Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Community structure of reef fishes in shallow waters of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago: effects of different levels of environmental protection

M. I. Ilarri A B E , A. T. Souza C and R. S. Rosa D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos s/n, PT-4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal.

B ICBAS-UP – Abel Salazar Biomedical Science Institute, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, PT-4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

C CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos Açores, Departamento de Biologia da Universidade dos Açores, PT-9501-801, Ponta Delgada, Portugal.

D Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Cidade Universitária, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Brazil.

E Corresponding author. Email: martinailarri@gmail.com

Marine and Freshwater Research 68(7) 1303-1316 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF16071
Submitted: 11 March 2016  Accepted: 30 August 2016   Published: 10 October 2016

Abstract

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are important tools for the evaluation of the biodiversity and status of marine systems. However, not all MPAs are equal in their design and management; therefore, it is important to understand how different levels of protection affect the fish communities. In the present study, the shallow reef-area fishes of seven areas in Fernando de Noronha archipelago (north-eastern Brazil) with dissimilar habitat characteristics and different levels of environmental protection (no-take MPA and MPA) were compared. In total, 140 visual censuses were performed, in which 12 958 fishes of 27 families and 50 species were recorded. Differences were recorded between no-take MPAs and MPAs in the benthic composition, abiotic data and fish-community structure and composition. These differences were associated with a higher diversity, richness, density of larger fishes and top target fish families, and biomass per census (nearly 2-fold higher in the no-take MPA). Our findings suggested that the differences in the ichthyofauna were probably more related to the different levels of protection than to dissimilarities in the habitat structure among areas, and that the local no-take MPA (National Marine Park of Fernando de Noronha) is effective in maintaining the shallow reef-area fish communities healthy and diverse.

Additional keywords: Brazil, marine park, MPA, no-take MPA, oceanic island.


References

Adjeroud, M., Chancerelle, Y., Schrimm, M., Perez, T., Lecchini, D., Galzin, R., and Salvat, B. (2002). Natural disturbances and interannual variability of coral reef communities on the outer slope of Tiahura (Moorea, French Polynesia): 1991 to 1997. Marine Ecology Progress Series 237, 121–131.
Natural disturbances and interannual variability of coral reef communities on the outer slope of Tiahura (Moorea, French Polynesia): 1991 to 1997.CrossRef |

Aguiar, A. A., Valentin, J. L., and Rosa, R. (2009). Habitat use by Dasyatis americana in a south-western Atlantic oceanic island. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 89, 1147–1152.
Habitat use by Dasyatis americana in a south-western Atlantic oceanic island.CrossRef |

Albuquerque, T., Loiola, M., Nunes, J. A. C. C., Reis-Filho, J. A., Sampaio, C. L. S., and Leduc, A. O. H. C. (2015). In situ effects of human disturbances on coral reef-fish assemblage structure: temporary and persisting changes are reflected as a result of intensive tourism. Marine and Freshwater Research 66, 23–32.
In situ effects of human disturbances on coral reef-fish assemblage structure: temporary and persisting changes are reflected as a result of intensive tourism.CrossRef |

Allison, W. R. (1996). Snorkeller damage to coral reefs in the Maldive islands. Coral Reefs 15, 215–218.
Snorkeller damage to coral reefs in the Maldive islands.CrossRef |

Anderson, M. J. (2001). A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology 26, 32–46.

Anderson, M. J., Gorley, R. N., and Clarke, K. R. (2008). ‘PERMANOVA + for PRIMER: Guide to Software and Statistical Methods.’ (PRIMER-E: Plymouth, UK.)

Barker, N. H. I., and Roberts, C. M. (2004). Scuba diver behaviour and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs. Biological Conservation 120, 481–489.
Scuba diver behaviour and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs.CrossRef |

Bellwood, D. R., and Wainwright, P. C. (2001). Swimming ability in labrid fishes: implications for habitat use and cross shelf distribution on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 20, 139–150.
Swimming ability in labrid fishes: implications for habitat use and cross shelf distribution on the Great Barrier Reef.CrossRef |

Bouchon-Navaro, Y., and Bouchon, C. (1989). Correlations between chaetodontid fishes and coral communities of the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Environmental Biology of Fishes 25, 47–60.
Correlations between chaetodontid fishes and coral communities of the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea).CrossRef |

Brock, V. E. (1954). A preliminary report on a method of estimating reef fish populations. The Journal of Wildlife Management 18, 297–308.
A preliminary report on a method of estimating reef fish populations.CrossRef |

Carvalho-Filho, A. (1999). ‘Peixes: Costa Brasileira.’ (Editora Melro: Sao Paulo, Brazil.)

