazzi, G. (2000). A state-dependent model of activity patterns in homing limpets: balancing energy returns and mortality risks under constraints on digestion. Journal of Animal Ecology 69, 290–300.
A state-dependent model of activity patterns in homing limpets: balancing energy returns and mortality risks under constraints on digestion.CrossRef |

Burrows, M. T., Harvey, R., and Robb, L. (2008). Wave exposure indices from digital coastlines and the prediction of rocky shore community structure. Marine Ecology Progress Series 353, 1–12.
Wave exposure indices from digital coastlines and the prediction of rocky shore community structure.CrossRef |

Burrows, M. T., Schoeman, D. S., Buckley, L. B., Moore, P., Poloczanska, E. S., Brander, K. M., Brown, C., Bruno, J. F., Duarte, C. M., Halpern, B. S., Holding, J., Kappel, C. V., Kiessling, W., O’Connor, M. I., Pandolfi, J. M., Parmesan, C., Schwing, F. B., Sydeman, W. J., and Richardson, A. J. (2011). The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Science 334, 652–655.
The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtlyqu7jN&md5=0826d33024d3c6df5971a4158bc86257CAS | 22053045PubMed |

Burrows, M. T., Schoeman, D. S., Richardson, A. J., García Molinos, J., Hoffmann, A., Buckley, L. B., Moore, P., Brown, C., Bruno, J. F., Duarte, C. M., Halpern, B. S., Hoegh Guldberg, O., Kappel, C. V., Kiessling, W., O’Connor, M. I., Pandolfi, J. M., Parmesan, C., Sydeman, W. J., Ferrier, S. S., Williams, K. J., and Poloczanska, E. S. (2014). Geographical limits to species-range shifts are suggested by climate velocity. Nature 507, 492–495.
Geographical limits to species-range shifts are suggested by climate velocity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXkvV2lur4%3D&md5=571ca9d5890cab390d5664c11d399b0cCAS | 24509712PubMed |

Butcher, G. S., and Niven, D. K. (2007). Combining data from the Christmas Bird Count and the Breeding Bird Survey to determine status and trends of North American birds. 2007 Report, National Audubon Society, Ivyland, PA.

Butcher, G. S., Fuller, M. R., McAllister, L. S., and Geissler, P. H. (1990). An evaluation of the Christmas Bird Count for monitoring population trends of selected species. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18, 129–134.

Chan, B. K. K., Tsang, L. M., and Chu, K. H. (2007). Morphological and genetic differentiation of the acorn barnacle Tetraclita squamosa (Crustacea, Cirripedia) in east Asia and description of a new species of Tetraclita. Zoologica Scripta 36, 79–91.
Morphological and genetic differentiation of the acorn barnacle Tetraclita squamosa (Crustacea, Cirripedia) in east Asia and description of a new species of Tetraclita.CrossRef |

Chan, B. K. K., Hsu, C. H., and Southward, A. J. (2008). Morphological variation and biogeography of an insular intertidal barnacle Hexechamaesipho pilsbryi (Crustacea: Cirripedia) in the western Pacific. Bulletin of Marine Science 83, 315–328.

Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (1992). Foraging behaviour of marine benthic grazers. In ‘Plant–Animal Interactions in the Marine Benthos’. (Eds D. John, S. J. Hawkins, and J. Price.) pp. 289–317. Systematics Association Special Volume 46. (Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK.)

Cheang, C. C., Tsang, L. M., Ng, W. C., Williams, G. A., Chu, K. H., and Chan, B. K. K. (2012). Phylogeography of the cold-water barnacle Chthamalus challengeri in the north-western Pacific: effect of past population expansion and contemporary gene flow. Journal of Biogeography 39, 1819–1835.
Phylogeography of the cold-water barnacle Chthamalus challengeri in the north-western Pacific: effect of past population expansion and contemporary gene flow.CrossRef |

Chelazzi, G., Terranova, G., and Della Santina, P. (1990). A field technique for recording the activity of limpets. The Journal of Molluscan Studies 56, 595–600.
A field technique for recording the activity of limpets.CrossRef |

Chelazzi, G., Santini, G., Parpagnoli, D., and Della Santina, P. (1994). Coupling motographic and sonographic recording to assess foraging behaviour of Patella vulgata. The Journal of Molluscan Studies 60, 123–128.
Coupling motographic and sonographic recording to assess foraging behaviour of Patella vulgata.CrossRef |

Chelazzi, G., Parpagnoli, D., and Santini, G. (1998). A satiation model for the temporal organization of grazing in limpets. Functional Ecology 12, 203–210.
A satiation model for the temporal organization of grazing in limpets.CrossRef |

Chen, H.-N., Høeg, J. T., and Chan, B. K. K. (2013). Morphometric and molecular identification of individual barnacle cyprids from wild plankton: an approach to detecting fouling and invasive barnacle species. Biofouling 29, 133–145.
Morphometric and molecular identification of individual barnacle cyprids from wild plankton: an approach to detecting fouling and invasive barnacle species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXisVOlt7o%3D&md5=550e5bf6864f6a4919b1033d2c51ecbeCAS | 23327366PubMed |

Coleman, R. A., Underwood, A. J., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Åberg, P., Arenas, F., Arrontes, J., Castro, J., Hartnoll, R. G., Jenkins, S. R., Paula, J., Della Santina, P., and Hawkins, S. J. (2006). A continental scale evaluation of the role of limpet grazing on rocky shores. Oecologia 147, 556–564.
A continental scale evaluation of the role of limpet grazing on rocky shores.CrossRef | 16450182PubMed |

Connell, J. H. (1961). The influence of intra-specific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42, 710–723.
The influence of intra-specific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus.CrossRef |

Connell, J. H. (1972). Community interactions on marine rocky intertidal shores. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 3, 169–192.
Community interactions on marine rocky intertidal shores.CrossRef |

Crisp, D. J., and Barnes, H. (1954). The orientation and distribution of barnacles at settlement with particular reference to surface contour. Journal of Animal Ecology 23, 142–162.
The orientation and distribution of barnacles at settlement with particular reference to surface contour.CrossRef |

Crisp, D. J., and Fischer-Piette, É. (1959). Répartition des principales espèces intercotidales de la côte atlantique française: en 1954–1955. Annales de l’Institut Océanographique de Monaco 36, 275–388.

