Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Common carp disrupt ecosystem structure and function through middle-out effects

Mark A. Kaemingk A I , Jeffrey C. Jolley B , Craig P. Paukert C , David W. Willis H , Kjetil Henderson D , Richard S. Holland E , Greg A. Wanner F and Mark L. Lindvall G
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Natural Resource Management, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

B United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia River Fisheries Program Office, 1211 SE Cardinal Court, Vancouver, WA 98683, USA.

C United States Geological Survey, Missouri Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

D United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Route 148, Marion, IL 62959, USA.

E Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, PO Box 30370, Lincoln, NE 68701, USA.

F USDA Forest Service, Mt Hood National Forest, Zigzag Ranger District, 70220 East Highway 26, Zigzag, OR 97049, USA.

G Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, 40811 Hackberry Drive, Valentine, NE 69201, USA.

H Deceased. Formerly at Department of Natural Resource Management, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

I Corresponding author. Present address: School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA. Email: mkaemingk2@unl.edu

Marine and Freshwater Research 68(4) 718-731 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF15068
Submitted: 20 February 2015  Accepted: 18 March 2016   Published: 20 June 2016

Abstract

Middle-out effects or a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes create many theoretical and empirical challenges in the realm of trophic ecology. We propose using specific autecology or species trait (i.e. behavioural) information to help explain and understand trophic dynamics that may involve complicated and non-unidirectional trophic interactions. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) served as our model species for whole-lake observational and experimental studies; four trophic levels were measured to assess common carp-mediated middle-out effects across multiple lakes. We hypothesised that common carp could influence aquatic ecosystems through multiple pathways (i.e. abiotic and biotic foraging, early life feeding, nutrient). Both studies revealed most trophic levels were affected by common carp, highlighting strong middle-out effects likely caused by common carp foraging activities and abiotic influence (i.e. sediment resuspension). The loss of water transparency, submersed vegetation and a shift in zooplankton dynamics were the strongest effects. Trophic levels furthest from direct pathway effects were also affected (fish life history traits). The present study demonstrates that common carp can exert substantial effects on ecosystem structure and function. Species capable of middle-out effects can greatly modify communities through a variety of available pathways and are not confined to traditional top-down or bottom-up processes.

Additional keywords: food webs, ecosystem engineers, shallow lake ecosystems.


References

Allen, J. I., and Fulton, E. A. (2010). Top-down, bottom-up or middle-out? Avoiding extraneous detail and over-generality in marine ecosystem models. Progress in Oceanography 84, 129–133.
Top-down, bottom-up or middle-out? Avoiding extraneous detail and over-generality in marine ecosystem models.CrossRef |

Bajer, P. G., and Sorensen, P. W. (2012). Using boat electrofishing to estimate the abundance of invasive common carp in small Midwestern lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 32, 817–822.
Using boat electrofishing to estimate the abundance of invasive common carp in small Midwestern lakes.CrossRef |

Barko, J. W., and James, W. F. (1998). Effects of submerged aquatic macrophytes on nutrient dynamics, sedimentation, and resuspension. In ‘The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes’. (Eds E. Jeppesen, M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard, and K. Christofferson.) pp. 197–214. (Springer: New York.)

Beal, D. L., and Anderson, R. V. (1993). Response of zooplankton to rotenone in a small pond. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 51, 551–556.
Response of zooplankton to rotenone in a small pond.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXms1Cgu70%3D&md5=e8df2a70f5d39d3e941ff0fe19dc5061CAS | 8400658PubMed |

Borer, E. T., Seabloom, E. W., Shurin, J. B., Anderson, K. E., Blanchette, C. A., Broitman, B., Cooper, S. D., and Halpern, B. S. (2005). What determines the strength of a trophic cascade? Ecology 86, 528–537.
What determines the strength of a trophic cascade?CrossRef |

Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R. (2002). ‘Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference: A Practical Information–Theoretic Approach.’ (Springer: New York.)