Ceccarelli, D. M., Jones, G. P., and McCook, L. S. (2001). Territorial damselfish as determinants of structure on benthic communities on coral reef. Oceanography and Marine Biology – an Annual Review 39, 355–389.

Claudet, J., Pelletier, D., Jouvenel, J.-Y., Bachet, F., and Galzin, R. (2006). Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: identifying community-based indicators. Biological Conservation 130, 349–369.
Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: identifying community-based indicators.CrossRef |

Côté, I. M., Mosqueira, I., and Reynolds, J. D. (2001). Effects of marine reserves characteristics on the protection of fish populations: a meta-analysis. Journal of Fish Biology 59, 178–189.
Effects of marine reserves characteristics on the protection of fish populations: a meta-analysis.CrossRef |

Dominguez, P. S. (2014). A pesca e o conhecimento local dos pescadores artesanais de Fernando de Noronha-PE. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Santa Cecília, Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Ferreira, C. E. L., Gonçalves, J. E. A., Coutinho, R., and Peret, A. C. (1998). Herbivory by the dusky damselfish Stegastes fuscus (Cuvier, 1830) in a tropical rocky shore: effects on benthic community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 229, 241–264.
Herbivory by the dusky damselfish Stegastes fuscus (Cuvier, 1830) in a tropical rocky shore: effects on benthic community.CrossRef |

Ferreira, C. E. L., Floeter, S. R., Gasparini, J. L., Ferreira, B. P., and Joyeux, J. C. (2004). Trophic structure patterns of Brazilian reef fishes: a latitudinal comparison. Journal of Biogeography 31, 1093–1106.
Trophic structure patterns of Brazilian reef fishes: a latitudinal comparison.CrossRef |

Fidler, R. Y., Maypa, A., Apistar, D., White, A., and Turingan, R. G. (2014). Body size shifts in Philippine reef fishes: interfamilial variation in responses to protection. Biology 3, 264–280.
Body size shifts in Philippine reef fishes: interfamilial variation in responses to protection.CrossRef | 24833509PubMed |

Floeter, S. R., Ferreira, C. E. L., Dominici-Arosemenas, A., and Zalmon, I. R. (2004). Latitudinal gradients in Atlantic reef fish communities: trophic structure and spatial use. Journal of Fish Biology 64, 1680–1699.
Latitudinal gradients in Atlantic reef fish communities: trophic structure and spatial use.CrossRef |

Floeter, S. R., Halpern, B. S., and Ferreira, C. E. L. (2006). Effects of fishing and protection on Brazilian reef fishes. Biological Conservation 128, 391–402.
Effects of fishing and protection on Brazilian reef fishes.CrossRef |

Fraschetti, S., Terlizzi, A., Micheli, F., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., and Boero, F. (2002). Marine protected areas in the Mediterranean Sea: objectives, effectiveness and monitoring. Marine Ecology 23, 190–200.
Marine protected areas in the Mediterranean Sea: objectives, effectiveness and monitoring.CrossRef |

Friedlander, A. M., and Parrish, J. D. (1998). Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 224, 1–30.
Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef.CrossRef |

Froese, R., and Pauly, D. (2014). Fishbase. Available at www.fishbase.org/manual/FishbaseThe_LENGTH_WEIGHT_table.htm [Verified 15 September 2016].