Crisp, D. J., and Southward, A. J. (1958). The distribution of intertidal organisms along the coasts of the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 37, 157–203.
The distribution of intertidal organisms along the coasts of the English Channel.CrossRef |

Cruz, T., Castro, J. J., Delany, J., McGrath, D., Myers, A. A., O’Riordan, R. M., Power, A.-M., Rabaca, J., and Hawkins, S. J. (2005). Tidal rates of settlement of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus stellatus and Chthamalus montagui in western Europe: the influence of the night/day cycle. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 318, 51–60.
Tidal rates of settlement of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus stellatus and Chthamalus montagui in western Europe: the influence of the night/day cycle.CrossRef |

Cruz-Motta, J. J., Miloslavich, P., Palomo, G., Iken, K., Konar, B., Pohle, G., Trott, T. L., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Herrera, C. A., Hernández, A., Sardi, A., Bueno, A., Castillo, J., Klein, E., Guerra-Castro, E., Gobin, J., Gómez, D. I., Riosmena-Rodríguez, R., Mead, A., Knowlton, A., and Shirayama, Y. (2010). Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective. PLoS One 5, e14354.
Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhs1amsLvM&md5=1ac8f644ab92aed53bb5c161165d82e7CAS | 21179546PubMed |

Dahl, E. (1952). Some aspects of the ecology and zonation of the fauna on sandy beaches. Oikos 4, 1–27.
Some aspects of the ecology and zonation of the fauna on sandy beaches.CrossRef |

Dakin, W. J. (1953). ‘Australian Seashores.’ (Angus & Robertson: Sydney.)

Dando, P. R., and Southward, A. J. (1980). A new species of Chthamalus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) characterized by enzyme electrophoresis and shell morphology: with a revision of other species of Chthamalus from the western shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 60, 787–831.
A new species of Chthamalus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) characterized by enzyme electrophoresis and shell morphology: with a revision of other species of Chthamalus from the western shores of the Atlantic Ocean.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXlvVeju7w%3D&md5=e1716f05697e9282cc99d244c63e89f1CAS |

Darwin, C. R. (1851). ‘Living Cirripedia, A monograph on the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species. The Lepadidæ; or, pedunculated cirripedes. Volume 1.’ (The Ray Society: London.)

Davis, A. K., and Howard, E. (2005). Spring recolonization of monarch butterflies in eastern North America: new estimates from citizen-science data. Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 59, 1–5.

Dayton, P. K. (1971). Composition disturbance and community organization. The provison and consequent utilisation of space. Ecological Monographs 41, 351–389.
Composition disturbance and community organization. The provison and consequent utilisation of space.CrossRef |

Dong, Y. W., Miller, L. P., Sanders, J. G., and Somero, G. N. (2008). Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in four limpets of the genus Lottia: interspecific variation in constitutive and inducible synthesis correlates with in situ exposure to heat stress. The Biological Bulletin 215, 173–181.
Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in four limpets of the genus Lottia: interspecific variation in constitutive and inducible synthesis correlates with in situ exposure to heat stress.CrossRef |

Dong, Y. W., Han, G. D., and Huang, X. W. (2014). Stress modulation of cellular metabolic sensors: interaction of stress from temperature and rainfall on the intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma. Molecular Ecology 23, 4541–4554.
Stress modulation of cellular metabolic sensors: interaction of stress from temperature and rainfall on the intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma.CrossRef | 25130589PubMed |

Eales, N. B. (1950). ‘The Littoral Fauna of the British Isles: a Handbook for Collectors.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Ebling, F. J., Sloane, J. F., Kitching, J. A., and Davies, H. M. (1962). The Ecology of Lough Ine: XII. The distribution and characteristics of Patella species. Journal of Animal Ecology 31, 457–470.
The Ecology of Lough Ine: XII. The distribution and characteristics of Patella species.CrossRef |

Elith, J., and Leathwick, J. R. (2009). Species distribution models: ecological explanation and prediction across space and time. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 40, 677–697.
Species distribution models: ecological explanation and prediction across space and time.CrossRef |

Estes, J. A., Tinker, M. T., Williams, T. M., and Doak, D. F. (1998). Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282, 473–476.
Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmslejurY%3D&md5=7fd41ee16205507e06ac0018fbe19defCAS | 9774274PubMed |

Field, J. G., Griffiths, C. L., Griffiths, R. S., Jarman, N., Zoutendyk, P., Velimirov, B., and Bowes, A. (1980). Variation in structure and biomass of kelp communities along the south west Cape coast. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 44, 145–203.
Variation in structure and biomass of kelp communities along the south west Cape coast.CrossRef |

Firth, L. B., and Crowe, T. P. (2010). Competition and habitat suitability: small-scale segregation underpins large-scale coexistence of key species on temperate rocky shores. Oecologia 162, 163–174.
Competition and habitat suitability: small-scale segregation underpins large-scale coexistence of key species on temperate rocky shores.CrossRef | 19730893PubMed |