Capon, S. J., Lynch, A. J. J., Bond, N., Chessman, B. C., Davis, J., Davidson, N., Finlayson, M., Gell, P. A., Hohnberg, D., Humphrey, C., and Kingsford, R. T. (2015). Regime shifts, thresholds and multiple stable states in freshwater ecosystems; a critical appraisal of the evidence. The Science of the Total Environment 534, 122–130.
Regime shifts, thresholds and multiple stable states in freshwater ecosystems; a critical appraisal of the evidence.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXivVCns70%3D&md5=d52dde4f22f896101c16945c108819f6CAS | 25712747PubMed |

Carpenter, S. R., and Kitchell, J. F. (1988). Consumer control of lake productivity. Bioscience 38, 764–769.
Consumer control of lake productivity.CrossRef |

Carpenter, S. R., Kitchell, J. F., and Hodgson, J. R. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. Bioscience 35, 634–639.
Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity.CrossRef |

Culver, D. A., Boucherle, M. M., Bean, D. J., and Fletcher, J. W. (1985). Biomass of freshwater crustacean zooplankton from length–weight regressions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42, 1380–1390.
Biomass of freshwater crustacean zooplankton from length–weight regressions.CrossRef |

Cummins, K. W., and Wuycheck, J. C. (1971). ‘Caloric Equivalents for Investigations in Ecological Energetics.’ (Schweizerbart: Stuttgart, Germany.)

de Bello, F., Lavorel, S., Díaz, S., Harrington, R., Cornelissen, J. H., Bardgett, R. D., Berg, M. P., Cipriotti, P., Feld, C. K., and Hering, D. (2010). Towards an assessment of multiple ecosystem processes and services via functional traits. Biodiversity and Conservation 19, 2873–2893.
Towards an assessment of multiple ecosystem processes and services via functional traits.CrossRef |

DeAngelis, D. L. (2013). Intraspecific trait variation and its effects on food chains. Mathematical Biosciences 244, 91–97.
Intraspecific trait variation and its effects on food chains.CrossRef | 23660150PubMed |

DeVries, D. R., and Stein, R. A. (1992). Complex interactions between fish and zooplankton: quantifying the role of an open-water planktivore. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49, 1216–1227.
Complex interactions between fish and zooplankton: quantifying the role of an open-water planktivore.CrossRef |

Díaz, S., and Cabido, M. (2001). Vive la difference: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16, 646–655.
Vive la difference: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes.CrossRef |

Duffy, J. E., Cardinale, B. J., France, K. E., McIntyre, P. B., Thébault, E., and Loreau, M. (2007). The functional role of biodiversity in ecosystems: incorporating trophic complexity. Ecology Letters 10, 522–538.
The functional role of biodiversity in ecosystems: incorporating trophic complexity.CrossRef | 17498151PubMed |

Dumont, H. J., Velde, I., and Dumont, S. (1975). The dry weight estimate of biomass in a selection of Cladocera, Copepoda and Rotifera from the plankton, periphyton and benthos of continental waters. Oecologia 19, 75–97.
The dry weight estimate of biomass in a selection of Cladocera, Copepoda and Rotifera from the plankton, periphyton and benthos of continental waters.CrossRef |

Egertson, C. J., and Downing, J. A. (2004). Relationship of fish catch and composition to water quality in a suite of agriculturally eutrophic lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61, 1784–1796.
Relationship of fish catch and composition to water quality in a suite of agriculturally eutrophic lakes.CrossRef |

Finlayson, B. J., Siepmann, S., and Trumbo, J. (2001). Chemical residues in surface and ground waters following rotenone applicaiton to California lakes and streams. In ‘Rotenone in Fisheries: Are the Rewards Worth the Risks?’ (Eds R. L. Cailteux, L. DeMong, B. J. Finlayson, W. Horton, W. McClay, R. A. Schnick, and C. Thompson.) pp. 37–53. (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD, USA.)

Finlayson, B. J., Schnick, R., Skaar, D., Anderson, J., Demong, L., Duffield, D., Horton, W., and Steinkjer, J. (2010). ‘Planning and Standard Operating Procedures for the Use of rotenone in Fish Management: Rotenone SOP Manual.’ (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD.)