Fulton, C. J., Bellwood, D. R., and Wainwright, P. C. (2005). Wave energy and swimming performance shape coral reef fish assemblages. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London – B. Biological Sciences 272, 827–832.
Wave energy and swimming performance shape coral reef fish assemblages.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2M3kvF2itA%3D%3D&md5=1f07774692c40ae459033a043778f6f7CAS |

Garla, C. R., Chapman, D. D., Wetherbee, B. M., and Shivji, M. (2006). Movement patterns of young Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil: the potential of marine protected areas for conservation of a nursery ground. Marine Biology 149, 189–199.
Movement patterns of young Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil: the potential of marine protected areas for conservation of a nursery ground.CrossRef |

Gasparini, J. L., and Floeter, S. R. (2001). The shore fishes of Trindade Island, western South Atlantic. Journal of Natural History 35, 1639–1656.
The shore fishes of Trindade Island, western South Atlantic.CrossRef |

Halford, A., Cheal, A. J., Ryan, D., and Williams, D. M. (2004). Resilience to large scale disturbance in coral and fish assemblage on the Great Barrier Reef. Ecology 85, 1892–1905.
Resilience to large scale disturbance in coral and fish assemblage on the Great Barrier Reef.CrossRef |

Halpern, B. (2003). The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications 13, 117–137.
The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter?CrossRef |

Harriot, V. J., Davis, D., and Banks, S. A. (1997). Recreational diving and its impact in marine protected areas in eastern Australia. Ambio 26, 173–179.

Hixon, M. A. (1991). Predation as a process structuring coral reef fish communities. In ‘The Ecology of fishes on Coral Reefs’. (Ed. P. F. Sale.) pp. 475–508. (Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA.)

Humann, P., and Deloach, N. (2002a). ‘Reef Fish Identification: Florida, Caribbean and Bahamas’, 3nd edn. (New World Publications: Jacksonville, FL, USA.)

Humann, P., and Deloach, N. (2002b). ‘Reef Creature Identification: Florida, Caribbean and Bahamas’, 2nd edn. (New World Publications: Jacksonville, FL, USA.)

Ilarri, M. I., Souza, A. T., Medeiros, P. R., Grempel, R. G., and Rosa, I. L. (2008). Effects of tourist visitation and supplementary feeding on fish assemblage composition on a tropical reef in the southwestern Atlantic. Neotropical Ichthyology 6, 651–656.
Effects of tourist visitation and supplementary feeding on fish assemblage composition on a tropical reef in the southwestern Atlantic.CrossRef |

IUCN–UNEP (1988). ‘Coral Reefs of the World. Vol. 1: Atlantic and Eastern Pacific.’ UNEP Regional Seas Directories and Bibliographies. (IUCN: Gland, Switzerland; and UNEP: Nairobi, Kenya.)

Jones, G. P., and Syms, C. (1998). Disturbance, habitat structure and the ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Australian Journal of Ecology 23, 287–297.
Disturbance, habitat structure and the ecology of fishes on coral reefs.CrossRef |

Krajewski, J. P., and Floeter, S. R. (2011). Reef fish community structure of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (equatorial western Atlantic): the influence of exposure and benthic composition. Environmental Biology of Fishes 92, 25–40.
Reef fish community structure of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (equatorial western Atlantic): the influence of exposure and benthic composition.CrossRef |

Krajewski, J. P., Floeter, S. R., Jones, G. P., and Leite, F. P. P. (2011). Patterns of variation in behaviour within and among reef fish species on an isolated tropical island: influence of exposure and substratum. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 91, 1359–1368.
Patterns of variation in behaviour within and among reef fish species on an isolated tropical island: influence of exposure and substratum.CrossRef |

Lara, E. N., and Gonzalez, E. A. (1998). The relationship between reef fish community structure and environmental variables in the southern Mexican Caribbean. Journal of Fish Biology 53, 209–221.
The relationship between reef fish community structure and environmental variables in the southern Mexican Caribbean.CrossRef |

Letourneur, Y., Gaertner, J., Durbec, J., and Jessu, M. E. (2008). Effects of geomorphological zones, reefs, and seasons on coral reef fish communities of Réunion Island, Mascarene Archipelago, SW Indian Ocean. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 77, 697–709.
Effects of geomorphological zones, reefs, and seasons on coral reef fish communities of Réunion Island, Mascarene Archipelago, SW Indian Ocean.CrossRef |

Littler, D. S., Littler, M. M., Bucher, K. E., and Norris, J. N. (1989). ‘Marine Plants of the Caribbean: a Field Guide from Florida to Brazil’, 1st edn. (Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, DC, USA.)