Firth, L. B., Crowe, T. P., Moore, P., Thompson, R. C., and Hawkins, S. J. (2009). Predicting impacts of climate-induced range expansion: an experimental framework and a test involving key grazers on temperate rocky shores. Global Change Biology 15, 1413–1422.
Predicting impacts of climate-induced range expansion: an experimental framework and a test involving key grazers on temperate rocky shores.CrossRef |

Firth, L. B., White, F. J., Schofield, M., Hanley, M. E., Burrows, M. T., Thompson, R. C., Skov, M. W., Evans, A. J., Moore, P. J., and Hawkins, S. J. (2016). Facing the future: the importance of substratum features for ecological engineering of artificial habitats in the rocky intertidal. Marine and Freshwater Research 67, 131–143.
Facing the future: the importance of substratum features for ecological engineering of artificial habitats in the rocky intertidal.CrossRef |

Fischer-Piette, É. (1935). Histoire d’une mouliere. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique 69, 153–177.

Fischer-Piette, É. (1936). Études sur la biogéographie intercotidale des deux rives de la Manche. Journal of the Linnaean Society of London – Zoology 40, 181–272.
Études sur la biogéographie intercotidale des deux rives de la Manche.CrossRef |

Flatteley, F. W., and Walton, C. L. (1926). ‘The Biology of the Sea-shore.’ (Sidgwick and Jackson: London.)

Foster, B. A. (1971). Dessication as a factor in the intertidal zonation of barnacles. Marine Biology 8, 12–29.
Dessication as a factor in the intertidal zonation of barnacles.CrossRef |

Gaines, S., and Roughgarden, J. (1985). Larval settlement rate: a leading determinant of structure in an ecological community of the marine intertidal zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 82, 3707–3711.
Larval settlement rate: a leading determinant of structure in an ecological community of the marine intertidal zone.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cnivFWqsw%3D%3D&md5=0afb11a2921b1295bc74abedba3f4414CAS | 16593571PubMed |

Gaines, S. D., Brown, S., and Roughgarden, J. (1985). Spatial variation in larval concentrations as a cause of spatial variation in settlement for the barnacle, Balanus glandula. Oecologia 67, 267–272.
Spatial variation in larval concentrations as a cause of spatial variation in settlement for the barnacle, Balanus glandula.CrossRef |

Giller, P. S., Hildrew, A. G., and Raffaelli, D. G. (1994). ‘Aquatic Ecology: Scale, Pattern and Process.’ (Blackwell: Oxford.)

Goss-Custard, S., Jones, J., Kitching, J. A., and Norton, T. A. (1979). Tide pools of Carrigathorna and Barloge Creek. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 287, 1–44.
Tide pools of Carrigathorna and Barloge Creek.CrossRef |

Gosse, P. H. (1856). ‘Tenby: a Sea-side Holiday.’ (John van Vorst: London.)

Griffiths, R. J. (1981). Population dynamics and growth of the bivalve Choromytilus merdionalis (k.r.) at different tidal levels. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 12, 101–118.
Population dynamics and growth of the bivalve Choromytilus merdionalis (k.r.) at different tidal levels.CrossRef |

Hartnoll, R. G., and Wright, J. R. (1977). Foraging movements and homing in the limpet Patella vulgata L. Journal of Animal Behavior 25, 806–810.
Foraging movements and homing in the limpet Patella vulgata L.CrossRef |

Hatton, H. (1938). Essais de bionomie explicative sur quelques especes intercotidals d’alques et d’animaux. Annales de l’Institut Océanographique de Monaco 17, 241–348.

Hawkins, S. J. (1983). Interactions of Patella and macroalgae with settling Semibalanus balanoides (L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 71, 55–72.
Interactions of Patella and macroalgae with settling Semibalanus balanoides (L.).CrossRef |

Hawkins, S. J., and Hartnoll, R. G. (1982). The influence of barnacle cover on the numbers, growth and behaviour of Patella vulgata on a vertical pier. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 62, 855–867.
The influence of barnacle cover on the numbers, growth and behaviour of Patella vulgata on a vertical pier.CrossRef |

Hawkins, S. J., and Hartnoll, R. G. (1985). Factors determining the upper limits of intertidal canopy-forming algae. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20, 265–271.
Factors determining the upper limits of intertidal canopy-forming algae.CrossRef |

Hawkins, S. J., and Jones, H. D. (1992). ‘Marine Field Course Guide 1: Rocky Shores.’ (Marine Conservation Society: UK.)

Hawkins, S. J., Firth, L. B., McHugh, M., Poloczanska, E. S., Herbert, R. J. H., Burrows, M. T., Kendall, M. A., Moore, P. J., Thompson, R. C., Jenkins, S. R., Sims, D. W., Genner, M. J., and Mieszkowska, N. (2013). Data rescue and re-use: recycling old information to address new policy concerns. Marine Policy 42, 91–98.
Data rescue and re-use: recycling old information to address new policy concerns.CrossRef |

Helmuth, B. (2002). How do we measure the environment? Linking intertidal thermal physiology and ecology through biophysics. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42, 837–845.
How do we measure the environment? Linking intertidal thermal physiology and ecology through biophysics.CrossRef | 21708782PubMed |

Helmuth, B. T., Russell, B. D., Connnell, S., Dong, Y., Harley, C. D. G., Lima, F. P., Sarà, G., Williams, G. A., and Mieszkowska, N. (2014). Climate profiling: making biological sense of long term averages in a changing world. Climate Change Reviews 1, 6.
Climate profiling: making biological sense of long term averages in a changing world.CrossRef |

Herdman, W. A. (1890). Third annual report of the Liverpool marine biological station on Puffin Island. Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Biological Society 4, 17–23.