Gabelhouse, D. W. (1984). A length-categorization system to assess fish stocks. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 4, 273–285.
A length-categorization system to assess fish stocks.CrossRef |

Glasby, T. M., and Underwood, A. J. (1996). Sampling to differentiate between pulse and press perturbations. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 42, 241–252.
Sampling to differentiate between pulse and press perturbations.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2c7jtleisw%3D%3D&md5=4072fa2a7773bb85cf15abf181e2c19aCAS | 24193581PubMed |

Greeney, H. F., Meneses, M. R., Hamilton, C. E., Lichter-Marck, E., Mannan, R. W., Snyder, N., Snyder, H., Wethington, S. M., and Dyer, L. A. (2015). Trait-mediated trophic cascade creates enemy-free space for nesting hummingbirds. Science Advances 1, e1500310.
Trait-mediated trophic cascade creates enemy-free space for nesting hummingbirds.CrossRef | 26601258PubMed |

Gulati, R. D., and van Donk, E. (2002). Lakes in the Netherlands, their origin, eutrophication and restoration: state-of-the-art review. Hydrobiologia 478, 73–106.
Lakes in the Netherlands, their origin, eutrophication and restoration: state-of-the-art review.CrossRef |

Guy, C. S., and Willis, D. W. (1995). Population characteristics of black crappies in South Dakota waters: a case for ecosystem-specific management. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15, 754–765.
Population characteristics of black crappies in South Dakota waters: a case for ecosystem-specific management.CrossRef |

Harrison, X. A., Blount, J. D., Inger, R., Norris, D. R., and Bearhop, S. (2011). Carry-over effects as drivers of fitness differences in animals. Journal of Animal Ecology 80, 4–18.
Carry-over effects as drivers of fitness differences in animals.CrossRef | 20726924PubMed |

Hicks, B. J., and Ling, N. (2015) Carp as an invasive species. In ‘Biology and Ecology of Carp’. (Eds C. Pietsch and P. E. Hirsch.) pp. 244–281. (CRC Press.)

Jackson, Z. J., Quist, M. C., Downing, J. A., and Larscheid, J. G. (2010). Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), sport fishes, and water quality: ecological thresholds in agriculturally eutrophic lakes. Lake and Reservoir Management 26, 14–22.
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), sport fishes, and water quality: ecological thresholds in agriculturally eutrophic lakes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhsFKgt7fO&md5=f0091fa56c00e8a43a208b26690807a7CAS |

Jeppesen, E., Peder Jensen, J., Søndergaard, M., Lauridsen, T., Junge Pedersen, L., and Jensen, L. (1997). Top-down control in freshwater lakes: the role of nutrient state, submerged macrophytes and water depth. In ‘Shallow Lakes ’95: Trophic Cascades in Shallow Freshwater and Brackish Lakes (Developments in Hydrobiology)’, Vol. 119. (Eds L. Kufel, A. Prejs, and J. Rybak.) pp. 151–164. (Springer.)10.1023/A:1017046130329

Jolley, J. C., Willis, D. W., Debates, T. J., and Graham, D. D. (2008). The effects of mechanically reducing northern pike density on the sport fish community of West Long Lake, Nebraska, USA. Fisheries Management and Ecology 15, 251–258.
The effects of mechanically reducing northern pike density on the sport fish community of West Long Lake, Nebraska, USA.CrossRef |

Jones, C. G., Lawton, J. H., and Shachak, M. (1994). Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69, 373–386.
Organisms as ecosystem engineers.CrossRef |

Kaemingk, M., and Willis, D. (2012). Mensurative approach to examine potential interactions between age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Aquatic Ecology 46, 353–362.
Mensurative approach to examine potential interactions between age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).CrossRef |

Kaemingk, M. A., and Willis, D. W. (2014). Abiotic and biotic influences on fish communities in Nebraska Sandhill lakes. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration, Project Number F-118-R, Study III, Completion Report, Lincoln.

Kaemingk, M. A., Graeb, B. D. S., and Willis, D. W. (2014). Temperature, hatch date, and prey availability influence age-0 yellow perch growth and survival. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143, 845–855.
Temperature, hatch date, and prey availability influence age-0 yellow perch growth and survival.CrossRef |

Krause, A. E., Frank, K. A., Mason, D. M., Ulanowicz, R. E., and Taylor, W. W. (2003). Compartments revealed in food-web structure. Nature 426, 282–285.
Compartments revealed in food-web structure.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXptVOit74%3D&md5=ef3c75c94a93873d76c2cc45894318c6CAS | 14628050PubMed |

Kufel, L., and Ozimek, T. (1994). Can Chara control phosphorus cycling in Lake Łuknajno (Poland)? Hydrobiologia 275–276, 277–283.
Can Chara control phosphorus cycling in Lake Łuknajno (Poland)?CrossRef |

Lind, O. T. (1979). ‘Handbook of Common Methods in Limnology.’ 2nd edn. (C. V. Mosby Co.: St Louis, MO, USA.)