Longo, G. O., Morais, R. A., Martins, C. D. L., Mendes, T. C., Aued, A. W., Cândido, D. V., de Oliveira, J. C., Nunes, L. T., Fontoura, L., Sissini, M. N., Teschima, M. M., Silva, M. B., Ramlov, F., Gouvea, L. P., Ferreira, C. E. L., Segal, B., Horta, P. A., and Floeter, S. R. (2015). Between-habitat variation of benthic cover, reef fish assemblage and feeding pressure on the benthos at the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, NE Brazil. PLoS One 10, e0127176.
Between-habitat variation of benthic cover, reef fish assemblage and feeding pressure on the benthos at the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, NE Brazil.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2MbitlKgug%3D%3D&md5=1f33244f381ce01c074aea4abf5bd5feCAS | 26061735PubMed |

Luckhurst, B. E., and Luckhurst, K. (1978). Analysis of the influence of substratum variables on coral reef communities. Marine Biology 49, 317–323.
Analysis of the influence of substratum variables on coral reef communities.CrossRef |

Luiz, O. J., Mendes, T. C., Barneche, D. R., Ferreira, C. G. W., Noguchi, R., Villaça, R. C., Rangel, C. A., Gasparini, J. L., and Ferreira, C. E. L. (2015). Community structure of reef fishes on a remote oceanic island (St Peter and St Paul’s Archipelago, equatorial Atlantic): the relative influence of abiotic and biotic variables. Marine and Freshwater Research 66, 739–749.
Community structure of reef fishes on a remote oceanic island (St Peter and St Paul’s Archipelago, equatorial Atlantic): the relative influence of abiotic and biotic variables.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXht1OnsrvJ&md5=56b59cafeff866dd23c1e353f03d0a4eCAS |

McCoy, C. M. R., Dromard, C. R., and Turner, J. (2010). An evaluation of Grand Cayman MPA performance: a comparative study of coral reef fish communities. In ‘Proceedings of the 62nd Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute’, 2 November 2009, Venezuela. pp. 1–9. (62nd Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute: Cumana, Venezuela.)

McGehee, M. A. (1994). Correspondence between assemblages of coral reef fishes and gradients of water motion, depth and substrate size off Puerto Rico. Marine Ecology Progress Series 105, 243–255.
Correspondence between assemblages of coral reef fishes and gradients of water motion, depth and substrate size off Puerto Rico.CrossRef |

Medeiros, P. R., Grempel, R. G., Souza, A. T., Ilarri, M. I., and Sampaio, C. L. S. (2007). Effects of recreational activities on the fish assemblage structure in a northeastern Brazilian reef. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences 2, 288–300.

Medeiros, P. R., Rosa, R. S., and Francini-Filho, R. B. (2011). Dynamics of fish assemblages on a continuous rocky reef and adjacent unconsolidated habitats at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical western Atlantic. Neotropical Ichthyology 9, 869–879.
Dynamics of fish assemblages on a continuous rocky reef and adjacent unconsolidated habitats at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, tropical western Atlantic.CrossRef |

Medeiros, P. R., Rada, D. P., and Rosa, R. S. (2014). Abundance and behavioural ecology of the blenny Ophioblennius trinitatis (Teleostei: Blenniidae) at an oceanic archipelago of Brazil (Atlantic). Scientia Marina 78, 203–212.
Abundance and behavioural ecology of the blenny Ophioblennius trinitatis (Teleostei: Blenniidae) at an oceanic archipelago of Brazil (Atlantic).CrossRef |

Medio, D., Ormond, R. F. G., and Pearson, M. (1997). Effects of briefings on rates of damage corals by scuba divers. Biological Conservation 42, 1–18.

Meirelles, P. M., Amado-Filho, G. M., Pereira-Filho, G. H., Pinheiro, H. T., Moura, R. L., Joyeux, J.-C., Mazzei, E. F., Bastos, A. C., Edwards, R. A., Dindsdale, E., Paranhos, R., Santos, E. O., Lida, T., Gotoh, K., Nakamura, S., Sawabe, T., Rezende, C. E., Gadelha, L. M. R., Francini-Filho, R. B., Thompson, C., and Thompson, F. L. (2015). Baseline assessment of mesophotic reefs of the Vitória--Trindade seamount chain based on water quality, microbial diversity, benthic cover and fish biomass data. PLoS One 10, e0130084.
Baseline assessment of mesophotic reefs of the Vitória--Trindade seamount chain based on water quality, microbial diversity, benthic cover and fish biomass data.CrossRef | 26090804PubMed |