Hewatt, W. G. (1935). Ecological succession in the Mytilus californianus habitat as observed in Monterey Bay, California. Ecology 16, 244–251.
Ecological succession in the Mytilus californianus habitat as observed in Monterey Bay, California.CrossRef |

Hofmann, G. E., and Somero, G. N. (1996). Interspecific variation in thermal denaturation of proteins in the congeneric mussels Mytilus trossulus and M. galloprovincialis: evidence from the heat-shock response and protein. Marine Biology 126, 65–75.
Interspecific variation in thermal denaturation of proteins in the congeneric mussels Mytilus trossulus and M. galloprovincialis: evidence from the heat-shock response and protein.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XlsFOmsb8%3D&md5=4912d723234887681879202c33f96148CAS |

Hughes, R. N. (1980a). Predation and community structure. In ‘The Shore Environment, Vol. 2, Ecosystems’. (Eds D. E. G. Irvine and W. F. Farnham.) Systematics Association Special Volume 17B, pp. 699–728. (Academic Press: London.)

Hughes, R. N. (1980b). Optimal foraging in the marine context. Oceanography and Marine Biology - an Annual Review 18, 423–481.

Hutchinson, N., and Williams, G. A. (2003). An assessment of variation in molluscan grazing pressure on Hong Kong rocky shores. Marine Biology 142, 495–507.

Hyder, K., Åberg, P., Johnson, M. P., and Hawkins, S. J. (2001). Models of open populations with space-limited recruitment: extension of theory and application to the barnacle Chthamalus montagui. Journal of Animal Ecology 70, 853–863.
Models of open populations with space-limited recruitment: extension of theory and application to the barnacle Chthamalus montagui.CrossRef |

Jenkins, S. R., Åberg, P., Cervin, G., Coleman, R. A., Delaney, J., Della Santina, P., Hawkins, S. J., LaCroix, E., Myers, A. A., Lindergarth, M., Power, A.-M., and Hartnoll, R. G. (2000). Spatial and temporal variation in settlement and recruitment of the intertidal barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) (Crustacea: Cirripedia) over a European scale. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 243, 209–225.
Spatial and temporal variation in settlement and recruitment of the intertidal barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) (Crustacea: Cirripedia) over a European scale.CrossRef |

Johnson, M. P., Burrows, M. T., and Hawkins, S. J. (1998). Individual based simulations of the direct and indirect effects of limpets on a rocky Fucus mosaic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 169, 179–188.
Individual based simulations of the direct and indirect effects of limpets on a rocky Fucus mosaic.CrossRef |

Johnson, C. R., Banks, S. C., Barrett, N. S., Cazassus, F., Dunstan, P. K., Edgar, G. J., Frusher, S. D., Gardner, C., Haddon, M., Helidoniotis, F., Hill, K. L., Holbrook, N. J., Hosie, G. W., Last, P. R., Ling, S. D., Melbourne-Thomas, J., Miller, K., Pecl, G. T., Richardson, A. J., Ridgway, K. R., Rintoul, S. R., Ritz, D. A., Ross, D. J., Sanderson, J. C., Shepherd, S. A., Slotwinski, A., Swadling, K. M., and Taw, N. (2011). Climate change cascades: shifts in oceanography, species’ ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400, 17–32.
Climate change cascades: shifts in oceanography, species’ ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania.CrossRef |

Jones, N. S. (1946). Browsing of Patella. Nature 158, 557.
Browsing of Patella.CrossRef |

Jones, N. S., and Kain, J. M. (1967). Subtidal algal recolonisation following removal of Echinus. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 15, 460–466.
Subtidal algal recolonisation following removal of Echinus.CrossRef |

Kearney, M. R., Matzelle, A., and Helmuth, B. (2012). Biomechanics meets the ecological niche: the importance of temporal data resolution. The Journal of Experimental Biology 215, 922–933.
Biomechanics meets the ecological niche: the importance of temporal data resolution.CrossRef | 22357586PubMed |

Kingsley, C. (1856). ‘Glaucus; or, the Wonders of the Shore.’ (Macmillan & Company: Cambridge, UK.)

Kitching, J. A., and Ebling, F. J. (1961). The ecology of Lough Ine. XI. The control of algae by Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoidea). Journal of Animal Ecology 30, 373–383.
The ecology of Lough Ine. XI. The control of algae by Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoidea).CrossRef |

Kitching, J. A., and Ebling, F. J. (1967). Ecological studies at Lough Ine. Advances in Ecological Research 4, 197–291.
Ecological studies at Lough Ine.CrossRef |

Kitching, J. A., Sloane, J. F., and Ebling, F. J. (1959). The ecology of Lough Ine. VIII. Mussels and their predators. Journal of Animal Ecology 28, 331–341.
The ecology of Lough Ine. VIII. Mussels and their predators.CrossRef |

Kitching, J. A., Muntz, L., and Ebling, F. J. (1966). The ecology of Lough Ine. XV. The ecological significance of shell and body size forms in Nucella. Journal of Animal Ecology 35, 113–126.
The ecology of Lough Ine. XV. The ecological significance of shell and body size forms in Nucella.CrossRef |

Kitching, J. A., Ebling, F. J., Gamble, J. C., Hoare, R., McLeod, A. A. Q. R., and Norton, T. A. (1976). The ecology of Lough Ine. XIX. Seasonal changes in the Western Trough. Journal of Animal Ecology 45, 731–758.
The ecology of Lough Ine. XIX. Seasonal changes in the Western Trough.CrossRef |