Littell, R. C., Henry, P. R., and Ammerman, C. B. (1998). Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. Journal of Animal Science 76, 1216–1231.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXis1Ggu78%3D&md5=86e4e3db995bcfcc4717539807e9b8cbCAS | 9581947PubMed |

Louhi, P., Mykrä, H., Paavola, R., Huusko, A., Vehanen, T., Mäki-Petäys, A., and Muotka, T. (2011). Twenty years of stream restoration in Finland: little response by benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Ecological Applications 21, 1950–1961.
Twenty years of stream restoration in Finland: little response by benthic macroinvertebrate communities.CrossRef | 21939036PubMed |

Mac Nally, R., Albano, C., and Fleishman, E. (2014). A scrutiny of the evidence for pressure-induced state shifts in estuarine and nearshore ecosystems. Austral Ecology 39, 898–906.
A scrutiny of the evidence for pressure-induced state shifts in estuarine and nearshore ecosystems.CrossRef |

MacNeil, C., Dick, J. T., and Elwood, R. W. (1997). The trophic ecology of freshwater Gammarus spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda): problems and perspectives concerning the functional feeding group concept. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 72, 349–364.
The trophic ecology of freshwater Gammarus spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda): problems and perspectives concerning the functional feeding group concept.CrossRef |

Mapstone, B. D. (1995). Scalable decision rules for environmental impact studies: effect size, type I, and type II errors. Ecological Applications 5, 401–410.
Scalable decision rules for environmental impact studies: effect size, type I, and type II errors.CrossRef |

Matsuzaki, S.-i., Usio, N., Takamura, N., and Washitani, I. (2009). Contrasting impacts of invasive engineers on freshwater ecosystems: an experiment and meta-analysis. Oecologia 158, 673–686.
Contrasting impacts of invasive engineers on freshwater ecosystems: an experiment and meta-analysis.CrossRef |

McCarraher, D. B. (1977). ‘Nebraska’s Sandhills Lakes.’ (Nebraska Game and Parks Commission: Lincoln, NE, USA.)

McDonald, T. L., Erickson, W. P., and McDonald, L. L. (2000). Analysis of count data from before–after control–impact studies. Journal of Agricultural Biological & Environmental Statistics 5, 262–279.
Analysis of count data from before–after control–impact studies.CrossRef |

McQueen, D. J., Post, J. R., and Mills, E. L. (1986). Trophic relationships in freshwater pelagic ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43, 1571–1581.
Trophic relationships in freshwater pelagic ecosystems.CrossRef |

Meijer, M.-L., de Boois, I., Scheffer, M., Portielje, R., and Hosper, H. (1999). Biomanipulation in shallow lakes in the Netherlands: an evaluation of 18 case studies. Hydrobiologia 408–409, 13–30.
Biomanipulation in shallow lakes in the Netherlands: an evaluation of 18 case studies.CrossRef |

Melaas, C. L., Zimmer, K. D., Butler, M. G., and Hanson, M. A. (2001). Effects of rotenone on aquatic invertebrate communities in prairie wetlands. Hydrobiologia 459, 177–186.
Effects of rotenone on aquatic invertebrate communities in prairie wetlands.CrossRef |

Miller, S. A., and Crowl, T. A. (2006). Effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on macrophytes and invertebrate communities in a shallow lake. Freshwater Biology 51, 85–94.
Effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on macrophytes and invertebrate communities in a shallow lake.CrossRef |

Morales-Castilla, I., Matias, M. G., Gravel, D., and Araújo, M. B. (2015). Inferring biotic interactions from proxies. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30, 347–356.
Inferring biotic interactions from proxies.CrossRef |