Milazzo, M., Chemello, R., Badalamenti, F., Camarda, R., and Riggio, S. (2002). The impact of human recreational activities in marine protected areas: what lessons should be learnt in the Mediterranean Sea? Marine Ecology 23, 280–290.
The impact of human recreational activities in marine protected areas: what lessons should be learnt in the Mediterranean Sea?CrossRef |

Munday, P. L. (2002). Does variability determine geographical-scale abundances of coral-dwelling fishes? Coral Reefs 21, 105–116.
Does variability determine geographical-scale abundances of coral-dwelling fishes?CrossRef |

Mustamäki, N., and Mattila, J. (2015). Structural changes in three coastal fish assemblages in the northern Baltic Sea archipelago. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 164, 408–417.
Structural changes in three coastal fish assemblages in the northern Baltic Sea archipelago.CrossRef |

Nagelkerken, I., and Van Der Velde, G. (2002). Do non-estuarine mangroves harbour higher densities of juvenile fish than adjacent shallow-water and coral reef habitats in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)? Marine Ecology Progress Series 245, 191–204.
Do non-estuarine mangroves harbour higher densities of juvenile fish than adjacent shallow-water and coral reef habitats in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)?CrossRef |

Ohlhorst, S. L., Liddell, W. D., Taylor, R. J., and Taylor, J. M. (1988). Evaluation of reef census techniques. In ‘Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium’, 8 August 1988, Townsville, Qld, Australia. (Ed. J. H. Choat.) pp. 319–324. (International Society for Reef Studies: Australia).

Öhman, M. C., Rajasuriya, A., and Ólafsson, E. (1997). Reef fish assemblages in north-western Sri Lanka: distribution patterns and influences of fishing practices. Environmental Biology of Fishes 49, 45–61.
Reef fish assemblages in north-western Sri Lanka: distribution patterns and influences of fishing practices.CrossRef |

Pelletier, D., García-Charton, J. A., Ferraris, J., David, G., Thébaud, O., Letourneur, Y., Claudet, J., Amand, M., Kulbicki, M., and Galzin, R. (2005). Designing indicators for assessing the effects of marine protected areas on coral reef ecosystems: a multidisciplinary standpoint. Aquatic Living Resources 18, 15–33.
Designing indicators for assessing the effects of marine protected areas on coral reef ecosystems: a multidisciplinary standpoint.CrossRef |

Pereira-Filho, G. H., Amado-Filho, G. M., Guimarães, S. M. P. B., Moura, R. L., Sumida, P. Y. G., Abrantes, D. P., Bahia, R. G., Güth, A. Z., Jorge, R. R., and Francini-Filho, R. B. (2011). Reef fish and benthic assemblages of the Trindade and Martin Vaz island group, southwestern Atlantic. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 59, 201–212.

Pinheiro, H. T., Mazzei, E., Moura, R. L., Amado-Filho, G. M., Carvalho-Filho, A., Braga, A. C., Costa, P. A. S., Ferreira, B. P., Ferreira, C. E. L., Floeter, S. R., Francini-Filho, R. B., Gasparini, J. L., Macieira, R. M., Martins, A. S., Olavo, G., Pimentel, C. R., Rocha, L. A., Sazima, I., Simon, T., Teixeira, J. B., Xavier, L. B., and Joyeux, J.-C. (2015). Fish biodiversity of the Vitória–Trindade seamount chain, Southwestern Atlantic: an updated database. PLoS One 10, e0118180.
Fish biodiversity of the Vitória–Trindade seamount chain, Southwestern Atlantic: an updated database.CrossRef | 25738798PubMed |

Pinnegar, J. K., Polunin, N. V. C., Francour, P., Badalamenti, F., Chemello, R., Harmelin-Vivien, M. L., Hereu, B., Milazzo, M., Zabala, M., D’Anna, G., and Pipitone, C. (2000). Trophic cascades in benthic marine ecosystems: lessons for fisheries and protected-area management. Environmental Conservation 27, 179–200.
Trophic cascades in benthic marine ecosystems: lessons for fisheries and protected-area management.CrossRef |

Polunin, N. V. C., and Roberts, C. (1996). ‘Tropical Reef Fisheries.’ (Chapman and Hall: London.)