Knight-Jones, E. W. (1953). Laboratory experiments on gregariousness during settling in Balanus balanoides and other barnacles. The Journal of Experimental Biology 30, 584–598.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaG2cXltVCqsg%3D%3D&md5=a47019ee2b033b72edfaa78928078625CAS |

Knights, A. M., Firth, L. B., and Walters, K. (2012). Interactions between multiple recruitment drivers: post-settlement predation mortality and flow-mediated recruitment. PLoS One 7, e35096.
Interactions between multiple recruitment drivers: post-settlement predation mortality and flow-mediated recruitment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XlvVyqu7s%3D&md5=bf4e46879c4c0838c21954bd2da7585aCAS | 22493734PubMed |

Lewis, J. R. (1964). ‘The Ecology of Rocky Shores.’ (English Universities Press: London.)

Lewis, J. R. (1976). Long-term ecological surveillance: practical realties in the rocky littoral. Oceanography and Marine Biology – an Annual Review 14, 371–390.

Lima, F. P., and Wethey, D. S. (2009). Robolimpets: measuring intertidal body temperatures using biomimetic loggers. Limnology and Oceanography, Methods 7, 347–353.
Robolimpets: measuring intertidal body temperatures using biomimetic loggers.CrossRef |

Ling, S. D., Scheibling, R. E., Rassweiler, A., Johnson, C. R., Shears, N., Connell, S. D., Saloman, A. K., Norderhaug, K. M., Perez-Matus, A., Hernandez, J. C., Clemente, S., Blamey, L. K., Hereu, B., Ballesteros, E., Sala, E., Garrabou, J., Cebrian, E., Zabala, M., Fujita, D., and Johnson, L. E. (2014). Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 370, 20130269.
Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing.CrossRef |

Little, C., Williams, G. A., Morritt, D., Perrins, J. M., and Stirling, P. (1988). Foraging behaviour of Patella vulgata L. in an Irish sea-lough. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 120, 1–21.
Foraging behaviour of Patella vulgata L. in an Irish sea-lough.CrossRef |

Little, C., Partridge, J., and Teagle, L. (1991). Foraging activity of limpets in normal and abnormal tidal regimes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 71, 537–554.
Foraging activity of limpets in normal and abnormal tidal regimes.CrossRef |

Lubchenco, J., and Menge, B. A. (1978). Community development and persistence in a low rocky intertidal zone. Ecological Monographs 48, 67–94.
Community development and persistence in a low rocky intertidal zone.CrossRef |

Lubchenco, J., Menge, B. A., Garrity, S. D., Lubchenco, P. J., Ashkenas, L. R., Gaines, S. D., Emlet, R., Lucas, J., and Strauss, S. (1984). Structure, persistence and role of consumers in a tropical rocky intertidal community (Taboguilla Island, Bay of Panama). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 78, 23–73.
Structure, persistence and role of consumers in a tropical rocky intertidal community (Taboguilla Island, Bay of Panama).CrossRef |

Luckens, P. A. (1976). Settlement and succession on rocky shores at Auckland, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoirs 70, 3–64.

Mann, K. H. (1973). Seaweeds, their productivity and strategy for growth. Science 182, 975–981.
Seaweeds, their productivity and strategy for growth.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cvlsFymtg%3D%3D&md5=be6d7c29d012db786f437fb78c02fc81CAS | 17833778PubMed |

Marshall, P. A., and Keough, M. J. (1994). Asymmetry in intraspecific competition in the limpet Cellana tramoserica (Sowerby). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 177, 121–138.
Asymmetry in intraspecific competition in the limpet Cellana tramoserica (Sowerby).CrossRef |

Matzelle, A., Montalto, V., Sará, G., Zippay, M., and Helmuth, B. (2014). Dynamic Energy Budget model parameter estimation for the bivalve Mytilus californianus: application of the covariation method. Journal of Sea Research 94, 105–110.
Dynamic Energy Budget model parameter estimation for the bivalve Mytilus californianus: application of the covariation method.CrossRef |

Menge, B. A. (1972). Foraging strategy of a starfish in relation to actual prey availability and environmental predictability. Ecological Monographs 42, 25–50.
Foraging strategy of a starfish in relation to actual prey availability and environmental predictability.CrossRef |

Mieszkowska, N., Hawkins, S. J., Burrows, M. T., and Kendall, M. A. (2007). Long-term changes in the geographic distribution and population structures of some near-limit populations of Osilinus lineatus in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87, 537–545.
Long-term changes in the geographic distribution and population structures of some near-limit populations of Osilinus lineatus in Britain and Ireland.CrossRef |

Mieszkowska, N., Milligan, G., Burrows, M. T., Freckleton, R., and Spencer, M. (2013). Dynamic species distribution models from categorical survey data. Journal of Animal Ecology 82, 1215–1226.
Dynamic species distribution models from categorical survey data.CrossRef | 23889003PubMed |

Mieszkowska, N., Burrows, M., Pannacciulli, F., and Hawkins, S. J. (2014a). Multidecadal signals within co-occuring intertidal barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus spp. linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Journal of Marine Systems 133, 70–76.
Multidecadal signals within co-occuring intertidal barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus spp. linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.CrossRef |

Mieszkowska, N., Sugden, H., Firth, L., and Hawkins, S. J. (2014b). The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 372, 20130339.
The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.CrossRef |

Moore, H. B. (1934). The biology of Balanus balanoides. I. Growth rate and its relation to season and tide level. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 19, 851–868.
The biology of Balanus balanoides. I. Growth rate and its relation to season and tide level.CrossRef |