Murphy, B. R., Willis, D. W., and Springer, T. A. (1991). The relative weight index in fisheries management: status and needs. Fisheries (Bethesda, Md.) 16, 30–38.
The relative weight index in fisheries management: status and needs.CrossRef |

Nieoczym, M., and Kloskowski, J. (2014). The role of body size in the impact of common carp Cyprinus carpio on water quality, zooplankton, and macrobenthos in ponds. International Review of Hydrobiology 99, 212–221.
The role of body size in the impact of common carp Cyprinus carpio on water quality, zooplankton, and macrobenthos in ponds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXovFGluro%3D&md5=ca170b7e861abff68f85bc2486ef2ab4CAS |

Noss, R. F. (1990). Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4, 355–364.
Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach.CrossRef |

Pabian, S. E., and Brittingham, M. C. (2007). Terrestrial liming benefits birds in an acidified forest in the northeast. Ecological Applications 17, 2184–2194.
Terrestrial liming benefits birds in an acidified forest in the northeast.CrossRef | 18213962PubMed |

Pace, M. L., Cole, J. J., Carpenter, S. R., and Kitchell, J. F. (1999). Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14, 483–488.
Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems.CrossRef |

Parkos, J. J., Santucci, J. V. J., and Wahl, D. H. (2003). Effects of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on multiple trophic levels in shallow mesocosms. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60, 182–192.
Effects of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on multiple trophic levels in shallow mesocosms.CrossRef |

Paukert, C. P., and Willis, D. W. (2003). Aquatic invertebrate assemblages in shallow prairie lakes: fish and environmental influences. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 18, 523–536.
Aquatic invertebrate assemblages in shallow prairie lakes: fish and environmental influences.CrossRef |

Paukert, C. P., Willis, D. W., and Holland, R. S. (2002). Sample size requirements for in situ vegetation and substrate classifications in shallow, natural Nebraska lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22, 1329–1333.
Sample size requirements for in situ vegetation and substrate classifications in shallow, natural Nebraska lakes.CrossRef |

Paukert, C. P., Willis, D. W., and Klammer, J. A. (2002). Effects of predation and environment on quality of yellow perch and bluegill populations in Nebraska sandhill lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22, 86–95.
Effects of predation and environment on quality of yellow perch and bluegill populations in Nebraska sandhill lakes.CrossRef |

Peterson, C. H. (1984). Does a rigorous criterion for environmental identity preclude the existence of multiple stable points? American Naturalist 124, 127–133.
Does a rigorous criterion for environmental identity preclude the existence of multiple stable points?CrossRef |

Poff, N. L., Olden, J. D., Vieira, N. K., Finn, D. S., Simmons, M. P., and Kondratieff, B. C. (2006). Functional trait niches of North American lotic insects: traits-based ecological applications in light of phylogenetic relationships. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25, 730–755.
Functional trait niches of North American lotic insects: traits-based ecological applications in light of phylogenetic relationships.CrossRef |

Richardson, W., Wickham, S., and Threlkeld, S. (1990). Foodweb response to the experimental manipulations of a benthivore (Cyprinus carpio), zooplanktivore (Menidia beryllina) and benthic insects. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 119, 143–165.

Ricker, W. E. (1975). ‘Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations.’ (Department of the Environment, Fisheries and Marine Service: Ottawa, ON, Canada.)

Scheffer, M., and Jeppesen, E. (1998). Alternative stable states. In ‘Ecological Studies; the Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes’. (Eds E. Jeppeson, M. Sondergaard, and K. Christoffersen.) pp. 397–406. (Springer-Verlag: New York.)

Scheffer, M., Hosper, S. H., Meijer, M. L., Moss, B., and Jeppesen, E. (1993). Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8, 275–279.
Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M7itVyqtQ%3D%3D&md5=1c1264734f9340956062c8970b332346CAS |

Schmitz, O. J., Beckerman, A. P., and O’Brien, K. M. (1997). Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades: effects of predation risk on food web interactions. Ecology 78, 1388–1399.
Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades: effects of predation risk on food web interactions.CrossRef |

Schmitz, O. J., Krivan, V., and Ovadia, O. (2004). Trophic cascades: the primacy of trait-mediated indirect interactions. Ecology Letters 7, 153–163.
Trophic cascades: the primacy of trait-mediated indirect interactions.CrossRef |