Randall, J. E. (1967). Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Studies in Tropical Oceanography 5, 665–847.

Roberts, C. M. (1995). Effects of fishing on the ecosystem structure of coral reefs. Conservation Biology 9, 988–995.
Effects of fishing on the ecosystem structure of coral reefs.CrossRef |

Rogers, C. S., Garrison, G., Crober, R., Hillis, Z. M., and Franke, M. A. (1994). ‘Coral Reef Monitoring Manual for the Caribbean and Western Atlantic.’ (Virgin Islands National Park: St John, Virgin Islands.)

Rosa, R. S., and Moura, R. L. (1997). Visual assessment of reef fish community structure in the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve, off northeastern Brazil. In ‘Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium’, 24 June 1996, Balboa, Panama. (Eds H. A. Lessios and I. G. Macintyre.) pp. 983–986 (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute: Panama.)

Rosa, M. R., Alves, A. C., Medeiros, D. V., Coni, E. O. C., Ferreira, C. M., Ferreira, B. P., Rosa, R. S., Amado-Filho, G. M., Pereira-Filho, G. H., Moura, R. L., Thompson, F. L., Sumida, P. Y. G., and Francini-Filho, R. B. (2016). Mesophotic reef fish assemblages of the remote St Peter and St Paul’s Archipelago, mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. Coral Reefs 35, 113–123.
Mesophotic reef fish assemblages of the remote St Peter and St Paul’s Archipelago, mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil.CrossRef |

Russ, G. R. (1989). Distribution and abundance of coral reefs fishes in the Sumilon Island Reserve, central Philipines, after nine years of protection from fishing. Asian Marine Biology 6, 59–71.

Russ, G. R. (2003). Grazer biomass correlates more strongly with production than with biomass of algal turf on a coral reef. Coral Reefs 22, 63–67.

Russ, G. R., and Alcala, A. C. (1998). Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983–1993: Community and trophic responses. Coral Reefs 17, 383–397.
Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983–1993: Community and trophic responses.CrossRef |

Sabater, M. G., and Tofaeono, S. P. (2007). Scale and benthic composition effects on biomass and trophic group distribution of reef fishes in American Samoa. Pacific Science 61, 503–520.
Scale and benthic composition effects on biomass and trophic group distribution of reef fishes in American Samoa.CrossRef |

Serafini, T. Z., França, G. B., and Andriguetto-Filho, J. M. (2010). Brazilian oceanic islands: known biodiversity and its relation to the history of human use and occupation. Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management 10, 281–301.

Souza, A. T., and Ilarri, M. I. (2014). Behavioral changes of a Brazilian endemic damselfish Stegastes rocasensis when guarding egg clutches. Environmental Biology of Fishes 97, 1295–1303.
Behavioral changes of a Brazilian endemic damselfish Stegastes rocasensis when guarding egg clutches.CrossRef |

Souza, A. T., Ilarri, M. I., and Rosa, I. L. (2011). Habitat use, feeding and territorial behavior of a Brazilian endemic damselfish Stegastes rocasensis (Actinopterygii: Pomacentridae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 91, 133–144.
Habitat use, feeding and territorial behavior of a Brazilian endemic damselfish Stegastes rocasensis (Actinopterygii: Pomacentridae).CrossRef |

Teixeira-Neves, T. P., Neves, L. M., and Araújo, F. G. (2015). Hierarchizing biological, physical and anthropogenic factors influencing the structure of fish assemblages along tropical rocky shores in Brazil. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98, 1645–1657.
Hierarchizing biological, physical and anthropogenic factors influencing the structure of fish assemblages along tropical rocky shores in Brazil.CrossRef |

Wantiez, L., and Chauvet, C. (2003). First data on community structure and trophic networks of uvea coral reef fish assemblages (Wallis and Futuna, South Pacific Ocean). Cybium 27, 83–100.

Wantiez, L., Thollot, P., and Kulbicki, M. (1997). Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia. Coral Reefs 16, 215–224.
Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia.CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (350 KB) Export Citation

View Altmetrics