Moore, H. B., and Kitching, S. A. (1939). The biology of Chthamalus stellatus (Poli). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 23, 521–541.
The biology of Chthamalus stellatus (Poli).CrossRef |

Moore, P., Thompson, R. C., and Hawkins, S. J. (2007). Effects of grazer identity on the probability of escapes by a canopy-forming macroalga. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 344, 170–180.
Effects of grazer identity on the probability of escapes by a canopy-forming macroalga.CrossRef |

Muntz, L., Norton, T. A., Ebling, F. J., and Kitching, J. A. (1972). The ecology of Lough Ine. XVIII. Factors controlling the distribution of Corynactis viridis Allman. Journal of Animal Ecology 41, 735–750.
The ecology of Lough Ine. XVIII. Factors controlling the distribution of Corynactis viridis Allman.CrossRef |

O’Riordan, R. M., Arenas, F., Arrontes, J., Castro, J. J., Cruz, T., Delany, J., Martınez, B., Fernandez, C., Hawkins, S. J., McGrath, D., Myers, A. A., Oliveros, J., Pannacciulli, F. G., Power, A. M., Relini, G., Rico, J. M., and Silva, T. (2004). Spatial variation in the recruitment of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus montagui Southward and Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) (Crustacea: Cirripedia) over an European scale. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 304, 243–264.
Spatial variation in the recruitment of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus montagui Southward and Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) (Crustacea: Cirripedia) over an European scale.CrossRef |

Oakley, J. (2010). ‘Sea Shore Safaris: Exploring Rocky and Sandy Seashores with Judith Oakley.’ (Graffeg: Llangennech, UK.)

Orton, J. H. (1929). Observations on Patella vulgata. Part III. Habits and habitats. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 16, 277–288.
Observations on Patella vulgata. Part III. Habits and habitats.CrossRef |

Paine, R. T. (1966). Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100, 65–75.
Food web complexity and species diversity.CrossRef |

Paine, R. T. (1969). The Pisaster–Tegula interaction: prey patches, predator food preferences and intertidal community structure. Ecology 50, 950–961.
The Pisaster–Tegula interaction: prey patches, predator food preferences and intertidal community structure.CrossRef |

Paine, R. T. (1994). ‘Marine Rocky Shores and Community Ecology: an Experimentalist’s Perspective.’ (Ecology Institute: Nordbünte, Germany.)

Paine, R. T., and Vadas, R. L. (1969). The effects of grazing by sea urchins Strongylocentrotus spp. on benthic algal populations. Limnology and Oceanography 14, 710–719.
The effects of grazing by sea urchins Strongylocentrotus spp. on benthic algal populations.CrossRef |

Pincebourde, S., Sanford, E., and Helmuth, B. (2009). An intertidal sea star adjusts thermal inertia to avoid extreme body temperatures. American Naturalist 174, 890–897.
An intertidal sea star adjusts thermal inertia to avoid extreme body temperatures.CrossRef | 19827942PubMed |

Pineda, J., Porri, F., Starczak, V., and Blythe, J. (2010). Causes of decoupling between larval supply and settlement and consequences for understanding recruitment and population connectivity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 392, 9–21.
Causes of decoupling between larval supply and settlement and consequences for understanding recruitment and population connectivity.CrossRef |

Pinho, D., Bertocci, J., Arenas, F., Franco, J., Jacinto, D., Castro, J., Vieira, R., Pinto, I., Wernberg, T., and Tuya, F. (2016). Spatial and temporal variation of kelp forests and associated macroalgal assemblages along the Portuguese coast. Marine and Freshwater Research 67, 113–122.
Spatial and temporal variation of kelp forests and associated macroalgal assemblages along the Portuguese coast.CrossRef |

Plass, M. (2013). ‘RSPB Handbook of the Seashore.’ (Bloomsbury: London.)

Poloczanska, E. S., Hawkins, S. J., Southward, A. J., and Burrows, M. T. (2008). Modeling the response of populations of competing species to climate change. Ecology 89, 3138–3149.
Modeling the response of populations of competing species to climate change.CrossRef |

Poloczanska, E. S., Brown, C. J., Sydeman, W. J., Kiessling, W., Schoeman, D. S., Moore, P. J., Brander, K., Bruno, J. F., Buckley, L. B., Burrows, M. T., Duarte, C. M., Halpern, B. S., Holding, J., Kappel, C. V., O’Connor, M. I., Pandolfi, J. M., Parmesan, C., Schwing, F., Thompson, S. A., and Richardson, A. J. (2013). Global imprint of climate change on marine life. Nature Climate Change 3, 919–925.
Global imprint of climate change on marine life.CrossRef |

Raffaelli, D., and Hawkins, S. J. (1996). ‘Intertidal Ecology.’ (Springer: London.)

Reed, D., Rassweiler, A., Miller, R., Page, H., and Holbrook, S. (2016). The value of a broad temporal and spatial perspective in understanding dynamics of kelp forest ecosystems. Marine and Freshwater Research 67, 14–24.
The value of a broad temporal and spatial perspective in understanding dynamics of kelp forest ecosystems.CrossRef |

Reise, K. (1985). ‘Tidal Flat Ecology, an Experimental Approach to Species Interactions.’ Ecological Studies 54. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin.)

Ricketts, E. F., and Calvin, J. (1939). ‘Between Pacific Tides.’ (Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA.)