Schrage, L., and Downing, J. (2004). Pathways of increased water clarity after fish removal from Ventura Marsh; a shallow, eutrophic wetland. Hydrobiologia 511, 215–231.
Pathways of increased water clarity after fish removal from Ventura Marsh; a shallow, eutrophic wetland.CrossRef |

Simberloff, D. (1998). Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: is single-species management passé in the landscape era? Biological Conservation 83, 247–257.
Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: is single-species management passé in the landscape era?CrossRef |

Stein, R. A., DeVries, D. R., and Dettmers, J. M. (1995). Food-web regulation by a planktivore: exploring the generality of the trophic cascade hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52, 2518–2526.
Food-web regulation by a planktivore: exploring the generality of the trophic cascade hypothesis.CrossRef |

Strong, D. R. (1992). Are trophic cascades all wet? Differentiation and donor-control in speciose ecosystems. Ecology 73, 747–754.
Are trophic cascades all wet? Differentiation and donor-control in speciose ecosystems.CrossRef |

van Donk, E., and van de Bund, W. J. (2002). Impact of submerged macrophytes including charophytes on phyto-and zooplankton communities: allelopathy versus other mechanisms. Aquatic Botany 72, 261–274.
Impact of submerged macrophytes including charophytes on phyto-and zooplankton communities: allelopathy versus other mechanisms.CrossRef |

van Veen, F. J. F., and Sanders, D. (2013). Herbivore identity mediates the strength of trophic cascades on individual plants. Ecosphere 4, art64.
Herbivore identity mediates the strength of trophic cascades on individual plants.CrossRef |

Vander Zanden, M. J., Cabana, G., and Rasmussen, J. B. (1997). Comparing trophic position of freshwater fish calculated using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) and literature dietary data. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54, 1142–1158.
Comparing trophic position of freshwater fish calculated using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) and literature dietary data.CrossRef |

Vilizzi, L., Tarkan, A. S., and Copp, G. H. (2015). Experimental evidence from causal criteria analysis for the effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio on freshwater ecosystems: a global perspective. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture 23, 253–290.
Experimental evidence from causal criteria analysis for the effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio on freshwater ecosystems: a global perspective.CrossRef |

Wahl, D., Wolfe, M., Santucci, V., and Freedman, J. (2011). Invasive carp and prey community composition disrupt trophic cascades in eutrophic ponds. Hydrobiologia 678, 49–63.
Invasive carp and prey community composition disrupt trophic cascades in eutrophic ponds.CrossRef |

Wanner, G. A. (2011). 2010 fisheries surveys Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Nebraska. US Fish and Wildlife Service Report, Pierre, South Dakota.

Weber, M. J., and Brown, M. L. (2009). Effects of common carp on aquatic ecosystems 80 years after ‘carp as a dominant’: ecological insights for fisheries management. Reviews in Fisheries Science 17, 524–537.
Effects of common carp on aquatic ecosystems 80 years after ‘carp as a dominant’: ecological insights for fisheries management.CrossRef |

Weier, J. L., and Starr, D. F. (1950). The use of rotenone to remove rough fish for the purpose of improving migratory waterfowl refuge areas. The Journal of Wildlife Management 14, 203–205.
The use of rotenone to remove rough fish for the purpose of improving migratory waterfowl refuge areas.CrossRef |

Wetzel, R. G., and Likens, G. E. (2000) ‘Limnological Analyses’, 3rd edn. (Springer-Verlag: New York.)

Wolfe, M. D., Santucci, V. J., Einfalt, L. M., and Wahl, D. H. (2009). Effects of common carp on reproduction, growth, and survival of largemouth bass and bluegills. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138, 975–983.
Effects of common carp on reproduction, growth, and survival of largemouth bass and bluegills.CrossRef |

Wood, S. A., Karp, D. S., DeClerck, F., Kremen, C., Naeem, S., and Palm, C. A. (2015). Functional traits in agriculture: agrobiodiversity and ecosystem services. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30, 531–539.
Functional traits in agriculture: agrobiodiversity and ecosystem services.CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (137 KB) Export Citation Cited By (1)

View Altmetrics