Rovero, F., Hughes, R. N., and Chelazzi, G. (1999). Automatic recording of the radular activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) drilling mussels (Mytilus edulis). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 79, 1079–1083.
Automatic recording of the radular activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) drilling mussels (Mytilus edulis).CrossRef |

Russell, E. S. (1907). Environmental studies on the limpet. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 77, 856–870.
Environmental studies on the limpet.CrossRef |

Russell, E. S. (1937). Fish migrations. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 12, 320–337.
Fish migrations.CrossRef |

Santini, G., De Pirro, M., and Chelazzi, G. (1999). In situ and laboratory assessment of heart rate in a mediterranean limpet using a noninvasive technique. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 72, 198–204.
In situ and laboratory assessment of heart rate in a mediterranean limpet using a noninvasive technique.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1M7nsVWlsg%3D%3D&md5=25904e849565b433355e65d700e314a5CAS | 10068623PubMed |

Santini, G., Ngan, A., Burrows, M. T., Chelazzi, G., and Williams, G. A. (2014). What drives foraging behaviour of the intertidal limpet Cellana grata? A quantitative test of a dynamic optimization model. Functional Ecology 28, 963–972.
What drives foraging behaviour of the intertidal limpet Cellana grata? A quantitative test of a dynamic optimization model.CrossRef |

Sarà, G., Kearney, M., and Helmuth, B. (2011). Combining heat-transfer and energy budget models to predict thermal stress in Mediterranean intertidal mussels. Chemistry and Ecology 27, 135–145.
Combining heat-transfer and energy budget models to predict thermal stress in Mediterranean intertidal mussels.CrossRef |

Sarà, G., Palmeri, V., Rinaldi, A., Montalto, V., and Helmuth, B. (2013). Predicting biological invasions in marine habitats through eco-physiological mechanistic models: a case study with the bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis. Diversity & Distributions 19, 1235–1247.
Predicting biological invasions in marine habitats through eco-physiological mechanistic models: a case study with the bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis.CrossRef |

Schonbeck, M. W., and Norton, T. A. (1978). Factors controlling the upper limits of fucoid algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 31, 303–313.
Factors controlling the upper limits of fucoid algae.CrossRef |

Schonbeck, M. W., and Norton, T. A. (1980). Factors controlling the lower limits of fucoid algae on the shore. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 43, 131–150.
Factors controlling the lower limits of fucoid algae on the shore.CrossRef |

Simkanin, C., Power, A., Myers, A., McGrath, D., Southward, A. J., Mieszkowska, N., Leaper, R., and O’Riordan, R. (2005). Using historical data to detect temporal changes in the abundances of intertidal species on Irish shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 85, 1329–1340.
Using historical data to detect temporal changes in the abundances of intertidal species on Irish shores.CrossRef |

Smale, D. A., and Wernberg, T. (2013). Extreme climatic event drives range contraction of a habitat-forming species. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 280, 20122829.
Extreme climatic event drives range contraction of a habitat-forming species.CrossRef |

Smale, D. A., Burrows, M. T., Moore, P., O’Connor, N., and Hawkins, S. J. (2013). Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective. Ecology and Evolution 3, 4016–4038.
Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.CrossRef | 24198956PubMed |

Sousa, W. P. (1979). Disturbance in marine inter-tidal boulder fields – the non-equilibrium maintenance of species-diversity. Ecology 60, 1225–1239.
Disturbance in marine inter-tidal boulder fields – the non-equilibrium maintenance of species-diversity.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J. (1956). The population balance between limpets and seaweeds on wave-beaten rocky shores. Port Erin Marine Biology Station Report 68, pp. 20–29. Port Erin, Isle of Man.

Southward, A. J. (1958). Note on the temperature tolerances of some intertidal animals in relation to environmental temperatures and geographical distribution. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 37, 49–66.
Note on the temperature tolerances of some intertidal animals in relation to environmental temperatures and geographical distribution.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J. (1964). The relationship between temperature and rhythmic cirral activity in some Cirripedia considered in connection with their geographical distribution. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 10, 391–403.
The relationship between temperature and rhythmic cirral activity in some Cirripedia considered in connection with their geographical distribution.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J. (1976). On the taxonomic status and distribution of Chthamalus stellatus in the north east Atlantic region. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 56, 1007–1028.
On the taxonomic status and distribution of Chthamalus stellatus in the north east Atlantic region.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J. (1983). A new look at variation in Darwin’s species of acorn barnacles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 20, 59–72.
A new look at variation in Darwin’s species of acorn barnacles.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J. (2008). Barnacles. Keys and notes for the identification of British species. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) 57. (Eds J. H. Crothers and P. J. Hayward.) (Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK.)

Southward, A. J., and Orton, J. H. (1954). The effects of wave action on the distribution and numbers of the commoner plants and animals living on the Plymouth Breakwater. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 33, 1–19.
The effects of wave action on the distribution and numbers of the commoner plants and animals living on the Plymouth Breakwater.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J., and Southward, E. C. (1978). Recolonization of rocky shores in Cornwall after the use of toxic dispersants to clean up the Torrey Canyon oil spill. Journal of Fish Research 35, 682–706.
Recolonization of rocky shores in Cornwall after the use of toxic dispersants to clean up the Torrey Canyon oil spill.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J., Hawkins, S. J., and Burrows, M. T. (1995). Seventy years’ observations of changes in distribution and abundance of zooplankton and intertidal organisms in the western English Channel in relation to rising sea temperature. Journal of Thermal Biology 20, 127–155.
Seventy years’ observations of changes in distribution and abundance of zooplankton and intertidal organisms in the western English Channel in relation to rising sea temperature.CrossRef |

Steneck, R. S., and Dethier, M. N. (1994). A functional group approach to the structure of algal-dominated communities. Oikos 69, 476–498.
A functional group approach to the structure of algal-dominated communities.CrossRef |

Stephenson, T. A., and Stephenson, A. (1949). The universal features of zonation between tidemarks on rocky coasts. Journal of Ecology 37, 289–305.
The universal features of zonation between tidemarks on rocky coasts.CrossRef |

Stephenson, T. A., and Stephenson, A. (1972). ‘Life between Tidemarks on Rocky Shores.’ (W.H. Freeman: San Francisco, CA.)

Thompson, R. C., Johnson, L. E., and Hawkins, S. J. (1997). A method for spatial and temporal assessment of gastropod grazing intensity in the field: the use of radula scrapes on wax surfaces. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 218, 63–76.
A method for spatial and temporal assessment of gastropod grazing intensity in the field: the use of radula scrapes on wax surfaces.CrossRef |

Tsang, L. M., Chan, B. K. K., Wu, T. H., Ng, W. C., Chatterjee, T., Williams, G. A., and Chu, K. H. (2008). Population differentiation of the barnacle Chthamalus malayensis: postglacial colonization and recent connectivity across Pacific and Indian Oceans. Marine Ecology Progress Series 364, 107–118.
Population differentiation of the barnacle Chthamalus malayensis: postglacial colonization and recent connectivity across Pacific and Indian Oceans.CrossRef |

Tsang, L. M., Wu, T. J., Shih, H. T., Williams, G. A., Chu, K. H., and Chan, B. K. K. (2012). Genetic and morphological differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific intertidal barnacle Chthamalus malayensis Integrative and Comparative Biology 52, 388–409.
Genetic and morphological differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific intertidal barnacle Chthamalus malayensisCrossRef | 22523127PubMed |

Tsang, L. M., Chan, B. K. K., Williams, G. A., and Chu, K. H. (2013). Who is moving where? Molecular evidence reveals patterns of range shift in the acorn barnacle Hexechamaesipho pilsbryi in Asia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 488, 187–200.
Who is moving where? Molecular evidence reveals patterns of range shift in the acorn barnacle Hexechamaesipho pilsbryi in Asia.CrossRef |

Underwood, A. J. (1975). Comparative studies on the biology of Nerita atramentosa Reeve, Bembicium nancum (Lamarck) and Cellana tramoserica (Sowerby) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in S.E. Australia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 18, 153–172.
Comparative studies on the biology of Nerita atramentosa Reeve, Bembicium nancum (Lamarck) and Cellana tramoserica (Sowerby) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in S.E. Australia.CrossRef |

Underwood, A. J. (1978). A refutation of critical levels as determinants of the structure of intertidal communities on British shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 33, 261–276.
A refutation of critical levels as determinants of the structure of intertidal communities on British shores.CrossRef |

Underwood, A. J. (1980). The effects of grazing by gastropods and physical factors on the upper limits of distribution of intertidal macroalgae. Oecologia 46, 201–213.
The effects of grazing by gastropods and physical factors on the upper limits of distribution of intertidal macroalgae.CrossRef |

Underwood, A. J. (1992). Beyond BACI: the detection of environmental impacts on populations in the real, but variable, world. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 161, 145–178.
Beyond BACI: the detection of environmental impacts on populations in the real, but variable, world.CrossRef |

Underwood, A. J. (1997). ‘Experiments in Ecology: Their Logistical Design and Interpretation Using Analysis of Variance.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Underwood, A. J., and Fairweather, P. G. (1989). Supply-side ecology and benthic marine assemblages. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 4, 16–20.
Supply-side ecology and benthic marine assemblages.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M7gvFeqsw%3D%3D&md5=65d7f2083b5de527c36262fb5d5b1ec6CAS |

Wahl, M., Sawall, Y., and Saderne, V. (2016). How good are we at assessing the impact of ocean acidification in coastal systems? Limitations, omissions and strengths of commonly used experimental approaches with a special emphasis on the neglected role of fluctuations. Marine and Freshwater Research 67, 25–36.
How good are we at assessing the impact of ocean acidification in coastal systems? Limitations, omissions and strengths of commonly used experimental approaches with a special emphasis on the neglected role of fluctuations.CrossRef |

Walton, C. L. (1913). The distribution of some littoral Trochidae and Littorinidae in Cardigan Bay. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 10, 114–122.
The distribution of some littoral Trochidae and Littorinidae in Cardigan Bay.CrossRef |

Williams, G. A., Little, C., Morritt, D., Stirling, P., Teagle, L., Miles, A., Pilling, G., and Consalvey, M. (1999). Foraging in the limpet Patella vulgata: the influence of rock slope on the timing of activity. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 79, 881–890.
Foraging in the limpet Patella vulgata: the influence of rock slope on the timing of activity.CrossRef |

Wood, C. (2005). ‘Seasearch Guide to Sea Anemones and Corals of Britain and Ireland.’ (Marine Conservation Society.)

Wright, J. R., and Hartnoll, R. G. (1981). An energy budget for a population of the limpet Patella vulgata. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 61, 627–646.
An energy budget for a population of the limpet Patella vulgata.CrossRef |

Wu, T. H., Tsang, L. M., Chan, B. K. K., and Chu, K. H. (2015). Cryptic diversity and phylogeography of the island-associated barnacle Chthamalus moro in Asia. Marine Ecology – An Evolutionary Perspective 36, 368–378.
Cryptic diversity and phylogeography of the island-associated barnacle Chthamalus moro in Asia.CrossRef |

Yonge, C. M. (1949). ‘The Sea Shore.’ (The New Naturalist, Collins: London.)



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (3)

View Altmetrics